Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2012, 4, 507-515 Published Online July 2012 (
Hydro-Geophysical Investigations for the Purposes of
Groundwater Artificial Recharge in Wadi Al-Butum
Area, Jordan
Hani Al-Amoush
Earth and Environmental Sciences Department, Al Al-Bayt University, Mafraq, Jordan
Received March 20, 2012; revised April 22, 2012; accepted May 25, 2012
In this article, the potential for artificial groundwater recharge of Wadi Al-Butum catchments area—Jordan is studied,
using geoelectrical resistivity surveys and hydro geochemical methods with the aim of storing some of surface water
during flood events times to be recharged in the groundwater as an essential part of integrated water resources man-
agement. The results of geoelectrical surveys show the existence of potential zones of alluvial deposits to store and re-
charge the groundwater aquifers. The hydro-geochemical modeling results show an overall upgrading of the original
groundwater quality could be expected.
Keywords: VES; Hydro-Geophysics; Artificial Recharge; Wadi Al-Butum
1. Introduction
Jordan is located in an arid to semi arid lands, and it is
considered among the scarcest water resources countries
in the world. About 81% of its area receives rainfall in
average less than 100 mm/year [1]. Most of the received
precipitation is being lost due to the high evaporation
rates [2]. Jordan is characterized by severe weather con-
ditions, therefore great temporal and spatial variations in
rainfall; runoff and evaporation amounts are expected [3].
The annual population growth rate in Jordan is estimated
to be around 2.65%. Based on this percentage, it is esti-
mated that the total population in Jordan will be around
12 millions by 2020 [4]. This will add more pressures on
the existing water resources in the country leading to a
massive decrease in per capita to 85 m3·capita–1·year–1 by
2025 [4]. One alternative to water sustainability crisis
occurring in arid land is groundwater artificial recharge.
It refers to the entry of water from the unsaturated zone
into the saturated zone below the water table together
with the associated flow away from the water table with-
in the saturated zone [5]. The major source of water for
recharging groundwater aquifers in arid and semi-arid
zones is wadi runoff [6].
Wadi Al-Butum sub catchments area located in the
Jordanian desert and surrounded the historical archeo-
logical site—Qasar Amra. The principle groundwater
aquifer beneath Wadi Al-Butum is the Rijam formation
B4 which outcrops at the surface along wadi beds in
some places. Although the B4 aquifer derives the major-
ity of its recharge from the north and northeast (basalt
area), significant recharge does come from the area im-
mediately surrounded the wadi [7].
According to previous studies conducted by [1], it was
concluded that the runoff along Wadi Al-Butum is gener-
ated when a precipitation event exceeds in its amount 15
mm. In the period 1969 to 2006 only three years 1998/
1999, 1999/2000 and 2001/2002 show that all the rainfall
events taking place in these years were less than 20 mm.
But the total runoffs in these years were 33,400, 71,600
and 104,900 m3 respectively. The total annual runoffs in
the period 1969 to 2010 ranged from 33,000 m3 as a
minimum to 65.6 million m3 as a maximum [1]. The in-
filtration rate in Wadi Al-Butum area was estimated to be
0.197 m/day [7].
Recently, several studies have been used integrated
techniques in order evaluate the groundwater occurrences
and locate artificial recharge zones and finding suitable
sites for artificially groundwater recharge (e.g. [8,9]).
In this present study, hydro-geophysical investigations
including vertical resistivity sounding surveys and hydro-
geochemical modeling were carried out with the aim of
studying the potential for artificial groundwater recharge
in Wadi Al-Butum catchments area.
2. Description of the Study Area
The study area is located in the northern part of Jordan. It
is situated within the coordinates longitudes 36˚20 and
36˚35 East, and Latitude 31˚40 and 32˚00 North (Fig-
opyright © 2012 SciRes. JWARP
ure 1). The elevation of Wadi Al-Butum watershed area
is ranging from 500 m above mean sea level (a.m.s.l) at
the wadi bed near outlet point to 700 m a.m.s.l at the
hilltops. The slopes may range up to 2%, and the general
topography becomes flat at the most eastern part of the
study area. Climatologically, the study area is classified
as semi-arid area; two well-defined seasons are dominat-
ing, hot, dry summer season and low wet, cold winter
season [10]. The average annual minimum and maximum
daily temperatures are 11.6˚C and 26.6˚C respectively.
Humidity varies from 49.9% to 61.0% in summer and
from 56.0% to 82.0% in winter [10]. The average daily
evaporation observed is 10.4 mm/day and it varies from
5.0 to 19.0 mm/d in summer and from 3.0 to 12.0 mm/d
in winter [11]. The average annual rainfall ranges from
50 mm/y in the most eastern part of the study area to 130
mm/y in the northwestern part [1].
3. Geology of the Study Area
The study area was mapped several times during the last
few decades as part of regional mapping program [12-14].
The study area incorporates exposures of sedimentary
rocks, ranging in age from Cretaceous to Quaternary.
The Quaternary deposits cover in the east the underlying
Tertiary deposits. The latter are intermittently exposed at
the surface in the west and southwest [15]. The sediment-
tary sequence includes limestone, chert, marl, chalk, sand-
stone, clay and evaporites. These rocks are frequently
covered with a variably thick sequence of superficial de-
posits including alluvium, mud-silt in flats, chert pave-
ment, Pleistocene gravels, and sand and evaporites in-
crustations [12]. In the subsurface a thick sedimentary
section changing in thickness as well as varying in the
Figure 1. Location map of Wadi Al-Butum sub-catchments
area (closed blue polygon—east of Amman).
litho-stratigraphic and formational units underlie the
study area. These sediments range in age from early Pa-
leozoic to Pleistocene and are primarily composed of
carbonates, sandstones and shale. The major thickness re-
duction in the sequence is towards west and southwest
[15]. The Cretaceous to Tertiary deposits in the area
comprise a thick sedimentary section measuring more
than 350 m mostly of marine sediments. In Jordan the
Lower Cretaceous boundary with older units is well iden-
tified by a recognizable sandstone unit of the Nubian
type known as the “Kurnub Sandstone”. This is identified
in the area in several wells, as the sandstone formation
underlying the carbonate facies of Cenomanian age. This
sandstone unit varies in thickness, depth, and marks the
transition zone of the major unconformity between the
Jurassic and the early Cretaceous. Table 1 lists the litho-
stratigraphic successions in the study area with a brief
description for each formation.
4. Discussion and Results
4.1. Geoelectrical Data Acquisition and
Ten Vertical Electrical Resistivity Soundings (VES) were
conducted along the course of Wadi Al-Butum (Figure 2),
using an ABEM CAMPUS GEOPULSE Ltd. resistivity
meter. Schlumberger configuration of electrodes was
used in the field surveys. The profiles were directed into
N-S direction perpendicular to the Wadi Al-Butum
Course. The maximum current electrodes separation ex-
tends up to 1000 m. The increase of electrical electrodes
separation lead to rapidly reduced the potential difference
to be measured at potential electrodes [16]; therefore the
potential electrode distances were increased gradually to
get a better signal. The selection of soundings location
was governed by the site conditions. The apparent resis-
tivity values were obtained by multiplying the field re-
sistance measurements by configuration factor at each of
electrodes separation. The calculated apparent resistivity
measurements were plotted against half of the current
electrode spacing (AB/2) on bi-logarithmic scale, a tradi-
tional interpretation techniques by curve matching and
drawing auxiliary point diagram [17] was applied. Based
on this preliminary interpretation, an initial estimation of
resistivities and thicknesses of various geo-electrical lay-
ers was obtained. These preliminary estimations were
later used as a start model incorporating known geology
and the available well data for a fast computer-assisted
interpretation RESIST written by [18]. The results of
interpretation were also compared with the result of
purely automatic inversion programs without any as-
sumptions of layering model in which the layering model
is obtained directly from a digitized sounding curve [19].
In order to get a reasonable interpretation of geoelectrical
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Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JWARP
Table 1. Litho-strartigraphic successions in the study area (after [13,14]).
Formation name Rock type and thickness (m) Age
Alluvium and Mudflat Mud, laminated silt and clay Recent
Holocene to
Sediments Alluvium and
wadi sediment
Sand, sorted and unsorted pebble and boulders of limestone and chert of
local bedrock Recent
Superficial deposits Fluviatile and lacustrine Gravels of Pleistocene/composed of
non-cemented, poorly-sorted deposit of chert and limestone clasts Recent
Wadi shallaleh chalk formation (B5) Chalk, marl, glauconitic and micritic limestone, (10 - 22) m in the central part
of the study area Eocene
Um Rijam chert limestone
formation (B4) Chert, chalk, limestone, chalky limestone (80 - 130) m Paleocene
Muwaqqar chalk marl F. (B3) Chalk, limestone, marly chalk, chert, bituminous (70 - 200) m Campanian-Danian
Amman F. (B2) Limestone, chert, chalk, phosphatic (80 - 90) m Campanian
Ghudran F. (B1)
Belqa group
Chalk, marl, marly-limestone (10 - 12) m NW of the study area Coniacian-Santonian
Wadi El-Sir (A7) Crystalline limestone, marl, chert (90 - 100) m Touranian
Upper Cenomanian
Fuheis/Hummar/Shuieb (F/H/S)
formations (A3 - A6) Marl, marly limestone
Na’ur (A1/2)
Ajlun group Upper-mid Cenomanian
Lower-mid Cenomanian
Thick bedded nodular dolomitic limestone, chert, marl Lower Cenomanian
Figure 2. Location map of geoelectrical test sites and
groundwater wells.
measurements about the hydro-geological setting of the
study area, a correlation between the available borehole
log records in the vicinity of surveyed sites have been
constructed (Figure 3) and used in deducing the Litholo-
gical—resistivity interpretation A Summary list of the
interpreted geo-electrical models for VES soundings are
presented in Table 2, while (Figures 4-6) show three
examples of VES curves and their geophysical interpre-
4.2. Interpretation of Geoelectrical Resistivity
Figure 7 shows geoelectrical cross section along a part
of the course of wadi Al-Butum area constructed from a
series of vertical electrical soundings and correlated with
adjacent borehole F1274. The interpretation of resistivity
data led to the following findings:
The resistivity of the near surface layer is ranging be-
tween 320 and 2000 Ohm.m that characterize and typi-
cally indicative to alluvium deposits (gravel, sand). This
layer reaches its maximum thickness between VES6 and
VES4 (35 m), and does not exposed at VES1. This layer
is considered of high potential for groundwater recharge.
A relatively high resistivity layer (290 - 935) Ohm.m
is found beneath VES10, VES5m, VES2 and VES1. The
maximum thickness of this layer is found at VES5 (20
m). This layer is interpreted as paleo-channel alluvial
deposits (Figure 2, location map) and it is considered of
high potential for groundwater recharge.
Low resistivity layer (15 - 18) Ohm.m has been de-
tected at depth of 45 m below ground surface at VES9
and VES8. The maximum thickness of this layer (35 m)
has been recorded at VES9 and does not detected at the
other VES sites along the section. This layer is inter-
preted as a saturated layer of saline groundwater which
account for the high salinity of F1274 borehole (1750
μS/cm) (Table 3).
The resistivity range (35 - 150) Ohm.m extending all
over the geoelectrical section (e.g. at depth 38 m beneath
VES7, VES8 and VES9, 44 m beneath VES6 and 60 m
beneath VES5) is interpreted as the main aquifer to be
recharged (Rijam aquifer, B4) in the study area. The va-
riation of resistivity reflects lithological variation and de-
gree of saturation within the aquifer.
Two prominent high resistivity layers (500 - 15,000)
B4 / B5
Rijam Formation
Alluvial Deposits
Muwaqqar Form ation
Shallaleh Formation
Alluvium deposits
Figure 3. Correlation of the available borehole log records in vicinity of geoelectrical test sites illustrating the hydro-geologi-
cal setting of the study area.
Figure 4. Modeling of a sounding point VES-5: measured apparent resistivity (blue dots), best-fit model (tabulated and as a
graph in logarithmic scale) and related curve model (full line) are shown.
Figure 5. Modeling of a sounding VES-9: measured apparent resistivity (blue dots), best-fit model (tabulated and as a graph
in logarithmic scale) and related curve model (full line) are shown.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JWARP
Figure 6. Modeling of a sounding VES-10: measured apparent resistivity (blue dots), best-fit model (tabulated and as a graph
in logarithmic scale) and related curve model (full line) are shown.
320 - 2000
70 - 127
15 - 95
500 - 15000
765 - 34914
290 - 935
15 - 18
100 - 235
100 - 150
0 - 190
320 - 2000
Rijam Formation B4
36 - 80
300 600 m
Potential Ground
Potential Groundwater
Recharge Zone
Potenti al Groundwa
Recharge Zone
Possible paleo-channel
(Potential for groundwatre recharge)
Figure 7. Resistivity depth profiles from interpreted vertical electrical sounding points along the course of Wadi Al-Butum
area depicting the groundwater recharge zones potential and groundwater occurrences. Lithological data of borehole F1274
is projected onto the section (see Figure 2 for location of VES’s and F1274 borehole).
Table 2. Interpretation of multilayer best-fit model of VES’s.
Depth (m) Suggested litho-logical interpretation based on available surface geological and well log data
G.S* - 47 m Low resistivity fluviatile gravels, clasts of chert, limestone, with various grain sizes
>47 m - ? Highly resistive substratum bedrock
G.S - 59 m Alluvial sediments, recent alluvial deposits of ephemeral wades, various facies of poorly sorted sediments, as shown by
a variation of resistivity values
>59 m - ? Highly resistive substratum bedrock
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0 - 32 m Low resistivity zone (39 - 100 .m); wadi sediments, clasts of limestone, chert, chalk, alluvial, with various grain size
32 - 100 m Relatively higher resistivity deposits, attributed to variation of litho-logical and sedimentalogical characteristics
(sorting, grain size etc...) of wadi sediments and alluvial
>100 m - ? A declining in resistivity values which could indicate to a presence of groundwater saturated zones ( correlated with F1054 well log)
G.S - 6.5 m High resistivity deposits; dry alluvial sediments; wadi sediment; clasts of limestone and chert (boulder)
6.5 - 12.5 m Higher resistivity zone; limestone chert
12.5 - 40 m Low resistivity sediments; clay or saturated zones of groundwater
>40 m - ? Highly resistive substratum bedrock
G.S - 3 m High resistivity deposits; Gravel; wadi sediment; alluvial deposits
3 - 13 m Low resistivity alluvial zone attributed to lithological and Lithiofacies variation
3 - 28 m High resistivity zone; clasts of limestone, chert, chalk
28 - 85 m Low resistivity zone (alluvial deposits); could indicate to saturated alluvial deposits?!!
G.S - 4 m High resistivity top soil; alluvial; wadi sediment; clasts of limestone, chert
4 - 9 m Low resistivity zone; Saturated alluvial zone
9 - 35 m High resistive layers; dry alluvial deposits
35 - 86 m Declining in resistivity values attributed to saturated wadi sediment of groundwater and/or to lithological variations
of alluvial deposits.
*G.S: Ground Surface
G.S* to 7.5 m High resistivity top dry soil (alluvial sediment) (Mudflat)
7.5 - 11.5 Low resistivity layer; saturated alluvial sediments
11.5 - 90 m Intermediate resistivity zone (160 .m); attributed to lithological variations within the sediments (B4?)
>90 m Low resistivity substratum deposits; could indicate to the presence of saturated groundwater aquifer- Rijam aquifer-(B4)-correlated
with F1172
G.S - 5.0 m Highly resistive top dry alluvial sediment
5.0 - 12 m Low resistivity layer; saturated alluvial sediments
12 - 25 m High resistivity zone; lithological variations
25 - 82 m Low resistivity deposits (35 .m); could indicate to the presence of saturated groundwater zones-Rijam aquifer-(B4)-
good correlation with well log (F1172)
>82 m Increasing of resistivity of substratum layer
G.S - 6 m High resistivity top dry alluvial sediment
6 - 12.5 m Low resistivity layer; Saturated alluvial sediments; Good correlation with VES-8 and VES-7.
12.5 - 27 m High resistivity zone; lithological variations; Good correlation with VES-8 and VES-7
>27 m - >80 m Decreasing in resistivity to about (15 - 80) .m which could indicate to the presence of saturated groundwater zones-Rijam
formation-(B4); Good correlation with VES-8 and VES-7
G.S - 2.5 m High resistive zone; wadi sediment; limestone, chert
2.5 - 10 m Intermediate resistivity zone 160 .m; attributed to lithological variations within wadi sediment.
10 - 50 m Low resistivity zone; Saturated alluvial zones
50 - >80 m Slightly increasing of resistivity attributed to lithological variations within Rijam formation (B4) aquifer.
*G.S: Ground Surface
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Table 3. Average chemical composition of water samples in Wadi Al-Butum catchments area (Data source; [1] in addition to
recent data analyses).
No Parameter Rainfall Runoff
(flood wades)
Groundwater (F1054)
B4/5 Aquifer
Groundwater (F1274)
B4and B2 Aquifer
1 pH 7.84 8.04 8.10 7.50
2 T (˚C) 17.00 18.10 21.30 22.00
3 EC (μS/cm) 165.00 254.9 530.00 1750.00
4 K2+ (mg/l) 1.45 4.69 5.00 26.00
5 Mg2+ (mg/l) 2.43 5.71 10.00 39.50
6 Ca2+ (mg/l) 21.44 27.45 18.00 122.00
7 Na+ (mg/l) 7.81 14.48 70.00 189.00
8 Cl (mg/l) 20.56 10.63 80.00 303.00
9 2
(mg/l) 15.84 15.36 29.00 396.00
10 (mg/l) 56.70 114.04 120.00 290.00
11 (mg/l) 3.51 3.51 5.0 1.01
12 Water Type Ca2+--Cl Ca2+-Na+-
Na+-Ca2+-Cl- -
Ohm.m at depth 45 m beneath VES5 and (765 - 34,900)
Ohm.m at depth 40 beneath VES4 are identified.
5. Hydrochemistry Study
A major concern in artificial groundwater recharge stu-
dies is the resulting water chemistry when surface water
joins the groundwater system and mixes with it. Mixing
processes generally shift the water chemistry of the two
mixed solution into a middle state between them depend-
ing on the mixing ratios [20]. In this study a theoretical
hydro-geochemical modeling has been performed using
the software HYDROWIN Version.3 [21] to investigate
the affect of recharge surface water on the groundwater
chemistry. Therefore, historical chemical analysis of wa-
ter samples [1] in addition to recent analyzed water sam-
ples have been gathered and used in this study. The ave-
rage chemical composition of runoff (Flood water), rain-
fall and groundwater samples from different aquifers in
Wadi Al-Butum catchments area, and their types are
listed in Table 3.
Mixing Processes and Saturation Indices
Theoretical mixing processes between the flood water
and groundwater sample have been carried out using
HYDRWIN program [21]. The program allows us to
calculate solution specifications and saturation states of
the aqueous state with respect to various minerals phases.
In this study, the simulation started by adding 0% to 50%
of surface runoff water to the groundwater sample of
Rijam aquifer (B4) represented by F1054 well and to
groundwater of B2/A7 aquifer represented by well F1274
(Table 5). The process is made five times within this
range, until equal ratio of 50% to 50% was reached. The
results of mixing process and saturation indices are listed
in Table 4, Table 5 and Table 6 respectively.
The results of hydro-geochemical analyses and simu-
lation process revealed the following findings:
Water/rock interaction is very limited in well F1054,
as indicated by the relatively low salinity (530 μS/cm)
and other salinity parameters (Table 3). This is because
the Rijam aquifer (R4) from which water produced is
cropping out at the earth surface or very shallow and is in
direct hydraulic connection with alluvial of Wadi Al-
Butum, which are recharged from runoff water of the
Wadi. On the contrary, the high salinity (1750 μS/cm)
and salinity parameters of Well F1274, which is pro-
duced from the deep limestone aquifer (B2/A7), in addi-
tion of B4, indicate a major water/rock interaction. Par-
ticularly when the infiltrated water contains of high bi-
carbonate concentrations.
The samples, runoff water, groundwater of different
aquifers (B4 of F1054 and B2/A7 of F1274), mixing of
different water samples (Table 4 and 5) are under satu-
rated with respect to Gypsum, Anhydrite and Magnesite.
Rainfall is under saturated with respect to Aragonite,
Dolomite, Calcite, Gypsum, Anhydrite and Magnesite.
Groundwater of B2/A7 is over-saturated with respect
to Aragonite, calcite and Dolomite reflecting the water/
rock interaction. While the groundwater of B4 aquifer is
only oversaturated with respect of Dolomite (Table 6).
The results of mixing surface runoff water to the
groundwater of B4 and B2/A7 indicating over-saturated
with respect to calcite.
In general, the theoretical mixing of surface water run-
offs with ground water shows an overall upgrading of the
groundwater quality. The concentrations of chloride and
nitrate ions in addition to other ions were found to de-
crease in groundwater in most mixing processes, reflect-
ing the overall enhancement of the quality of the original
Table 4. Mixing results of surface runoff water and groundwater of well F1054.
Solution 1 Surface Runoff Sample
Solution 2 Groundwater (F1054)
Percentage of Solution 1
Parameter 1.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.00
pH 8.04 8.09 8.08 8.08 8.07 8.07 8.01
T (˚C) 18.10 20.98 20.66 20.34 20.02 19.70 21.30
EC (μS/cm) 254.90 502.50 475.00 448.00 420.00 393.00 530.00
K2+ (mg/l) 4.69 4.96 4.93 4.90 4.88 4.84 5.00
Mg2+ (mg/l) 5.70 9.60 9.14 8.70 8.30 7.80 10.00
Ca2+ (mg/l) 27.45 18.90 19.90 20.84 21.78 22.70 18.00
Na+ (mg/l) 14.48 64.40 58.90 53.30 47.80 42.20 70.00
Cl (mg/l) 10.60 73.00 66.10 59.10 52.20 45.20 80.00
(mg/l) 15.40 27.60 26.30 24.90 23.50 22.20 29.00
(mg/l) 114.10 114.10 114.10 114.10 114.08 114.06 114.04
(mg/l) 3.51 1.25 1.500 1.75 2.00 2.25 1.00
Table 5. Mixing results of surface runoff water and groundwater of well F1274.
Solution 1 Surface Runoff Sample
Solution 2 Groundwater (F1274 )
Percentage of Solution 1 in the Mixture
Parameter 1.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.00
pH 8.04 7.55 7.60 7.66 7.72 7.70 7.50
T (˚C) 18.10 21.60 21.22 20.83 20.44 20.05 22.00
EC (μS/cm) 255.00 1600.00 1450.00 1301.00 1152.00 1003.00 1750.00
K2+ (mg/l) 4.69 23.86 21.70 19.60 17.50 15.30 26.00
Mg2+ (mg/l) 5.70 36.12 32.70 29.30 26.00 22.60 29.50
Ca2+ (mg/l) 27.40 112.50 103.10 93.60 84.10 74.70 122.00
Na+ (mg/l) 14.40 171.55 154.10 137.00 119.00 101.70 189.00
Cl (mg/l) 10.63 273.70 244.50 215.20 186.10 156.00 303.00
(mg/l) 15.36 358.00 320.00 282.00 244.00 206.00 396.00
(mg/l) 114.10 272.40 254.80 237.00 220.00 202.00 290.00
(mg/l) 3.51 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 1.00
Table 6. Saturation Indices (S.I) for different water samples.
Water Sample S.I
Rainfall –0.890 –1.050 –2.260 –2.930 –2.68 –2.17
Runoff (Flood water) 0.080 –0.070 –0.060 –2.870 –2.63 –0.90
Groundwater (F1274) 0.430 0.290 0.770 –1.220 –0.99 –0.31
Groundwater (F1054) –0.029 –0.175 0.096 –2.834 –2.60 –0.549
0.5 Runoff + 0.5 GW (F1274) (Mixing) 0.090 –0.050 –0.001 –1.570 –1.35 –0.66
0.5 Runoff + 0.5 GW (F1054) (Mixing) 0.035 –0.110 0.040 –2.830 –2.58 –0.715
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JWARP
6. Conclusions
Ten vertical electrical resistivity soundings (VES) have
been used to investigate the subsurface hydro-geological
conditions (to a depth of about 100 m) in Wadi Al-Butum
sub-catchments area for groundwater artificial recharge
purposes. Adjacent boreholes, historical and recent ana-
lyzed chemical analyses of rainfall, surface water and
groundwater of two aquifer types’ samples were also
Interpretation of geoelectrical data indicates the pre-
sence of near-surface potential layer of alluvial deposits
to store and recharge the shallow limestone aquifer. The
thickness of this layer was found to be 35 m in the west-
ern part of study area (beneath VES4) and around 10 m
at the most eastern part at VES7. Moreover, a highly po-
tential alluvial paleo-channel deposits (20 m) for ground-
water recharged is found at VES5. The results of hydro-
geochemical modeling, saturation indices and rock/water
interactions indicate an overall enhancement of the origi-
nal ground quality could be expected.
7. Acknowledgements
The author sincerely acknowledges Prof. Elias Salameh
from university of Jordan for the great valuable collabo-
ration and suggestions. Special thanks for my colleagues
Adnan Rizg, Mo’ns Al-Alwneh and Majdi Al-Sirhan for
their great cooperation during field works. Critical and
constructive review of the manuscript by the reviewers is
greatly treasured.
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