Creative Education
2012. Vol.3, No.3, 315-321
Published Online June 2012 in SciRes (
Copyright © 2012 SciRe s . 315
Factors Influencing Worker Motivation in a Private African
University: Lessons for Leadership
Anthony Afful-Broni1, Stephen Nanyele 2
1University of Education, Winneb a, Ghana
2Catholic University College of Ghana, Fiapre, Ghana
Received April 17th, 2012; revised May 20th, 2012; accepted June 4th, 2012
Maintaining high performing employees and keeping them in line with organizational goals have been
identified as major challenges facing employers and managers of organizations. An important factor in-
fluencing worker commitment and productivity is motivation. This study was carried out to assess factors
influencing motivation of workers in the Catholic University College of Ghana, Fiapre, and to draw les-
sons for administrators and staff in agrarian communities. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires
were administered to 80 respondents selected from a staff population of 116. The study discovered that
love for the job, career development prospects, good salary and healthy relations were largely responsible
for the motivation of workers. The study also revealed that there are certain hidden incentives in the dis-
trict which served as motivation to the workers; notable among them are low cost of foodstuff, cheaper
transportation and housing. The study recommends that leaders should help create more factors which
will attract workers to go to agrarian communities, rather than scrambling for places in the overcrowded
cities of Ghana.
Keywords: Worker Motivation; Staff Output in Private University
There is consensus among management practitioners and
scholars that human beings occupy a very important place in
every successful organization. Thaw (2002) has pointed out that
without people there is no organization. Having identified three
main elements of every organization as people, structure and
purpose, Thaw (2002) believe s that all these elements are needed
for an organization to exist and function successfully. Other
scholars of management have further argued in support of this
assertion that people are the most essential and valued assets of
an organization. It is the people’s efforts which contribute to
the achievement of any organization’s objectives (Armstrong,
2001). Cole (2002) affirms this in his conviction that arguably,
the most essential single resource in any organization is people.
Hiring and retaining highly skilled and motivated labour has
been found to improve efficiency and increase productivity in
every organization. Maintaining high performing employees
and keeping them in tune with organizational goals have been
identified as the main challenge facing many employers and
managers of organizations. Managers who attempt to impose
formal or strict standards and procedures on their workers in
order to maintain productivity end up inviting resistance or
hostile reactions and in some cases, risk incurring personnel
turnovers. However, all over the globe, employers and manag-
ers have found it increasingly difficult to hire and maintain the
desired calibre of staff (Miskell & Miskell, 1999). Yet, simply
hiring the best people with extraordinary competence, expertise
and abilities does not necessarily guarantee high productivity.
A lot also depends on the determinants of motivation (Valogo,
Robbins & Laughton (2001) define motivation as a process
that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persis-
tence of efforts towards achieving a goal. This suggests that
whether or not an employee chooses to work hard towards the
attainment of set goals of the organization at any given point
depends to a large extent on certain factors which are driving
him/her to do so. It is these determinant factors that every
manager or leader needs to identify in each individual in order
to sustain his/her efforts at work. Money in this sense is there-
fore, one of the fundamental factors in any employer-employee
relationship. Doyle (1992) has also observed that money as a
medium of exchange is the means by which employees can
obtain their numerous needs to satisfy their desire. For Doyle
(1992), money is also the “score card by which employees as-
sess the value that the organization places on their services and
by which employees can compare their values to others” (p.
According to the Needs Theory, money is an immediate and
powerful tool of motivation as far as the satisfaction of basic
human needs is concerned. For example, considering Maslow’s
needs theory, money is likely to be a motivator to people who
are still grappling with physiological needs and safety or secu-
rity needs. People who are striving for higher order needs such
as esteem and self-actualization, according to Maslow, are less
concerned about money in the work. According to Alderfer’s
Existence Relatedness and Growth theory, (Afful-Broni, 2004)
people will be motivated by money when they have a strong
need for existential or survival needs which correspond to
Maslow’s physiological and safety needs.
Another study carried out by Locke and cited in Robbins and
Laughton (2001) at the University of Maryland compared four
(4) main methods of motivating workers’ performance, namely,
money, goal setting, participation in decision making and re-
designing jobs to give workers more challenge and responsibil-
ity. The results found in terms of average improvement in per-
formance were as follows; 30% for money, 10% for goal set-
ting, less than 1% for participation in decision making and 17%
for job redesign improved performance. Locke’s research re-
vealed that though money is an important factor and certainly a
very strong motivator of employee performance, not everyone
is primarily or fundamentally motivated by money.
The findings of Locke’s research cannot be used to draw a
general conclusion on factors motivating workers everywhere
in the world and in every organization. In a research in Ghana
for example, Sefa (2007) explored the effect of motivation on
productivity in three business organizations, namely, Peace FM,
Pipes and Plastics and Poly Products, all in the capital city of
Accra. Sefa (2007) found that the employees of these organiza-
tions generally felt demotivated to work hard. The greater
number of the workers (90%) was however motivated by
monetary reward rather than promotions, status and recogni-
In this study we sought to determine the factors of motiva-
tion at the Catholic University College of Ghana (CUCG) at
Fiapre. Specifically, the study aimed at finding out the factors
that motivate workers at the CUCG, determine the extent to
which CUCG workers are satisfied with the motivational pack-
ages put in place by the University and also draw lessons for
administrators and managers as well as staff motivation in
agrarian settings for this and other institutions with similar
characters. Thus, the examination of the factors motivating staff
at CUCG in Fiapre is significant in several ways. The study
will showcase the strengths and weaknesses of the strategies
adopted by the University in meeting the motivational needs of
staff; as it is believed that this can bring about further im-
provement in staff attraction and retention rate.
The possible improvement in the motivational packages will
be of direct benefit to the management and staff of the Univer-
sity in their quality of life. It is contended that the study is also
of significance to the people of Fiapre because the ability of the
University to attract and retain personnel will help to assure
them of accessible and quality tertiary education as well as job
prospects in the community and the district as a whole. Profes-
sionally and academically, the study will contribute to knowl-
edge and practice in management; especially worker motivation
in organizations. It would also benefit educational managers at
all levels in agrarian settings in the country in their staff moti-
vation efforts.
Field research was guided by the following research ques-
1) What are the factors motivating staff at CUCG?
2) What motivating factors are available in the community as
an agrarian area?
3) How can worker motivation be improved at CUCG?
Study Methodology
A cross-sectional design was used for the study. The target
population for the study consisted of the management and staff
of Catholic University College of Ghana, Fiapre. The total nu-
merical strength of this population was 116 as at the time of the
study. With regards to sample size, 80 out of the 116 were pur-
posely selected for the study. Table 1 provides details about the
categories and numerical figures of the staff at CUCG who
were involved in the study.
Table 1.
Sample distribut i on .
Category Population Sample
Senior members (non-teaching) 16 12
Senior m embers (teaching) 40 31
Senior staff 9 5
Junior staff 51 32
Total 116 80
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
In this research, the questionnaire (both structured and
semi-structured) was used as instrument to collect data. This
questionnaire was adapted from a previous study done on a
private university in Accra, Ghana. The questions were in three
sections, namely, personal details of respondents, factors influ-
encing respondents’ motivation and lastly, how motivation of
workers can be improved in the University. The questionnaire
was personally administered to four (4) categories of staffs at
CUCG. For some of the junior staff, some items needed to be
explained to them in the local dialect.
The questionnaire items were pilot-tested at Pan-African
University College. This population was chosen because Pan
African University College is also a private university run by a
church; and like CUCG, is also in an agrarian community. The
questionnaire items which were irrelevant to our study were
taken out, while others which were unclear were reframed and a
few added. The questionnaire was further shown to some co-
lleague researchers at the University of Education, Winneba
(UEW) for scrutiny. They examined the questionnaire to ensure
that they were guided by the research questions. To answer the
research questions on the factors motivating staff at the Catho-
lic University College of Ghana (CUCG), the following sample
items were presented; to which respondents were guided by a
six-pointed Likert scale (Absolutely Agree to Mostly Disagree):
Good monthly pay is a motivator in my work at CUCG;
A good allowance is a motivator in my work at CUCG;
I am motivated by attractive fringe benefits which I enjoy
from my employers;
Personal satisfaction is a number one motivating factor for
Achieving challenging tasks or goals motivate me;
Study leave with pay is a good motivator in my work;
Salary advance and loan support is a motivator in my work.
The psychometric property of the questionnaire in the initial
study done in the private university in Accra was 0.96. When it
was later pilot-tested in our study, it was 0.91.
Data Collection and Analysis
A letter of introduction was administered earlier to the
CUCG administration to solicit their cooperation regarding the
study. Each in the sampled population was given a consent
form to sign as indication of their willingness to participate in
the study. The researchers assured all respondents of anonymity
and confidentiality. However, anyone who felt uncomfortable
and wished to discontinue in the process would be allowed to
do so. Respondents were assured of confidentiality; these ac-
tions were taken in line with ethical considerations which need
Copyright © 2012 SciRe s .
to be made in a research. All the staff who agreed to participate
in the study, and who collected questionnaire returned them
well complet ed .
Most of the questionnaires were pre-coded before admini-
stration to facilitate easy tabulation and analysis. Open-ended
questionnaire were coded after the data collection exercise.
Responses were cross-checked on the field as a quality check
on the data. Coded data on responses were fed into the com-
puter-based programme, SPSS for analysis. The programme
generated figures, frequencies, percentages and tables to show
the results of the data analysis. These descriptive statistics were
then used as basis for discussing the key variables involved in
the study. With regard to gender distribution, 81.2% i.e. 65
respondents were males and 18.8% i.e. 15 respondents were
From the analysis in Table 2, majority of the respondents
(46.2%) fell within the lowest monthly income group of GH¢
120 - GH¢ 420, while the highest paid workers (2.5%), earned
between GH¢1921 and GH¢ 2220 a month. (GH¢ 1.60 is
equivalent to $1) Income levels of respondents were relevant to
the study since monetary reward is an important factor in ana-
lyzing worker motivation. It should be stated that 8 respondents
did not answer this item of the instrument. This attitude of the
respondents was not surprising since a number of workers in
Ghana do not feel comfortable disclosing their monthly income
to others.
Factors Motivating CUCG Staff
From Table 3, 76% of the respondents saw monthly pay as a
motivation factor in their work; and this confirms Doyle’s
(1992) emphasis on money as a motivator of work. According
to Doyle (1992), though money may not be the most important
motivational factor in every job situation, it is certainly a nec-
essary consideration in every employment relationship. Despite
the role of money as a motivator (Dery, 2007), about 28% of
the respondents thought otherwise. This position also confirms
Fillipezak’s (1994) belief that money is not always a motivator
to some people under certain circumstances.
Table 4 suggests that majority of the respondents (65%) gen-
erally agreed that good allowance was a motivator. However,
Table 2.
Demographic characteristic of respondents by monthly income levels.
Income range (GH¢) Count Percentage
120 - 420 37 46.2
421 - 720 13 16.2
721 - 1020 15 18.8
1021 - 1320 0 -
1321 - 1620 2 2.5
1621 - 1920 2 2.5
1921 - 2220 3 3.8
No response 8 10
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
Table 3.
Good monthly pay as motivation among respondents.
Good monthly pay as motivationCount Percenta ge
Absolutely a gree 12 15
Mostly agree 23 28.8
Somewhat agree 11 13.7
Agree 15 18.7
Absolutely d is agree 9 11.3
Mostly disa g ree 10 12.5
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
Table 4.
Attractive fringe benefits.
Attractive fringe benefit Count Percentage
Absolutely a gree 4 5.0
Mostly agree 12 15.0
Somewhat agree 16 20.0
Agree 10 12.5
Mostly disa g ree 8 10.0
Absolutely d is agree 30 37.5
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
the degrees of acceptance varied from absolutely agree (10%)
to agree (15%). Also, about 35% of the participants did not see
good allowance as motivating. This group also varied in the
degree to which they disagreed. Twenty-one percent of the
respondents absolutely disagreed while about 14% of them
mostly disagreed. This could be attributed to the fact that not
every worker at the University has access to allowances. Even
for those entitled to allowances, some were conditional, namely,
vehicle or car maintenance allowance, book and research al-
lowance, accommodation allowance, among others could be
given, not to all, but rather certain categories of staff. This pos-
ture of the respondents (35%) confirmed the assertion of Mul-
lins cited in Armstrong (2001) that motivation is also inten-
tional in the sense that it is under the control of the individual.
The study discovered that about 53% of the respondents were
motivated by attractive fringe benefits as indicated on Table 5.
This is distributed as absolutely agree (5%) mostly agree (15%)
somewhat agree (20%) and agree (13%). This revelation by the
respondents reflects the number of workers that receive fringe
benefits from the University. Those employees who enjoy
fringe benefits indicated that these benefits go a long way to
support their monthly budget. It was also found that some par-
ticipants (47%) were not influenced by fringe benefits.
From Table 6, the number one motivator for most partici-
pants was personal satisfaction (90%) but varied in the extent to
which the satisfaction was drawn as showed on Table 6. The
Copyright © 2012 SciRe s . 317
Table 5.
Personal satisfaction as a motivation factor.
Personal satisfaction as motivation factor Count Percentage
Absolutely a gree 29 36.2
Mostly agree 16 20.0
Somewhat agree 10 12.5
Agree 18 22.5
Absolutely a gree 4 5.0
Mostly agree 3 3.8
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
Table 6.
Achieving challenging tasks or goals.
Achieving challenging task s Count Percentage
Absolutely a gree 23 28.8
Mostly agree 27 33.8
Somewhat agree 14 17.5
Agree 10 12.5
Absolutely disagree 2 2.5
Mostly agree 4 5.0
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
ability to assist students to satisfy their quest for knowledge is
gratifying. In fact, most of the workers at the University, par-
ticularly lecturers and management staff who are passionate
about quality education indicated that they derived personal
satisfaction through offering services to the University as they
received positive comments from some outfits where students
did their Attachment or National Service.
Table 7 shows that 74 participants representing 93% gener-
ally believe that achieving challenging tasks motivated them.
This percentage is distributed according to the level of agree-
ments. For example, 29% of the respondents absolutely agreed;
34% mostly agreed; 18% somewhat agreed and about 13% of
the participants simply agreed to the statement. According to
Maslow’s needs hierarchy, achieving challenging task is on the
self-actualization needs of man, and is pursued after having
satisfied his basic physiological, safety, esteem and social needs
(Maslow, 1954). The University provides opportunities for wor-
kers to strive for self-actualization by challenging lecturers in
particular to help the University achieve its vision through the
mission statement.
From Table 8, sixty-five (65) respondents, representing
about 81% of participants agreed to good recognition as a mo-
tivational factor. However, 18% of them did not agree that good
recognition motivated people to increase output or be more
committed to work. According to Maslow’s hierarchy, external
esteem needs include high status, recognition, reputation, atten-
tion, or respect from among others. Therefore, a person will
Table 7.
Achieving challenging tasks or goals.
Achieving challenging task s Count Percentage
Absolutely a gree 23 28.8
Mostly agree 27 33.8
Somewhat agree 14 17.5
Agree 10 12.5
Absolutely disagree 2 2.5
Mostly agree 4 5.0
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
Table 8.
Good recognition as a motivational factor.
Good recog nition as motivator Count Percenta g e
Absolutely a gree 9 11.2
Mostly agree 27 33.8
Somewhat agree 15 18.8
Agree 14 17.5
Absolutely disagree 6 7.5
Mostly disa g ree 9 11.2
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
seek recognition after satisfying the physiological and safety
From Table 9, it is evident that most of the respondents were
motivated by human relationships among the staff. Out of the
80 respondents, 77 representing 96% indicated that friendly
relations among staff kept them working hard. They agreed that
it was gratifying to see a “superior” officer being the first to
greet a “subordinate” at work, which is not necessarily the case
at other organizations. These seemingly unique relationships
among the staff of the Catholic University College of Ghana
seemed to have propelled most respondents to work harder with
less or no supervision. The responses of the participants are in
conformity with McClelland’s Achievement Affiliation—power
needs theory (cited in Cole, 1996) that people have the desire to
establish and maintain close friendly relations with others; and
interestingly, the University has measures in place to satisfy
this human need at daily prayer and at official ceremonies.
(Vice Chancellor’s Annual Report, 2009)
The information displayed on Table 10 shows that out of 80
respondents, 62 (78%) of them agreed to career development as
a motivator. The University provides these opportunities by
way of encouraging and supporting all competent and qualified
staff to pursue higher degrees in their fields. Alderfer (1972) in
his Existence, Relatedness and Growth (ERG) theory of moti-
vation suggests that a personal growth is an intrinsic desire by
employees as a means of boosting their status recognition. One
direct means to attaining personal growth is career development.
Copyright © 2012 SciRe s .
Table 9.
Friendly relation among staff as a source of motiv a t io n .
Friendly relation among staff Count Percentage
Absolutely a gree 25 31.3
Mostly agree 21 26.2
Somewhat agree 16 20.0
Agree 15 18.8
Absolutely disagree 2 2.5
Mostly disa g ree 1 1.2
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
Table 10.
Career development as a motivator.
Career de velopment as motivat or Count Percentage
Absolutely a gree 14 17.5
Mostly agree 21 26.2
Somewhat agree 15 18.8
Agree 12 15.0
Absolutely d is agree 13 16.3
Mostly disa g ree 5 6.2
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
Even though the levels of agreements by respondents vary as
evidenced on the table above, a total of 78% of the respondents
generally agreed to career development as a factor that moti-
vates them, although they varied in the level of agreements.
However, 22% of the respondents believed that they lacked
career development prospects as indicated on the table.
From Table 11 respondents (57%) essentially agreed that
loan support and salary advance was a motivational factor at
work in the University. It should however, be stated that this
percentage represents variant degrees of agreements and ranges
from absolutely agree to agree as seen on the table. For the rest
of the respondents (43%) being given loan support and salary
advance or not did not seem to directly affect their work output.
Table 12 shows that 48 respondents representing 60% dis-
agreed with the proposal that workers were motivated by sup-
port from the University to upgrade themselves. According to
this group, the policy on study leave with pay in itself was good.
However, there were difficulties that prevented the University
from implementing it. Also, the conditions attached to this fa-
cility was said to discourage workers. For example, it was a
policy that one had to work in the University for at least three
consecutive years to qualify for his facility. The study also
revealed that out of the 80 respondents, thirty-two (32) partici-
pants representing about 40% believed that the opportunity to
obtain study leave with pay while pursuing an academic pro-
gramme was a motivational factor.
From Table 13, 50% of the respondents said that low cost
Table 11.
Loan support & sa l ary advance as motivator.
Loan support and salary advance Count Percentag e
Absolutely a gree 5 6.2
Mostly agree 15 18.7
Somewhat agree 11 13.7
Agree 15 18.8
Absolutely d is agree 27 33.8
Mostly disa g ree 7 8.8
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
Table 12.
Study leave with pay as a motivational factor.
Study leave with pay as motivatorCount Percentage
Absolutely a gree 10 12.5
Mostly agree 7 8.7
Somewhat agree 7 8.8
Agree 8 10.0
Absolutely d is agree 40 50.0
Mostly disa g ree 9 10.0
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
Table 13.
Motivational factors in the Sunyani-West district.
Factor Count Percentage
Low food pric es 40 50.0
Low rent 25 31.2
Conducive weather condition 5 6.3
Availability of educational facilities 10 12.5
Total 80 100
Source: fie ld data 201 0.
of foodstuff due to proximity to the farm gates encouraged
them to stay and work in the district. Thirty-one percent (31%)
of them were motivated by low rent because participants indi-
cated that it was cheaper to rent accommodation in this area
than in the cities of Ghana. Furthermore, the Sunyani West
District is blessed with many schools. About 13% of the re-
spondents indicated that they were motivated by the availability
of educational facilities, where their children could have access
to quality education. This is because of the presence of secon-
dary/technical schools as well as a public University (Faculty of
Forestry Resources Technology of the Kwame Nkrumah Uni-
versity of Science and Technology) and a private University
Copyright © 2012 SciRe s . 319
(Catholic University College of Ghana) in the district.
How Can Worker Motivation Be
Improved in the CUCG?
The study discovered that the basic salaries of the workers
were being reviewed upwards each financial year of the Uni-
versity, taking into account salaries of other institutions in
Ghana. Management also disclosed that the current salaries of
employees in the University were generally higher than those of
the public universities. Indeed, there had been consistent in-
crease in basic salaries in the CUCG since its establishment. On
allowances, management revealed that inducement allowances
had been increased from 30% to 150% of basic salary, which
may still be reviewed upwards depending on the market trend
and the financial ability of the University. This confirmed the
results of the respondents on good allowances where 65% of
them recognized good allowances as a source of motivation for
output (see Table 4).
The management was asked to indicate how staff association
was encouraged as motivation to employees. It was discovered
that management did not in any way hinder the formation and
operation of staff associations. To enhance the activities of staff
associations, management had always granted members free
time to attend meetings and programmes of associations;
stemming from management’s belief that staff associations can
help in the smooth running of the University since their leaders
could be a link between management and workers. To demon-
strate in concrete terms management support for staff associa-
tions, a welfare committee had been formed and monies were
being contributed to improve staff welfare.
Regarding work environment, it was found that management
was much interested in providing an attractive working envi-
ronment to motivate workers. There is greater emphasis on
cleanliness and maintenance. The researchers observed cleaners
on a regular basis busily doing their work; and this added to the
welcoming atmosphere of the University. For career develop-
ment, it was revealed that all staff were encouraged by man-
agement to obtain higher qualifications. The conditions of ser-
vice had created opportunities for staff development where a
staff could have study leave with pay up to a three year period.
The last factor to consider as effort made by management in
motivating staff was fringe benefits. Respondents mentioned
the following as some of the fringe benefits enjoyed by mem-
bers of staff: 50% subsidy for rent, subsidy for transportation,
Christmas gift, payment of medical bills, and 25% of basic pay
contribution towards staff retirement benefits.
There is no doubt that education, especially at the tertiary
level, is the bedrock of development and progress of any nation.
For a third world nation like Ghana, in a globalized world, this
need is even greater. Those who have the capacity and/or the
mandate to run institutions of higher learning need to keep
some key points in mind. First of all, it is quite tempting to
wish to set up a university in one of the cities, considering that
these are where the bulk of the quality human resources reside,
or would like to be.
Yet, fact is that Ghana’s cities are already choked, and this
study has shown that it is not necessary for owners or strategists
to set up their universities in those cities; agrarian communities
could equally serve as excellent locations for very successful
institutions of higher learning. The study has shown that if cer-
tain important motivating factors are paid attention to, workers
would be attracted to come, and be happy to remain and work
for greater output.
The study has shown that even though money is a good mo-
tivator for greater work output, there are a number of other
factors that motivate workers to put up their best. A good les-
son for leaders of institutions, including educational settings is
that they should endeavor to create or improve upon conditions
which will allow workers to aim at achieving challenging tasks
or goals, since these could also motivate some staff, as shown
in this study.
Especially for those educational leaders who wish to be in-
novative in setting up or running universities outside the cities,
they would need to consider helping to create environments
where staff would be given due recognition, an aspect which is
often missing in a number of large organizations in Ghana.
Closely related to this is another lesson that leaders should de-
rive—that friendly and healthy relations at the university could
serve as sufficient incentive to attract and to keep a very im-
portant human resource at post.
Furthermore, it is important that rather than see it as too ex-
pensive, leaders in higher educational institutions should do
well to provide sufficient avenues for their staff in terms of
career development as well as promotion prospects. This study
has shown that it takes a lot of things to get good workers at-
tracted to an organization, and sometimes that organization
could be fa r away from the city, and yet would attract excellent
staff, providing excellent job output.
This study will conclude by making some recommendations
for future action informed by the findings of the study. From
the findings of this study, and in order to further improve
worker motivation and job output at CUCG, the following
recommendations were made to the management, the board of
trustees as well as owners and policy makers of the University.
Firstly, it is being recommended to the management of the
Catholic University College of Ghana, Fiapre and the Board of
Trustees that a joint Negotiating Committee be set up at the
appropriate level of authority to formally appraise and review
the existing conditions of service for the staff. Disparities in
fringe benefits between junior staff and professional staff
should be properly explained to the junior staff so as to mini-
mize the general feeling of dissatisfaction among them. Staff
awards and performance based rewards should be instituted to
recognize hard working employees in the University.
Secondly, the university could liaise with other universities
that offer graduate programmes to accept young staff from
CUCG for further professional development. This will improve
and further facilitate the upgrading of staff to enhance quality
education delivery. To enhance this, the University should con-
sider arranging for possible sponsorships and grants to support
staff for further studies.
Finally, it is being recommended to the policy makers and
owners of the University to increase their education campaign
to encourage present and prospective staff about the many
benefits of staying and working in an agrarian community such
as CUCG as well as helping to reduce the rural-urban drift
among Ghanaians in general.
Copyright © 2012 SciRe s .
Copyright © 2012 SciRe s . 321
Afful-Broni, A. (2004). Theory and practice o f educational lead ership in
Ghana. Accra: TYPE Press.
Alderfer, C. (1972). Existence, relatedness and growth: Human needs
in organization al settings. New York: Free Press.
Armstrong, M (2001). A handbook of human resources management
practices (8th ed.) . London: Book Power/ELST.
Cohen, M., & Marrison, J. (2003). Designing a qualitative study. News-
bury Park, CA: Sage Publ i c ations.
Cole, G. A. (1996). Management theory and practice (5th ed.). London:
Book Power/ELST.
Cole, G. A. (2002). Personnel and human resource management (5th ed.).
London: Book Power/ ELST.
Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational research planning conducting and
evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Sa-
ddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice.
Dery, S. (2007). Leadership and management within schools in Ghana:
Unique challenges compared to Wales. Wales: NEWI.
Doyle, K. O. (1992). Introduction: Money and the behavioural sciences.
American Behavi oural Scientist, 35, 641-657.
Fillipezak, B. (1994). Can’t buy me love. Training, 33, 29-34.
Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and
Miskell, J. R., & Miskell, V. (1999). Motivation at work. New York: Ir-
win Inc.
Robbins, S. P., & Laughton, N. (2001). Organizational behavior: Concepts,
controversies and application (2nd ed.). Toronto: Prentice Hall.
Sefa, D. A. (2007). Employee motivation and productivity in three orga-
nizations in Accra: Peace FM, pipes and plastics and poly products.
Cape Coast: University of Cape Coast.
Thaw, D. (2002). Ideas for change: People in organizations. London:
Olive Publications.
Valogo, M. K. (2007). Motivation and retention of graduate teachers:
A case study of senior secondary schools in Bolgatanga municipality.
Cape Coast: University of Cape Coast.
Vice Chancellor’s Annual Report (2009). Fiapre: Catholic University
College of Ghana.