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Potential of Power Generation Utilizing Waste Kinetic Energy from Vehicles 105
several new technologies are being developed or ad-
vanced toward commercialization, such as, fuel cells and
photovoltaic. In the past few years, power generation tech-
nologies have made a growing number of excited claims
that small generators will revolutionize the electricity gen-
eration sector.
On this background, the objective of the current re-
search is to draw the attention of decision makers to the
advantages of exploiting the energy from a new sources
by utilizing the kinetic energy of vehicles at low speed,
this speed is available in our cities, Universities, moles,
hotels and fast mea restaurants as examples. Harvesting
this energy and stored it in specific batteries so it can be
used for domestic applications because electrical power
systems have been traditionally designed taking energy
from high-voltage levels, and distributing it to lower vol-
tage level networks. There are many generation units con-
nected to transmission networks. Besides, distributed
generation units, local responsive demands, and storage
systems can be operated stand alone or integrated into the
electricity grid if the harvested energy is available con-
tinuously. In the last decade many countries have started
the process of liberalization of their electric systems, open-
ing access to transmission and distribution grids. The
electric power system map known as “distributed genera-
tion” is related to the use of small generating units in-
stalled close to load centers.
Many researchers have been conducted the electricity
generation and control from renewable sources, the most
available studies is: Essalaimeh et al. [2], carried out an
experimental investigation of the using a combination of
solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical
generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The
generated electricity has been utilized for different types
of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling.
Yilmaz et al. [3], studied an easy method for electrical
energy production by solar panels and this method ap-
plied to Gaziantep city in Turkey. Dondi et al. [4], re-
viewed the position of distributed generation (DG, as
these small units are called in comparison with central
power plants with respect to the installation and inter-
connection of such units with the classical grid infra-
structure. Angel and Bayod-Ru [5], electrical power sys-
tems have been traditionally designed taking energy from
high-voltage levels, and distributing it to lower voltage
level networks. [6] Fayyad and Al-Salaymeh, investi-
gated the issue of connecting renewable energy to tradi-
tional electricity grids. The problem originally started to
appear when renewable energy generators crave to be
connected to traditional grids; due to the facts that re-
newable energy generation in most cases is not stable and
varies from time to time. Naji [7], the potential of utiliz-
ing wind and solar Private Distributed Generation (PDG)
has been conducted for selected stations in Jordan. Wang
et al. [8], used a new unit commitment model which can
simulate the interactions among plug-in hybrid electric
vehicles, wind power, and demand response. Four plug-
in hybrid electric vehicles charging scenarios are simu-
lated for the Illinois power system. Zhenyu, 2007 [9], the
control of flywheel battery is researched using three
phase motor generator. Vector control method is used to
control the flywheel battery. Yiew et al. [10], studied the
feasibility of using a hybrid plant as com- pared to stand
alone solar and wind power plant , the efficiency of solar
powered system were studied for further improvement of
overall performance. Zeinab et al. [11], discussed the ef-
ficient system of sustainable renewable energy for do-
mestic used and its total cost, the study was a collection
of the basic solar radiation and wind speed and other
requirement data. Yilmaz [12], the possibility of using
the renewable energy sources and to find out the using
for environmental problems in Turkey was analyzed.
Several issues relating to the renewable energy, envi-
ronment and sustainable development are examined. Chal-
vatzis [13] examined the progress of the Polish electricity
sector throughout the last decades, providing useful in-
formation regarding not only the technical generation and
distribution infrastructure but also the policies that have
been and are currently implemented. Dongmin et al. [14],
Based on renewable energy resources system of the vil-
lage, their work expounds the basic structure and basic
equipment of village grid and ac distribution. Based on
the operation experience and multiple relevant national
standards, this work gives the professional conclusion
about quality of power supply, security requirements and
equipment’s functions, can provide a beneficial reference
to national standards of relevant fields. Wang et al. [15],
Proposed a new energy control strategy for a distributed
power generation system based on renewable. Jim Mc-
Donald [16], Presented a new work looks at moves to-
wards active distribution networks. The novel transmis-
sion and distribution systems of the future will challenge
today’s system designs for power systems Saqr and Nor-
Musa [17], they discuss the energy consumption trends in
the Malaysian road transport sector, with a special em-
phasis on the energy losses due to vehicle aerodynamic
drag on highways. The novel concept aims at providing a
sustainable and green energy source for the lighting of
the highway network in the country.
From the previous work it is clear that none of these
works conducted the power generation from the waste
kinetic energy extracted from the vehicles which is the
main aim of this work.
2. Materials and Method
When power introduced into the grid, the energy storage
acts as a damper and regulator in the electric network
[18]. Now, everyone know that a certain amount of en-
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. SGRE
Potential of Power Generation Utilizing Waste Kinetic Energy from Vehicles
106
ergy is lost when a car approaches and drives over a
speed; in order to harness this energy as its being spent.
The method of system design is based on drum installed
at the entrance of building such as hotels, moles and oth-
er places. When the drum rotates continuously when the
vehicles pass over it and the energy can be stored effi-
ciently so that it can be used when it's needed. Some
even say that the system actually causes vehicles to use
more energy to go over these types of speed bumps;
meaning that any electricity created is done so through
the vehicle consumed more fuel to achieve the desired
result. Aside from specially designed speed bumps that
can extract energy from slow-moving what makes this an
innovative approach is that it doesn’t force drivers or car
manufacturers to do any significant changes, such as
switching over to electric cars or other fossil fuel alterna-
tives. The system is more efficient to work at a heavy
traffic at slow speed.
2.1. Principle of Work
Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the proposed
model. As the tires rotate (4) the vehicle traction effort is
transmitted to the drum (3) at the point of contact, which
causes the drum to rotate in an opposite direction at a
higher rotational speed. Because of the speed ratio be-
tween the tire and the drum and the driving pulley (5)
rotates with the same rotational speed as the drum speed,
using a flat belt (9) the small driven pulley begin to rotate
with a higher pulley speed ratio. The second pulley (13)
will rotate at the same speed. Then, using a second flat
belt (7) the generator pulley (6) will rotate at a higher
speeds ratio. This causes the generator (8) to generate an
electrical energy which can be stored in battery (14) then
will be possible to use this energy for different applica-
tions such as street lighting, air conditioning units and
other domestic uses.
15
14
13
12 11 10 9
8
7 6 5
3
4
2
1
Figure 1. The proposed model designed for this investiga-
tion.
2.2. Theoretical Background and Design
Calculations
Before the system test, it is necessary to examine the pro-
posed design from the strength point of view in order to
validate its safe to work under variable load. Table 1
shows all elements of the system, properties of materials,
selection of proper material and the manufacturing proc-
ess on each item, the numerical example illustrated the
results for system strength and the load that can be used.
By testing the system using a vehicle type Nissan light
truck in the automotive manual workshop at two speeds,
the results of test are as below: The vehicle with the fol-
lowing specifications:
Mtotal = 1.3 × 103 kg
where Mtotal: the total mass of the vehicle in kg.
T = 116 N·m (from the vehicle manual)
where T: maximum engine torque.
0 axleG
eeee
(1)
e0 = 5 × 4 = 20
where:
e0: The overall speed ratio in the driving axle;
eG: Speed ratio in the gear = 5 (vehicle eaxle: speed ra-
tio in the driver axle = 4 (vehicle manual);
The tire radius: r = 0.33 m (vehicle manual);
The mechanical efficiency, ζmech = 90% (vehicle man-
ual);
The driving axis carries 2/3 of total mass;
The coefficient of friction between the tire and the road
surface, f = 0.7.
The load transmitted to driving axis:
3
21.3109.818500 N
3
W  (2)
The tractive effort at the contact point as shown in Fig-
ure 2
enginemech 116 20 906.3 KN
100 0.33
o
e
Te
Tr
 

(3)
2.3. Nominal Power Calculations
To calculate the nominal horsepower at driving pulley
[19]:
Hn = Te × V (4)
where V: pitch line velocity.
πd3.146 1000.19 m/s62.8 ft/min
60 60
n
V
 
Hn = 6.3 × 103 N × 0.19 m/s = 1.198 Kw = 1.6 hp
2.4. Pulleys Calculation
A leather flat belt was used with center distance of: Fig-
ure 3. Pulley design
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. SGRE
Potential of Power Generation Utilizing Waste Kinetic Energy from Vehicles
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. SGRE
107
Table 1. Elements of the system and material properties.
No Item Material Material properties Selection of proper material Manufacturing process
1 Drum Steel AISI 1020 Hold high stress,
ability for operating,
Cost, width of vehicle,
weight, radius
Turning, wilding,
Balancing
2 Pulleys Alloy steel Light weight, hold stresses,
ability for operating
Cost, radius, weight,
availability Turning, drilling,
3 Flat Belts Leather Hold speed and load, no
slipping and no noising, low cost
Cost, availability,
distance between pulleys
4 Bearing Steel Hold speed, load, forces, Cost, availability,
radius of shaft
5 Generator 12 V DC (L, R) Cost, availability
6 Shaft Steel Holding stress,
ability for operating Cost, availability Turning, cutting
7 Base Steel Holding stress,
ability for operating Availability Drilling, cutting,
wilding, grinding
ns = 2;
n1 = 60 rpm;
D1 = 10.6 in;
D2 = 2.4 in.
As shown in Figure 3, where:
D1: Diameter of driving pulley;
D2: Diameter of driven pulley.
From tables available in Shegly [19] the following data
are taken:
33 in
64
t (5)
Fd =60 Ibf/in;
γ = 0.04 Ibft/in3;
f = 0.4;
where:
Fd: The allowable tension of belt per unit width;
γ :Specific weight;
f: Coefficient of friction;
Figure 2. The contact betwe en tire and drum. t: The thickness of the belt;
The angle of contact of small pulley [19]:
D
1
.
D
2
C
110.6 2.4
π2sin 2.26
3.140.3048
180
2.83 rad2.83π
162
d

 



The angle of contact of large pulley [19]
Figure 3. Pulley design.
110.6 2.4
π2sin 2
3.140.3048
180
2.44 rad3.44π
197
D

 



C = 66 cm = 26 in which transmits a power of:
Hn = 1.197 kW = 1.6 hp
The service factor under different shocks conditions Ks
= 1.35,
Factor of safety
Potential of Power Generation Utilizing Waste Kinetic Energy from Vehicles
108
An open belt connection is used

2
21
42
D
d
LCDd Dd (6)


2
2
4.2610.62.4
1
3.4410.62.832.4
2
38.3443.35
81.59 in6.8 ft
L



where L: The length of belt.
The weight w of 1ft of belt is given in term of the
weight density γ as:
W = 12γbt = 12 × 0.04 × 7 × 0.24 = 0.1 Ibf/in;
b = 7 in, t = 0.24 in.
where:
b: The width of the belt.
63025
63025.1 1.61.251.1
60
1386 Ibf/in
nsd
HKn
Tn

 
where T: The torque of driving pulley.
2.5. Calculation of Belt Tension
From [19] the velocity factor = 1, the pulley correc-
v
C
tion factor
p
C = 0.7.
The necessary (F1)aF2 to transmit the torque T

12
22 4538218 Ibf
10.6
a
T
FFD
  (7)
where (F1)a: The allowable largest belt tension.
17600.7 294 Ibf
pv
a
bF CC (8)
The tension at the loose side
21 12
29421876 Ibf
a
FF FF (9)
The design horsepower:
1.481.3524 hp
dnss
HHkn
 (10)
2.6. The Drum Design
The drum is subjected to bending load of 12.75 KN in
xy-plane and the tangential load of 6.3 KN in xz-plane
Figure 4, in xy plane shows the sheer force and bending
moment diagram, the figure shows that the maximum
shear force acted on the shaft is 12.75 KN at the middle
of the shaft and the maximum bending moment of 653
Nm at the center of the shaft.
Figure 5 shows the shear force at xz-plane, the sheer
force acted at the center is 6.3 kN and the bending mo-
ment at the center of the shaft is M = 323 N·m.
Figure 5 also illustrates the moment and reactions
cted on the shaft a
102.5 cm 102.5 cm
6.37 KN
–6.37 KN
+
V
653 N
·
m
+
M
X
12.75 KN
Y
Ry
B
= 6.37 KN Ry
A
= 6.37KN
A B
Figure 4. Shear force and bending mome nt diagr am.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. SGRE
Potential of Power Generation Utilizing Waste Kinetic Energy from Vehicles 109
102.5 cm 102.5 cm
3.15 KN
–3.15 KN
+
V
323 N
·
m
+
M
X
6.3 KN
Z
Rz
B
= 3.15 KN Rz
A
= 3.15 KN
A B
Figure 5. Total moment and reactions for the drum in xz-plane.
222 2
total 6.373.157.1 KN
AyAzA
RRR
222 2
total 6.373.157.1 KN
AyBzB
RRR 
The total moment acted on the shaft
2222
total 653323728 Nm.
xy xz
MMM 
2.7. Calculations of Stress on Shaft
The drum or shaft subjected to
bending
M
C
I
(11)

444 4
0
45
ππ22 19.6
64 64
4252.6 cm4.2510m
i
dd
I



4
bending 5
653 0.0110.17 MPa
4.25 10

5
p
Tr323 0.0110.042 MPa
J24.2510
 

where:
stress
(MPa);
M: Maximum bending moment (MPa);
C: The distance from the outer fiber to the neutral axis;
I: Moment of inertia of shaft cross section;
τ: The torsion stress.
2.8. Strength Calculations
AISI 1020 HR steel used as the material of the drum.
With Sy = 210 MPa, Sut = 380 MPa.
The alternate component of Von Miss Stress is:
22 22
'30.173 0.0420.18
aaa

  (12)
The drum strength has a high value comparing with
Von Miss Stress; therefore there is no possibility to fail-
ure or yielding of shaft under loading.
Figure 6 shows the results of this work. When the
generated voltages plot versus speed, it is clear that when
the engine operates at the first speed the generated volt-
age found to be 14.15 V, as the engine operates at the
second speed the voltage increase to 14.35 V, with in-
creasing the speed, the voltage increased until it reach
steady state value of 14.6 V, this is the maximum volt of
generator. The steady state value appears because the ac-
tion of the voltage regulator in generator, it is necessary
to fix the voltage to prevent battery from damaging. High
voltage and current cause the battery to become too hot
and loose its effectiveness.
3. Conclusions
In this work, the converting of kinetic energy into elec-
trical energy was studied. The possibility to produce elec-
trical energy with different ranges by operating this sys-
tem has been achieved. This system depends on the
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. SGRE
Potential of Power Generation Utilizing Waste Kinetic Energy from Vehicles
110
Figure 6. Relation variation of voltage with speed of genera-
tor.
vehicle’s weight, when the weight increase the rpm of
the drum will increase. As the horizontal vehicle speed is
increased the rotational speed of the drum will be in-
creased. The effective rotational drum speed is (n = 35
rpm) at which the system starts to charging. The friction
between the tire and the drum increases when the vehicle
weight increases.
By the calculations it was shown that we need only
about 10% of vehicle attractive effort to generating a siz-
able amount of electrical energy. Also, the testing results
proven that the minimum effective vehicle’s speed is 20
Km/hr, this means that all of the vehicle going over the
system can be harnesses to produce the energy.
In the future there will be a large number of small gen-
erators connected to the distribution networks, small sys-
tems that can be combined with management and storage
energy systems in order to improve the operation of dis-
tribution systems. From an environmental point of view
the system is considered clean, reliable, and secure. If ef-
ficient planning and an optimum operation of the grids to
which the generation plants are connected are achieved, it
will be possible for this model to play a greater role in the
future, contributing to energy efficiency improvement, re-
duction in distribution cost, and power quality improve-
ment. The cost of the total system design, testing and in-
stallation reached about 640 JD (US $900) which is not
expensive when it used for a long term.
REFERENCES
[1] Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, “Annual Re-
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Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 2012, 3, 104-111
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sgre.2012.32015 Published Online May 2012 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/sgre)
1
Potential of Power Generation Utilizing Waste Kinetic
Energy from Vehicles
Wail Adaileh1, Khaled Al-Qdah2, Mayyas Mahasneh1
1Mechanical Engineering Department, Tafila Technical University, Tafila, Jordan; 2Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of
Engineering (Madinah Munawrah), Taibah University, Medina, KSA.
Email: wadaileh@yahoo.com
Received January 17th, 2012; revised March 6th, 2012; accepted March 14th, 2012
ABSTRACT
Energy generation has seen significant development in recent years. This investigation describes a new technique for
generating energy from the waste kinetic energy of the vehicles at low speed. A complete description of the system is
presented including the general concept, configurations, mechanical design, and electrical system. The system based on
the principle of drum rotation due to low movement or transportation of the vehicles driven at low speed at different
places such as moles, hotels, universities entrance and fast meals gates. The results show that this new technology could
provide an efficient and low cost method of generating electricity from vehicles and the generated electricity has been
utilized for different types of applications and mainly for street lighting, domestic uses such as air conditioning, lighting,
heating. Some major factors have been studied and practically designed and tested such as there is no possibility to fail-
ure or yielding of shaft under loading and the drum is more strength to bending and other forms of stress. It was found
through this work that the generated electricity of system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for
electrical and the vehicles waste kinetic energy is one of the renewable sources of energy which can be harnessed to
generate electricity. This system depends on the vehicle’s weight, when the weight increase the rpm of the drum will
increase. As the horizontal vehicle speed is increased the rotational speed of the drum will be increased. It was found
that the effective rotational drum speed (n = 35 rpm) at which the system starts to charging. The friction between the
tire and the drum increases when the vehicle weight increases. The reported results indicated that we need only about
10% of vehicle attractive effort to generating a sizable amount of electrical energy. Also, the testing results proven that
the minimum effective vehicle’s speed is 20 Km/hr, this means that all of the vehicle going over the system can be har-
nesses to produce the energy. The suggested model will be able to generate energy may be economically feasible to use
for a larger applications, and thus helps to reduce the costs of energy production. On the practical side we have been
able to produce and store electrical energy using this model at minimum speed of 20 km/hr, and the system is consid-
ered simple to install, inexpensive compared with other sources, safe, and has no bad impacts on the environment. Also,
the system can be modified and subjected to upgrading. The system total cost was found to be about US $900 and this is
an extra motivation to use this system.
Keywords: Harvesting; Waste Energy; Vehicle; Generator; Kinetic Energy; Electrical Power; Drum
1. Introduction
Jordan is relatively poor in conventional energy resources.
The long-term security requirement of Jordan is to reduce
the dependence on imported oil and natural gas and move
towards use of renewable energy sources [1]. Moreover,
the extensive fossil fuel exploitation results in atmos-
pheric and environmental pollution and led to some unde-
sirable phenomena represented by global warming,
greenhouse effect, climate change, ozone layer depletion,
and acid rain. It is therefore unlikely that any future en-
ergy scenario for Jordan will not include a significant
proportion of its energy to come from renewable sources
such as solar and wind energies. Utilization of renewable
energy is becoming essential to sustain people’s lifestyle,
reduce carbon emissions of greenhouse gases and lessen
the consumption of limited resources. The current global
economic uncertainties and the fluctuation of energy
prices are forcing countries and organizations to research
and develop more efficient green energy generation meth-
ods and many countries are working towards more inde-
pendence in relation to their energy supplies. Reducing or
eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transporta-
tion systems is a major element of energy research activi-
ties. Certain power generation technologies are not new,
such as, internal combustion engines and gas turbines. On
the other hand, due to the changes in the utility industry,
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