Advances in Enzyme Research
Vol.03 No.03(2015), Article ID:59400,8 pages

Preliminary Study towards Enhanced Crude Oil Biodegradation Reveals Congeneric Total Peroxidases with Striking Distinctions

Folasade M. Olajuyigbe*, Kevin I. Ehiosun, Kikelomo F. Jaiyesimi

Enzyme Biotechnology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

Email: *

Copyright © 2015 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).

Received 18 July 2015; accepted 4 September 2015; published 7 September 2015


Peroxidases (POXs) are the key extracellular enzymes produced by crude oil degrading microbes. Knowledge of optimum conditions for POXs activity is crucial for providing effective environment for bioremediation. In this study, physicochemical properties of POXs produced by Actinomyces israelii and Actinomyces viscosus during growth on crude oil were studied. The POXs exhibited similarities in activity and stability with striking differences in response to two divalent metal ions. The POXs from both species had optimum pH of 7.0 and were very stable over a narrow pH range (6.0 - 8.0). The POXs demonstrated similar thermostability exhibiting relative residual activity of 62% at 50˚C after 30 min incubation and 45% residual activity at the same temperature after 60 min despite the fact that POXs from A. viscosus and A. israelii had optimum temperatures of 50˚C and 40˚C, respectively. The POXs from A. viscosus and A. israelii were greatly activated by Fe2+ at 5.0 and 10.0 mM. The enzymes were both strongly inhibited by Cu2+, Mg2+ and Hg2+. Surprisingly, these congeneric POXs demonstrated striking differences in their response to Ca2+ and Mn2+. POX from A. viscosus was activated by Ca2+ and Mn2+ exhibiting relative activity of 136% and 106% at 5 mM, respectively. In contrast, POX from A. israelii was strongly inhibited by Ca2+ and Mn2+ exhibiting 62.5% relative activity in the presence of 5 mM of each metal ion. Increasing the concentration of Ca2+ and Mn2+ led to further activation of POX from A. viscosus and inhibition of POX from A. israelii. Results provide deeper insights into functional properties of studied POXs from closely related microbes. The physicochemical properties are very similar; however, notable differences provide a strong basis for structural characterization of these congeneric enzymes.


Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces viscosus, Bioremediation, Congeneric Enzymes, Crude Oil, Peroxidases

1. Introduction

Crude oil spills have caused destruction of farmlands, contamination of water bodies and loss of biodiversity [1] [2] . Crude oil is a natural, heterogeneous mixture of hydrocarbons, consisting mainly of alkanes with different chain lengths and branch points, cycloalkanes, mono-aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Some compounds contain nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen with trace amounts of phosphorus while presence of heavy metals such as nickel and vanadium has also been reported [3] [4] . Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crude oil are highly toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic to microorganisms and higher systems including humans [5] .

Among the different remediation techniques, bioremediation is the most advantageous due to its cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness [6] [7] . This has led to screening for various microorganisms with high crude oil degrading efficiency. Actinobacteria have been reported as useful microbes in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with crude oil and derivatives [8] - [10] . A wide variety of microbes initiate biodegradation of polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons by co-metabolism using extracellular and intracellular enzymes of which peroxidases play a crucial role [11] [12] . Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes comprising peroxidases and laccases [13] . Peroxidases (POXs) have been considered useful in the degradation of organic pollutants, especially, poly aromatic hydrocarbons [14] - [16] . Peroxidases are redox enzymes which are found in all forms of life where they play diverse roles. It is quite surprising that peroxidases isolated from fungi and plants have been extensively studied while actinobacterial peroxidases have been unexplored despite their diverse metabolic capabilities which represent large resource for biocatalysis [17] .

It is very important to note that the microorganisms used for bioremediation secrete extracellular enzymes which initiate the degradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Knowledge of the optimum conditions for the activity of secreted enzymes is envisaged to provide effective environment for bioremediation by the crude oil degrading microbes. Since peroxidases are the key extracellular enzymes involved in crude oil biodegradation, it is highly pertinent to determine physicochemical properties of the peroxidases produced by crude oil degrading microbes.

In this study, whole cells of Actinomyces israelii and Actinomyces viscosus were used to degrade crude oil and the activity of total extracellular peroxidases (POXs) produced by the organisms during biodegradation was determined. Physicochemical properties of POXs from the two species of the same genus, Actinomyces, were investigated with the aim of determining the optimal conditions for the activity of the enzymes for effective use of the actinobacteria in crude oil degradation. Comparative analysis of the exhibited physicochemical properties of the congeneric POXs was carried out.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Materials

Media components were products of Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). All other chemicals used were of analytical grade and obtained from Sigma-Aldrich.

2.2. Microorganism, Culture Preparation and Peroxidase (POX) Production

The microorganisms used for this study were isolated from soil samples of crude oil spill site in Ogoniland, Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The isolation and identification of isolates were done by the Biotechnology Unit of Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Lagos based on methods described in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology [18] . The isolates used for this study were identified as Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces israelii. They were maintained on nutrient agar slants and stored at 4˚C. The seed inoculum was prepared by growing a loopful of slant culture in nutrient broth containing peptone (5 g/L), NaCl (5 g/L), beef extract (1.5 g/L) and yeast extract (1.5 g/L) at pH 7.4. The seed culture was incubated at 30˚C for 24 h at 180 rpm in a shaking incubator (Stuart, UK) and used as inoculum (5% v/v) for crude oil based medium (COBM). The COBM contained 1% crude oil as sole carbon source, NH4NO3 (2.0 g/L), KH2PO4 (0.2 g/L), KH2PO4∙12H2O (0.2 g/L), NaCl (0.8 g/L), KCl (0.8 g/L), CaCl2∙2H2O (0.1 g/L), MgSO4 (0.2 g/L) and FeSO4∙7H2O (0.002 g/L), pH 7.0. Cultures grown on COBM were incubated at 30˚C for 144 h at 180 rpm. At the end of the cultivation period, the broths were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 20 min at 4˚C. The clear supernatants were recovered and assayed for total POX activity. The total peroxidase activities produced from Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces israelii were 1.03 U/L and 1.54 U/L, respectively (unpublished data). The crude enzyme solution was subjected to further studies.

2.3. Assay of Total Peroxidase (POX) Activity

Total POX activity was determined according to the method of Hunter et al. [19] with slight modifications. POX activity was determined via oxidation of 0.24 mM 2,2’azino-di-[3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] (ABTS) buffered with 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5 in the presence of 5 mM H2O2 at 414 nm for 5 min in a UV/Visible spectrophotometer. The reaction mixture (3 mL) was made up of 1 mL ABTS solution, 1 mL enzyme solution and 1 mL H2O2 solution. Controls were set up as the reaction mixture without crude enzyme; 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5 (1 mL) replaced the enzyme solution. One unit (U) of peroxidase activity was defined as the amount of enzyme oxidizing 1 μmol ABTS per minute at pH 5.0 and 30˚C with a molar extinction coefficient for the ABTS radical cation of 31,100 M−1∙cm−1 at 414 nm.

2.4. Investigation of Physicochemical Properties of Total POXs from A. viscosus and A. israelii

2.4.1. Effect of pH on Total POX Activity and Stability

The effect of pH on activity of the crude total POX was determined over a pH range of 5.0 - 9.0. The pH was adjusted using 50 mM of the following buffer solutions: sodium acetate (pH 5.0 - 5.5), sodium citrate (6.0 - 6.5), Tris-HCl (pH 7.0 to 8.5) and glycine-NaOH (pH 9.0), respectively. POX activity was determined using the standard assay method earlier described. pH stability of total POX was determined by incubating the crude extract with relevant buffer solution for 24 h before assay of the residual activity which was done according to the standard assay procedure.

2.4.2. Effect of Temperature on Total POX Activity and Stability

The activity of total POX was determined in the reaction mixture at different temperatures ranging from 30˚C to 70˚C according to the standard assay procedure earlier described. Stability of total POX at different temperatures was carried out by prior incubation of the enzyme solution at temperatures ranging from 40˚C to 70˚C over a period of 30 to 180 min before determination of residual activity following the standard assay procedure.

2.4.3. Effect of EDTA and Divalent Metal Ions on Total POX Activity

Effect of 5 and 10 mM of metal chelating agent, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on POX activity was determined. Also, effects of divalent metal ions (Ca2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Hg2+) on POX activity were evaluated at 5 and 10 mM. Each metallic chloride was added to the reaction mixture at the optimum temperature and pH determined for the enzyme and POX activity was determined in comparison with controls according to the standard assay procedure.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Effect of pH on Total POX Activity and Stability

The total POXs from A. viscosus and A. israelii were active over pH range of 4.0 to 9.0 exhibiting above 60% relative activity over pH 6.0 to 8.5 with optimum pH at 7.0 (Figure 1(a)). Some studies have reported optimum pH for POXs from fungi in the range of 4.0 - 7.0 [20] - [22] while there are reports showing pH optimum in range of 2.0 - 5.0 for fungal POXs [23] - [25] . In contrast, recently reported bacterial POXs from Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Bacillus sp. VUS had optimum pH of 3.0 [26] [27] . Our present studies show that actinobacterial POXs have optimum pH of 7.0. POXs from both A. viscosus and A. israelii were very stable between pH 6.0 and 8.0 exhibiting maximum stability at pH 7.0 with 64% and 77% relative residual activity at pH 6.0 and 8.0, respectively (Figure 1(b)). Rodrıguez-Couto et al. [28] reported POXs from white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium which exhibited great stability only at pH around 4.5. Also, POX from Pleurotus sajor caju MTCC-141 was stable and active around pH 3.0 [29] . The actinobacterial POXs under study demonstrated unique stability around neutral pH.

3.2. Effect of Temperature on Total POX Activity and Stability

The optimum temperature for the activity of total POX from A. viscosus was 50˚C. There was a decline in


Figure 1. (a) Effect of pH on activity of POXs from Actinomyces israelii (- - -) and Actinomyces viscosus (―); (b) Effect of pH on the stability of POXs from A. israelii (- - -) and A. viscosu s (―). Maximum activity was expressed as 100%. Symbols and bars represent mean values and standard deviations of triplicate determinations.

activity at higher temperatures with the enzyme having a relative activity of 65.5% at 60˚C (Figure 2(a)). Similar result was obtained for POX from P. chrysosporium which was optimally active at 55˚C [25] . The enzyme showed a drastic loss of activity at 70˚C exhibiting only 17% relative activity due to heat denaturation. Total POX from A. israelii had optimum temperature of 40˚C while it exhibited relative activity of 71% and 42% at 50˚C and 60˚C, respectively. The enzyme also had a drastic loss of activity at 70˚C similar to what was observed on POX from A. viscosus showing about 17% relative activity. Similar finding was reported on the bacterial POX from Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 which was optimally active at 40˚C [26] . Lower optimum temperatures of 25˚C and 35˚C have been reported for POXs from B. pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. [22] while POX from Loweporus lividus MTCC-1178 was optimally active at 24˚C [29] . The difference in optimum temperature of the POXs under study could be related to some structural differences in the total peroxidases. Total POXs from A. viscosus and A. israelii showed high stability between 40˚C and 50˚C which decreased with time (Figure 2(b)). The enzymes exhibited about 60% residual relative activity after 60 min incubation at 40˚C and 45% relative residual activity at 50˚C after 60 min incubation, respectively. Activity of total POXs from both species was completely lost at 70˚C after 150 minutes of incubation. Similarly, POXs from Rhizoctonia sp. SYBC-M3 and P. chrysosporium were totally inactivated at 65˚C [30] [31] . In another report, POX from the white-rot fungus, Irpex lacteus showed high stability between 30˚C and 40˚C [32] . Rodríguez-Couto et al. [28] reported POXs from P. chrysosporium which were most stable between 32˚C and 34˚C. High thermostability is an attractive and desirable characteristic of an enzyme for a variety of industrial and biotechnological applications [33] - [35] . The total POXs under study demonstrated higher thermostability than most of the earlier reported POXs. This suggests that the two actinobacteria under study have potential for use in bioremediation and industry as producers of thermostable POXs.


Figure 2. (a) Effect of temperature on activity of POXs from A. viscosus (¾) and A. israelii (---); (b) Effect of varied temperature (40˚C (¨), 50˚C (■), 60˚C (▲) and 70˚C (●) on stability of POXs from A. viscosus and A. israelii over 30 to 180 min pre-incubation period at Maximum activity was expressed as100%. Symbols and bars represent mean values and standard deviations of triplicate determinations.

3.3. Effect of EDTA and Metal Ions on Activity of Total POXs

EDTA inhibited the activity of the total POXs at 5 mM and completely inhibited the enzyme activity at 10 mM. Strong inhibition of POXs by EDTA had been reported in previous studies [36] - [38] . This inhibition is due to metal chelating characteristic of EDTA which makes metal ions that are co-factors for the activity of POXs unavailable to the enzymes. The activity of total POXs from both species under study was enhanced greatly in the presence of 5 and 10 mM Fe2+ (Table 1). The POXs from A. viscosus and A. israelii were activated 22-fold in the presence of 10 mM Fe2+ while activation in the presence of 5 mM Fe2+ was 7- and 8.6-fold for POXs from A. viscosus and A. israelii, respectively. Asgher et al. [36] and Cheng et al. [38] had reported activation of POXs by low concentration of Fe2+ while strong inhibitory effects of Fe2+ on POXs have also been reported in the presence of 1 and 10 mM Fe2+ [38] [39] . Our results have demonstrated that Fe2+ is a possible cofactor for the POXs under study and suggested that the binding of Fe2+ stabilizes and activates the enzymes. However, total POXs from A. viscosus and A. israelii were both strongly inhibited by Cu2+, Mg2+ and Hg2+ (Table 1). Similar inhibition of activity was reported for POXs in the presence of Cu2+, Mg2+ and Hg2+ in the studies by Cai et al. [30] and Praveen et al. [37] . The inhibitory characteristic of Hg2+ on most enzymes is due to its high affinity for thiol groups in proteins which leads to inactivation of the enzymes [40] . It is interesting to note that despite the fact that total POXs from A. viscosus and A. israelii exhibit many similar physicochemical properties as congeneric enzymes, they also demonstrated striking differences in their response to Ca2+ and Mn2+. The activity of

Table 1. Effects of divalent metal ions and EDTA on peroxidase activity.

*Relative activity of peroxidase (POX) at each concentration of metal ion was expressed as % in comparison to the activity of POX of control without metal ion. Data in the table are mean values of triplicate determinations.

total POX from A. viscosus was enhanced by Ca2+ 1.4- and 1.5-fold at 5 and 10 mM (Table 1). Surprisingly, total POX from A. israelii was inhibited by Ca2+ exhibiting 62.5% and 12.5% relative activity in the presence of 5 and 10 mM Ca2+, respectively. Inhibitory effect of Ca2+ on POX activity is quite rare though it was reported by Cheng et al. [38] on POX from white-rot fungus, Schizophyllum sp. F17 which exhibited 89% relative activity in the presence of 1 mM Ca2+. In another study, Ca2+ had insignificant effect on POX activity [41] . Similar to our results on activation of total POX from A. viscosus by Ca2+ is the report by Praveen et al. [37] on POX from Stereum ostrea. The activation of POXs has been attributed to the role played by the calcium binding sites on proximal and distal domains of the POX structure [42] . Ca2+ has earlier been reported to contribute to structural stability of heme POXs [43] . Peroxidases undergo a catalytic cycle during which electron transfer results in the reduction of H2O2 to water [17] . The inhibition of total POX from A. israelii by Ca2+ was found to be concentration dependent because the relative activity of the enzyme was lower in the presence of 10 mM Ca2+ than with 5 mM. In fact, activation of POX from S. ostrea reported by Praveen et al. [37] was higher at lower concentration of Ca2+ (133% at 1 mM) than with higher concentration of Ca2+ (111% at 10 mM). The disparity in response of the total POXs under study to Ca2+ remains unclear. Interestingly, Mn2+ also enhanced activity of POX from A. viscosus but inhibited the activity of POX from A. israelii at 5 and 10 mM (Table 1). The activity of total POX from A. viscosus was enhanced 1.2-fold in the presence of 10 mM Mn2+ while total POX from A. israelii was strongly inhibited at same concentration exhibiting 50% relative activity. Janusz et al. [44] reported in a review that Mn2+ enhances manganese peroxidase activity and inhibits lignin peroxidase activity. Cheng et al. [38] in their studies recorded inhibition of POX from Schizophyllum sp. F17 at 0.1 and 1 mM Mn2+ and activation at 10 mM. Activity of POX from A. israelii was inhibited at both 5 and 10 mM Mn2+. The differences in total POXs from these two related species under study suggest that the properties of total POXs produced from A. viscosus and A. israelii could be related to the dominant POX in the crude total POX. This further explains that the mechanism of oxidation by the total POXs is not the same in the presence of metal ions.

4. Conclusion

Effects of metal ions on the POXs suggest that the presence of metal ions in oil contaminated sites could either promote or hinder bioremediation process. The total POXs under study from the same genus, Actinomyces, but different species, were found to possess very similar properties. However, there was a very clear distinction between the total POXs in their tolerance to Ca2+ and Mn2+. The differing characteristics could be related to difference in flexibility of the active sites of individual POXs constituting the total POX. Detailed purification and characterization of these congeneric POXs are in progress to provide further insights into their mechanism of action. The physicochemical properties of total extracellular POXs from A. viscosus and A. israelii have established the optimum conditions under which the actinobacteria under study could be effective for bioremediation purposes.


Authors thank the technical staff of Biotechnology Unit, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria for their contribution in the identification of actinobacterial isolates.

Cite this paper

Folasade M.Olajuyigbe,Kevin I.Ehiosun,Kikelomo F.Jaiyesimi, (2015) Preliminary Study towards Enhanced Crude Oil Biodegradation Reveals Congeneric Total Peroxidases with Striking Distinctions. Advances in Enzyme Research,03,66-74. doi: 10.4236/aer.2015.33007


  1. 1. Nwaichi, E.O., Wegwu, M.O. and Nwosu, U.L. (2014) Distribution of Selected Carcinogenic Hydrocarbon and Heavy Metals in an Oil-Polluted Agriculture Zone. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186, 8697-8706.

  2. 2. Stark, J.S., Kim, S.L. and Oliver, J.S. (2014) Anthropogenic Disturbance and Biodiversity of Marine Benthic Communities in Antarctica: A Regional Comparison. PLoS ONE, 9, e98802.

  3. 3. Marshall, A.G. and Rodgers, R.P. (2004) Petroleomics: The Next Grand Challenge for Chemical Analysis. Accounts of Chemical Research, 37, 53-59.

  4. 4. Van Hamme, J.D., Singh, A. and Ward, O.P. (2003) Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 67, 503-549.

  5. 5. Samanta, S.K., Singh, O.V. and Jain, R.K. (2002) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation. Trends in Biotechnology, 20, 243-248.

  6. 6. Coulon, F., McKew, B.A., Osborn, A.M., McGenity, T.J. and Timmis, K.N. (2006) Effects of Temperature and Biostimulation on Oil-Degrading Microbial Communities in Temperate Estuarine Waters. Environmental Microbiology, 9, 177-186.

  7. 7. Sathishkumar, M., Binupriya, A.R., Baik, S.-H. and Yun, S.-E. (2008) Biodegradation of Crude Oil by Individual Bacterial Strains and a Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Areas. CLEAN—Soil, Air, Water, 35, 92-96.

  8. 8. Baek, K.H., Yoon, B.D., Kim, B.H., et al. (2007) Monitoring of Microbial Diversity and Activity during Bioremediation of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil with Different Treatments. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 17, 67- 73.

  9. 9. Kang, Y.S., Park, Y.J., Jung, J. and Park, W. (2009) Inhibitory Effect of Aged Petroleum Hydrocarbons on the Survival of Inoculated Microorganism in a Crude-Oil-Contaminated Site. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 19, 1672-1678.

  10. 10. Lin, T.C., Pan, P.T. and Cheng, S.S. (2010) Ex Situ Bioremediation of Oil-Contaminated Soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 176, 27-34.

  11. 11. Acevedo, F., Pizzul, L., Castillo, M.D., Gonzalez, M.E., Cea, M., et al. (2010) Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Free and Nanoclay Immobilized Manganese Peroxidase from Anthracophyllum discolor. Chemosphere, 80, 271-278.

  12. 12. McGenity, T.J., Folwell, B.D., McKew, B.A. and Sanni, G.O. (2012) Marine Crude-Oil Biodegradation: A Central Role for Interspecies Interactions. Aquatic Biosystems, 8, 10.

  13. 13. Haritash, A.K. and Kaushik, C.P. (2009) Biodegradation Aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 169, 1-15.

  14. 14. Baborova, P., Moder, M., Baldrian, P., Cajthamlova, K. and Cajthamlova, T. (2006) Purification of a New Manganese Peroxidase of the White-Rot Fungus Irpex lacteus and Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by the Enzyme. Research in Microbiology, 157, 248-253.

  15. 15. Eibes, G., Cajthaml, T., Moreira, M.T., Feijoo, G. and Lema, J.M. (2006) Enzymatic Degradation of Anthracene, Dibenzothiophene and Pyrene by Manganese Peroxidase in Media Containing Acetone. Chemosphere, 64, 408-414.

  16. 16. Niladevi, K.N. and Prema, P. (2005) Mangrove Actinomycetes as the Source of Ligninolytic Enzymes. Actinomycetologica, 19, 40-47.

  17. 17. Le Roes-Hill, M., Khan, N. and Burton, S.G. (2011) Actinobacterial Peroxidases: An Unexplored Resource for Biocatalysis. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 164, 681-713.

  18. 18. Whitman, W., Goodfellow, M., Kämpfer, P., Busse, H., Trujillo, M.E., Ludwig, W., Suzuki, K. and Parte, A., Eds. (2012) The Actinobacteria: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2nd Edition, Springer-Verlag, UK.

  19. 19. Hunter, C.L., Maurus, R., Mauk, M.R., Lee, H., Raven, E.L., Tong, H., Nguyen, N., Smith, M., Brayer, G.D. and Mauk, A.G. (2003) Introduction and Characterization of a Functionally Linked Metal Ion Binding Site at the Exposed Heme Edge of Myoglobin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 3647-3652.

  20. 20. Hakala, T.K., Lundell, T., Galkin, S., Maijala, P., Kalkkinen, S. and Hatakka, A. (2005) Manganese Peroxidases, Laccase and Oxalic Acid from the Selective White-Rot Fungus Physisporinus rivulosus Grown on Spruce Wood Chips. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 36, 461-468.

  21. 21. Asgher, M., Bhatti, H.N., Ashraf, M. and Legge, R.L. (2008) Recent Developments in Biodegradation of Industrial Pollutants by White Rot Fungi and Their Enzyme System. Biodegradation, 19, 771-783.

  22. 22. De Oliveira, P.L., Duarte, M.C.T., Ponezi, A.N. and Durrant, L.R. (2009) Purification and Partial Characterization of Manganese Peroxidase from Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 40, 818-826.

  23. 23. Snajdr, J. and Baldrian, P. (2007) Temperature Effects the Production, the Activity and Stability in Lignolytic Enzymes in Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor. Folia Microbiologica, 52, 498-502.

  24. 24. Yang, J.S., Yuan, H.L. and Chen, W.X. (2004) Studies on Extracellular Enzymes of Lignin Degrading Fungus Penicillium sp. P6. China Environmental Science, 24, 24-27.

  25. 25. Alam, M.Z., Mansor, M.F. and Jalal, K.C.A. (2009) Optimization of Lignin Peroxidase Production and Stability by Phanerochaete chrysosporium Using Sewage-Treatment-Plant Sludge as Substrate in a Stirred-Tank Bioreactor. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 36, 757-764.

  26. 26. Kalyani, D.C., Phugare, S.S., Shedbalkar, U.U. and Jadhav, J.P. (2011) Purification and Characterization of a Bacterial Peroxidase from the Isolated Strain Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Its Application for Textile Dye Decolorization. Annals of Microbiology, 61, 483-491.

  27. 27. Dawkar, V.V., Jadhav, U.U., Telke, A.A. and Govindwar, S.P. (2009) Peroxidase from Bacillus sp. VUS and Its Role in the Decolorization of Textile Dyes. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 14, 361-368.

  28. 28. Rodriguez-Couto, S., Moldes, D. and Sanroma, M.A. (2006) Optimum Stability Conditions of pH and Temperature for Ligninase and Manganese-Dependent Peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Application to in Vitro Decolorization of Poly R-478 by MnP. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 22, 607-612.

  29. 29. Yadav, M., Singh, S.K. and Yadav, K.D.S. (2009) Purification and Characterization of Lignin Peroxidase from Pleurotus sajor caju MTCC-141. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 29, 59-73.

  30. 30. Cai, Y.H., Wu, X., Liao, Y., Sun, D.J. and Zhang, D.B. (2010) Purification and Characterization of Novel Manganese Peroxidase from Rhizoctonia sp. SYBC-M3. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 15, 1016-1021.

  31. 31. Urek, R.O. and Pazarlioglu, N.K. (2004) Purification and Partial Characterization of Manganese Peroxidase from Immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Process Biochemistry, 39, 2061-2068.

  32. 32. Shin, K.S., Kim, Y.H. and Lim, J.S. (2005) Purification and Characterization of Manganese Peroxidase of the White- Rot Fungus Irpex lacteus. Journal of Microbiology, 43, 503-509.

  33. 33. Beg, Q.K. and Gupta, R. (2003) Purification and Characterization of an Oxidation Stable, Thiol-Dependent Serine Alkaline Protease from Bacillus mojavensis. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 32, 294-304.

  34. 34. Joo, H.-S., Kumar, C.G., Park, G.-C., Paik, S.R. and Chang, C.-S. (2003) Oxidant and SDS-Stable Alkaline Protease from Bacillus clausii I-52: Production and Some Properties. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 95, 267-272.

  35. 35. Haddar, A., Agrebi, R., Bougatef, A., Hmidet, N., Sellami-Kamoun, A. and Nasri, M. (2009) Two Detergent Stable Alkaline Serine-Proteases from Bacillus mojavensis A21: Purification, Characterization and Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive. Bioresource Technology, 100, 3366-3373.

  36. 36. Asgher, M., Iqbal, H.M.N. and Irshad, M. (2012) Characterization of Purified and Xerogel Immobilized Novel Lignin Peroxidase Produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04 Using Solid State Medium of Corncobs. BMC Biotechnology, 12, 46.

  37. 37. Praveen, K., Usha, K.Y., Viswanath, B. and Rajasekhar Reddy, B. (2012) Kinetic Properties of Manganese Peroxidase from the Mushroom Stereum ostrea and Its Ability to Decolorize Dyes. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 22, 1540-1548.

  38. 38. Cheng, X., Jia, R., Li, P., Tu, S., Zhu, Q., et al. (2007) Purification of a New Manganese Peroxidase of the White-Rot Fungus Schizophyllum sp. F17 and Decolorization of Azo Dyes by the Enzyme. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 1, 258-264.

  39. 39. Asgher, M. and Iqbal, H.M.N. (2011) Characterization of a Novel Manganese Peroxidase Purified from Solid State Culture of Trametes versicolor IBL-04. BioResources, 6, 4302-4315.

  40. 40. Baldrian, P., Wiesche, C., Gabriel, J., Nerud, F. and Zadrazil, F. (2000) Influence of Cadmium and Mercury on Activities of Ligninolytic Enzymes and Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Pleurotus ostreatus in Soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 2471-2478.

  41. 41. Boer, C.G.L., Obici, C.G., de Souza, M. and Peralta, R.M. (2006) Purification and Some Properties of Mn Peroxidase from Lentinula edodes. Process Biochemistry, 41, 1203-1207.

  42. 42. Banci, L., Camarero, S., Martínez, A.T., Martínez, M.J., Pérez-Boada, M., Pierattelli, R., et al. (2003) NMR Study of Mn(II) Binding by the New Versatile Peroxidase from the White-Rot Fungus Pleurotus eryngii. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, 8, 751-760.

  43. 43. Sutherland, G.R., Zapanta, L.S., Tien, M. and Aust, S.D. (1997) Role of Calcium in Maintaining the Heme Environment of Manganese Peroxidase. Biochemistry, 36, 3654-3662.

  44. 44. Janusz, G., Kucharzyk, K.H., Pawlika, A., Staszczaka, M. and Paszczynski, A.J. (2013) Fungal Laccase, Manganese Peroxidase and Lignin Peroxidase: Gene Expression and Regulation. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 52, 1-12.


*Corresponding author.