Wireless Sensor Network, 2010, 2, 467-471
doi:10.4236/wsn.2010.26058 Published Online June 2010 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/wsn)
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Research on Application of ZigBee Technology in
Flammable and Explosive Environment
Yang Li1,2, Ke Zhang2
1Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China
2Beijing institute of Petro-chemical Techmology, Beijing, China
E-mail: liyang@bipt.edu.cn
Received April 4, 2010; revised May 6, 2010; accepted May 15, 2010
Wireless Sensor Network based on ZigBee technology is a wireless network which is composed of many
nodes of ZigBee RF chips, sensors and MCUs, especially suitable for application of the remote monitoring
system in flammable and explosive environments. This paper presents the characteristics and advantages of
ZigBee technology, also discusses the system for hardware and software design. This system effectively ful-
fills the remote monitoring in flammable and explosive environments and posses high practical values.
Keywords: ZigBee, Wireless Sensor Network, Remote Monitoring, Flammable and Explosive
1. Introduction
In the oil, chemicals and other inflammable and explo-
sive production environment, it is essential to the pro-
duction site, some information (such as pressure, tem-
perature, gas concentration, etc.) for data collection and
transmission network in order to achieve remote moni-
toring and control. At present, widely used by cable way
through all kinds of information sent to the monitoring
center, however, most point of the scene to monitor geo-
graphical dispersion, environment, complex terrain, which
is encountered in many practical applications: 1) To set
up a qualified cable transmission network, there is the
complexity of the construction and implementation of the
difficulty; 2) In order to achieve all-round production of
effective environmental monitoring, dispersed layout must
be many types, the large number of nodes to monitor the
data acquisition, cable monitoring is often difficult to
achieve; 3) The cable monitoring system has its own
limitations, such as the laying of a high fixed cost of
communication lines. In recent years, the emergence of
ZigBee technology has provided some very good ideas to
solve these problems mentioned above.
In this paper, the ZigBee technology wireless sensor
network system for remote monitoring the production
environment of the explosive have been put forward and
designed. The system layout of the scene in the produc-
tion of the sensor node to all kinds of information can be
wirelessly sent to the central node, the center node of
data through GPRS or RS232 interface module to the
monitoring host (PC machine) for remote monitoring of
the production environment. The monitoring system has
the advantages of low cost, low power consumption, wire-
less transmission, and reliable communications.
1.1. ZigBee Technology
ZigBee is a relatively recent emergence of wireless net-
work communication technology, more than 100 well-
known by the global coalition of hardware and software
companies committed to the development of a short-
range, low rate, low-power wireless network standards,
the main development direction for the wireless sensor
networks, home automation, remote control, industrial
automation, agricultural automation, and medical care
and other applications.
1.1.1. ZigBee Technology Features
Construction of ZigBee-based wireless network tech-
nology has the following features:
1) Data transfer rate low: Only 20 k bytes/s to 250 k
bytes/sec, to focus on low-delivery applications;
2) Low power consumption: Due to the use of DSSS
technology ZigBee replace FHSS technology, and use of
hibernation wake-up mechanism for the work of ma-
chines, two on the 5th ordinary dry-cell batteries can be
used for 6 months to 2 years, which eliminates the fre-
quent replacement of the battery charge or trouble;
3) Low cost: because of low data rate ZigBee, the
agreement is simple and royalty-free, so greatly reduced
4) Network capacity: ZigBee Network Node Manager
468 Y. LI ET AL.
may be a number of sub-node, a node can manage up to
254 sub-node. At the same time, the node can be from
one network node management, can be composed of
65,536 large-scale network nodes;
5) The short time delay: delay-sensitive applications
for optimized, communication delay and activated from
hibernation is very short delay, typically 15 ms latency to
30 milliseconds;
6) Safety: ZigBee provides the data integrity checks
and authentication functions, the use of a common en-
cryption algorithm AES2128, while the flexibility to
determine their security attributes;
7) Reliable: the mechanism used to avoid collisions, as
well as the need for a fixed bandwidth communications
business set aside a dedicated time slot, when sending
data to avoid competition and conflict; node module au-
tomatically between the functions of dynamic network
information in the entire ZigBee networks the way through
the automatic route for transmission, thus ensuring the
reliability of information transmission;
8) Flexible working band: the use of the Channel
2.4 GHz, 868 MHz (Europe) and 915 MHz (USA), are
license-free band.
1.1.2. ZigBee Architecture
ZigBee protocol stack structure as shown in Figure 1,
IEEE802.15.4 responsible for the physical layer and
MAC layer protocol, ZigBee Alliance to develop the
network layer, application layer security services in-
terface and protocol, can be user-defined application
1) Physical Layer: the bottom is the agreement to as-
sume a direct role in working with the task of the outside
world, is responsible for the modulation data, send and
receive work. IEEE 802.15.4 in the physical layer (PHY)
defined two criteria, namely 2.4 GHz and 868/915 MHz
PHY physical layer. The band can be used in the respec-
tive channel 16, 10 or 1, each provision of 250 kb/s,
40 kb/s and 20 kb/s transfer rate, the physical layer are
used in various band direct sequence spread spectrum
2) MAC Layer: The IEEE 802.15.4 protocol definition,
the use of the CSMA-CA mechanism to avoid the colli-
sion, and its features include wireless links between de-
vices to establish, maintain and disconnect, to confirm
the frame mode to send and receive, channel access and
control, and rapid automatic Frame Check request re-
issued, reserved slot management and information man-
agement, such as broadcasting. The definition of a radio
frame layer, data frames, frames and MAC command
confirmation frame, such as four kinds of frame types.
3) Network/Security Layer: The main mechanism re-
sponsible for the establishment of networks and man-
agement, self-configuration and self-repair function, the
realization of the node to join or leave the network, re-
ceive or discard the other nodes, as well as to locate and
Figure 1. IEEE 802.15.4 stack.
transmit data routing functions, supports a wide range of
routing algorithm and a variety of network topology.
4) Application Interface Layer: is responsible for the
different applications mapped to the ZigBee network,
including security attributes to set up and a number of
business data flow and other functions together.
5) Application Layer: The principal objective is the
realization of the network communication between dif-
ferent devices, applications and settings for access to
information services, calls for the application layer pro-
tocol to provide continuous and discrete control applica-
tions and other support.
1.1.3. ZigBee Wireless Network Type
ZigBee network topology has three: star, cluster tree and
mesh type as shown in Figure 2. Among them, the star-
shaped network is a network-based control center, by a
coordinator node and a number of terminal nodes, terminal
nodes realized through co-ordination among the commu-
nication; cluster tree network has increased the concept of
routing, terminal node coordinator can not only access
node can access any node has a routing function, it has
routing node can not be direct communication between
each other only through the co-ordination of the routing
nodes between the completion of the communication; mesh
network to provide a more flexible mechanism, through
the self-organizing routing and wireless data communica-
tions to provide multiple paths, when the optimal commu-
nication path failure, a redundant mesh network in the
other path to choose the most appropriate the path for data
communication, therefore, effectively reduce the net-work
structure of information transmission delay and improve
the reliability of the network communications.
Know from the above, ZigBee network node from the
logic function can be divided into co-ordination, routers
and terminal equipment, and physical properties from the
ZigBee network nodes can be divided into full-featured
and simple equipment FFD function device RFD. Among
them, the full-function device can act as a coordinator,
router or terminal equipment, and can only serve as a
simple function of terminal equipment devices.
Each ZigBee network must include a co-ordinator, Zig-
Bee is the network coordinator of the center responsible
for the organization and maintenance of the network by
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Y. LI ET AL. 469
Figure 2. ZigBee topology.
adding a new node and the allocation of l6-bit short ad-
dress; Zigbee routers responsible for routing node, and
used to expand the scope of the network; and the termi-
nal equipment is to achieve a specific functional unit.
2. Explosive Production Environment
Remote Monitoring System Architecture
System structure shown in Figure 3, the entire system by
monitoring the host, GPRS module (or, a ZigBee co-
ordinator node, a number of ZigBee routers, ZigBee
nodes and a number of nodes of terminal equipment. This
is a cluster tree network structure is conducive to the
number of network nodes and the physical expansion of
the scope, complex, multi-node wireless network commu-
nication system is also an important reference value.
The co-ordination of the network nodes, network
management functions, the receiving terminal device
node for the data upload, and transfer through the GPRS
network to the monitoring center. Router nodes for rout-
ing of information transmitted, allowing other nodes join
the network. Node device to the network coordinator
from time to time collect information to send and receive
commands from the monitoring host. ZigBee module
used for GPRS networks and Internet networks, the In-
ternet (also available in other ways), the realization of
ZigBee network datas to monitor the upload and down-
load the host commands. Host real-time monitoring of
the collection, storage, monitoring and processing
equipment from a remote terminal nodes of information,
and can overrun the police at any time, such as setting
parameters for the production environment to achieve
effective monitoring and management, its functions are
divided into two major parts, 1) Data Monitoring: to re-
ceive from the ZigBee network information collected,
the corresponding data into the database; to receive in-
structions from the managers, and command frame for-
mat in accordance with the configuration commands,
GPRS module through the command issued to the Zig-
Bee network and do the action. 2) Data Management:
The database can be found, query data from the current
Figure 3. Structure of the framework of remote monitoring
ZigBee network information, such as: the production of
the ambient temperature, pressure, overrun alarm, such
as the peak period.
ZigBee end-node using the occasional wake-up call
from time to time work, time to wake up from hiberna-
tion to start data acquisition, ZigBee routing node to send
a message, send completed and then enter hibernation.
ZigBee routing nodes will collect the data sent to the
ZigBee coordinator node, gateway GPRS module through
the data uploaded to the remote monitoring center.
3. System Hardware Design
Explosive production environment is a remote moni-
toring system by a number of ZigBee network node.
Each node is basically the same hardware structure, but
not the same network layer. ZigBee hardware in each
node has two basic components: micro-controller and
wireless receiver send some. Hardware-specific features
into the single chip to achieve by the burning process to
To facilitate the design and cost savings, the system
uses a wireless transceiver and controller integrated with
the CC2430 single-chip solution module, the module
from a Norwegian company Chipcon is in line with
standard IEEE 802.15.4-chip ZigBee products. It incor-
porates a single chip ZigBee radio frequency (RF) front-
end, memory and microcontroller. It uses an 8-bit MCU
(8051), and 128 kb with a programmable flash memory
and 8 kb of RAM, also includes analog-to-digital con-
verter (ADC), 4 timers (Timer), watchdog timer, 32 kHz
crystal oscillator of the sleep mode timer, power-on reset
circuit, power-fail detection circuit, as well as 21 pro-
grammable I/O pin. Its block diagram is shown in
Figure 4.
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
470 Y. LI ET AL.
Figure 4. CC2430 structure.
CC2430 network, send and receive data is built on the
ZigBee protocol stack based on. If we are to use the
CC2430 ZigBee chip, first of all be familiar with the
ZigBee protocol stack (see Figure 1), based on the actual
needs of the application layer programming. At present,
TI has fully disclosed the ZigBee protocol stack CC2430
proceedings; it is relatively easy program development
process to achieve. FLASH memory in the CC2430 in
the internal processor to run the application, when the
system is activated, the chip will be stored in FLASH in
the program in the implementation of the RAM.
CC2430 chip with only a small number of external
components to send and receive signals will be able to
achieve functional, very simple and practical. ZigBee
nodes of the system hardware structure diagram as
According to actual needs of each node can choose a
number of different sensors (such as temperature, pres-
sure, etc.) to meet the requirements of the monitoring
points. Coordinator node GPRS module also need to host
and monitor connected to RS232 interface can also be
used to connect the host and monitor (if communication
from the close), chip-level conversion MX3232. Node
power circuit terminals using two alkaline batteries on
the 5th, as the coordinator node transceiver has been in a
state, so the use of external power supply.
4. System Software Design
ZigBee protocol stack to provide a number of Applica-
tion Programming Interface, such as aplFormNetwork (),
aplJoinNetwork (), aplSendMSG() function and so
Figure 5. ZigBee node hardware structure.
on, the user can call these functions to prepare their own
System Software primarily to achieve two basic func-
tions: 1) to achieve a co-ordinator node and other net-
work nodes and communications; 2) cycle to achieve the
various nodes and send sensor data acquisition.
4.1. Node Design Coordinator
Network as the network coordinator of the center is re-
sponsible for the establishment of a network, information
reception, aggregation, processing and sending control
instructions and implementation. Coordinator power to
start the procedure after the initialization, by calling the
function aplFormNetwork ()create a network, select a
Coordinator PANID as a network logo, create a routing
table, and then released to inform the other routers
broadcast frame or a terminal node The addition of node
equipment. Start by sending a GPRS module AT com-
mand set serial communication rate, the establishment of
data communication socket connections ready to begin to
send and receive data and instructions to implement var-
ious operations. Process flow chart is shown in Figure 6.
4.2. Terminal Node Programming
Terminal node network is mainly responsible for a variety
of information (such as temperature, pressure, etc.) to col-
lect data to send and receive commands to control the
implementation. End-node power-start initialization process
Figure 6. Flow chart of the program coordinator node.
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Y. LI ET AL. 471
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
by calling the function aplJoinNetwork () to join the
network, active and effective network of channel scan-
ning, the nearest coordinator to find a suitable node or
router node apply to join the network, access is approved,
the beginning of information gathering send and receive
instruction implementation. Terminal node to take a cy-
clical mode, do not work in a dormant, down, low-power
to achieve energy-saving effect.
Part of the node device code is as follows:
void main (void){
hallnit(); // hardware initialization
apllnit(); // protocol stack initialization
aplJoinNetwork(); // join the network
whileapsBusy()){ apsFSM();}
while aplGetStatus()=WXLPAN_STATUS_
while1 {apsFSM();}
5. Conclusions
In this paper, the design of ZigBee technology produc-
ion environment explosive remote monitoring system,
the degree of coverage cluster tree network structure,
node chip CC2430, has flexible, economic practicability,
design easy. If the target needs to be identified in accor-
dance with the actual sensor types and routers and the
number of terminal nodes, the system can be applied to
the production and living more occasions to address the
practical application of the cost of wired network cabling
is too high, not the arrival of the regional environment
kinds of information to monitor the problem.
6. References
[1] J. A. Gutierrez, “Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC)
and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low Rate
Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs), (IEEE
Standarted for Information Technology802.15.4.),” Insti-
tute of Electrical & Electronics, 2003.
[2] P. S. Neelakanta and H. Dighe, “Robust Factory Wireless
Communicat Ions: A Performance Appraisal of the Blue-
tooth and the ZigBee Collocated on an Indust Rial Floor,”
IEEE Computer Society, Vol. 3, 2003, pp. 2381-2386.
[3] Chipcon, “CC2430 Preliminary Data Sheet (Rev. 1.03)
SWRS036A,” Chipcon, 2005.
[4] R. Reese, “A ZigBee TM-Subset/IEEE 802.15.4 TM
Multiplatform Protocol Stack,” Electrical/Computer Engr
MSU, 2006.
[5] “ZigBee Protocol Specification,” http://www.ZigBee.org