Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications, 2012, 1, 1-8 Published Online April 2012 (
Synthesis and Characterization of Poly Anthranilic Acid
Metal Nanocomposites
Irudaya Antonat Sophia1, G. Gopu2, C. Vedhi1*
1Department of Chemistry, V. O. Chidambaram College, Thoothukudi, India
2Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, India
Email: *,
Received March 1, 2012; revised April 3, 2012; accepted April 11, 2012
Intrinsically conducting polymer metal nanocomposites were synthesized by polymerising anthranilic acid (PANA)
with metal salts like ferric chloride, Zinc oxide and Magnesium oxide by chemical oxidation method. Polyanthranilic
acid-iron nano composite (PANA-Fe), Polyanthranilic acid-Zinc nano composite(PANA-Zn) and Polyanthranilic acid-
magnesium nano composite (PANA-Mg) synthesized were characterised by UV-Visible and FTIR studies. FTIR spec-
tra of polymer-metal nano composites showed peaks in the region between 1690 cm–1 and 1490 cm–1 which corresponds
to the deformation in different types of N-H bond. The participation of the -NH group in polymerization was confirmed
by the appearance of a peak around 3431 cm–1. Cyclic voltammetric studies revealed the presence of an adherent poly-
mer film on the glassy carbon electrode and showed redox behavior of the polymer metal nanocomposites. The XRD
(XRay Diffraction) studies showed a rather more crystalline behaviour of the nano composites and the grain size was
calculated using Scherrer’s formula and it was found to be in nano range. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) analy-
sis showed a rather mixed crystalline and amorphous behavior. EDAX (Energy Dispersive X Ray Spectroscopy) con-
firms the incorporation of the metals iron, Zinc and Magnesium in the polymer-metal nano composites. The inhibition
efficiency of the polymer-metal nano composites were calculated for stainless steel in acidic environment using elec-
trochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization (Tafel) studies and the prepared PANA-Fe and PANA-Zn
nano composites showed effective anti-corrosive behavior on stainless steel in acid medium.
Keywords: Poly Anthranilic Acid; Polymer Metal Nanocomposites; Cyclic Voltammetry; EIS; SEM; TEM
1. Introduction
For the past few decades polyanilines and substituted
polyanilines have emerged as efficient class of corrosion
inhibitors for mild steel (MS) and stainless steel (SS) in
acidic media. The passivation of the metal surface is re-
sponsible for the protective activity of polyaniline and
substituted polyanilines [1]. This was elucidated with po-
tential and polarisation measurements on stainless steel.
The general observation is that there is a significant po-
tential shift towards more noble values and an increase of
the polarisation resistance takes place [2,3]. Intrinsically
conducting polymers definitely possess promising poten-
tial for application in intelligent corrosion protection coa-
tings. Incorporation of metals and metal oxides in intrin-
sically conducting polymers (ICP) can enhance electron
transfer through a direct or mediated mechanism with
improved conductivity and enhanced stability. It has
been reported earlier that the formation of pitting corro-
sion [4,5] is inhibited by the application of conducting
polymers on SS surface. The protective behaviour of
conducting and insulating forms of polymers on SS has
also been reported earlier [1,6]. Insulating coatings act as
a barrier against diffusion to polymer/metal interface of
corrosive ions but conducting polymer coatings stabilize
the metal within the potential range of the passive region.
Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyani-
lines has been dealt with extensively in literature, but only
few papers pay attention to their parent carboxylated de-
rivatives [7-16]. Moreover, most of these reports are li-
mited to the study of the copolymers formed by either
chemical or electrochemical polymerization of aniline
and substituted aniline with o-amino benzoic acid (an-
thranilic acid) [7,8,10,12,16]. A comparison between the
homopolymers synthesized electrochemically from ortho,
meta and p-aminobenzoicacids was reported for the first
time by Thiemann and Brett [13,14]. The preparation of a
poly (anthranilic acid)-palladium nanoparticle composite
material by polymerization of anthranilic acid (AA) mo-
nomer using palladium acetate (PA) as the oxidant had
been already carried out earlier [17]. Poly (anthranilic
*Corresponding author.
opyright © 2012 SciRes. OJSTA
acid) was first reported as a self doped conducting poly-
mer and an efficient corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in
acidic solution [18] by Sudhish Kumar Shukla et al.
The aim of this work is to prepare poly (o-aminoben-
zoicacid) metal nano composites (metals introduced were
Zinc, Magnesium and iron) and study their electroche-
mical and corrosion behavior on SS.
2. Experimental
2.1. Materials
o-aminobenzoic acid (Aldrich), hydrochloric acid, potas-
sium per sulphate, ferric chloride, zinc oxide and magne-
sium oxide were used as such.
2.2. Synthesis of Poly (Anthranilic Acid)—Iron
Nano Composite
Anthranilic acid and ferric chloride was taken in the ratio
of 1:2. Ferric chloride itself acted as an oxidant. The mo-
nomer was dissolved in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and a
suitable amount of aqueous solution of ferric chloride
was added slowly into the monomer. The solution was
kept stirring for about 3.0 h at room temperature, it was
then left overnight in the refrigerator, after which the
brownish black powder obtained was filtered, dried and
was found to be soluble in dimethyl sulphoxide, N-methyl
pyrrolidine, diethylene glycol and sodium hydroxide to
give reddish brown solutions.
2.3. Synthesis of Poly (Anthranilic Acid)—Zinc
Nano Composite
Anthranilic acid (monomer), potassium per sulphate (oxi-
dant) and zinc oxide were taken in the ratio of 1:2:1. The
monomer was dissolved in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and
the aqueous solution of the oxidising agent was slowly
added into monomer and metal salt solution. The solution
was kept stirring for about 3.0 h at room temperature, it
was then left overnight in the refrigerator, after which the
brownish black powder obtained was filtered, dried and
was found to be soluble in dimethyl sulphoxide, N-methyl
pyrrolidine, diethylene glycol and sodium hydroxide to
give reddish brown solutions.
2.4. Synthesis of Poly (Anthranilic
Acid)—Magnesium Nano Composite
The same procedure was followed as done for Poly (An-
thranilic Acid)—magnesium Nano Composite using mag-
nesium oxide.
2.5. Characterizations
The solution of the polymer metal nano composites in
dimethyl sulphoxide was used for recording the UV-VIS
spectra. For recording the UV-Vis absorption spectra, a
computer controlled JascoV-500 spectrophotometer was
used. The FT-IR spectra were recorded using a SHI-
MADZU instrument. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pat-
terns were recorded for the powdered materials using a
BRUKER (D8 ADVANCE) X-ray diffractometer. The
polarization and impedance studies were carried out us-
ing electrochemical workstation (mode 650C), CH-In-
strument Inc., TX, USA. The polarization measurements
were carried out from cathodic potential of –0.7 V vs.
Ag/Ag+ to an anodic potential of +0.7 V vs. Ag/Ag+ with
respect to the open circuit potential at a sweep rate 50
mV· s –1 to study the effect of inhibitor on stainless steel
corrosion. The electrochemical studies were carried out
in a three electrode cell [19,20]. Pt was used as counter
electrode and silver-silver chloride electrode as reference
electrode. In the case of cyclic voltammetric studies the
polymer and the metal polymer nano composites were
coated on a glassy carbon electrode by dissolving a pinch
of the polymer sample in DMSO. For impedance studies
the stainless steel strip was used as the working electrode
and it was embedded in araldite, so as to expose a surface
area of 1.0 cm2. The electrode was polished successively
on the emery paper and then degreased with trichloro-
The charge transfer resistance was obtained from the
diameter of the semi circles of the Nyquist plots. The in-
hibition efficiency of the inhibitor was calculated from
the charge transfer resistance values using the following
equation [18]
I.E%100 ct
ct ctR
where and ct are the charge transfer resistance in
the absence and presence of inhibitor.
The surface coverage values (θ) were calculated from
the Cdl values according to the equation [18].
Surface coverage (θ) =
dl dldl
The corrosion inhibition efficiency from the polariza-
tion studies (I.E%) was evaluated from the measured Icorr
values using the relationship[18]:
I.E%100 corr
corr corr
where I0
corr and Icorr are the corrosion current densities in
absence and in presence of the inhibitor.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. UV-VIS Studies
UV-VIS spectra of Poly(o-amino benzoic acid) exhibits
three bands around 272 nm, 375 nm and 562 nm as
shown in Figure 1. The first (shoulder) about at 272 nm
is attributed to the JI-JI* transition for the benzenoid ring,
the band at 375 nm for quinoid rings and 562 nm for
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. OJSTA
Figure 1. UV-VIS spectra of (a) PANA; (b) PANA-Fe; (c)
PANA-Zn; (d) PANA-Mg nanocomposites.
polaronic transition due to the emeraldine state of the
polymer. This is in agreement with the results reported
earlier [18]. Introduction of the metals (iron, Zinc and
Magnesium) showed a slight hypsochromic shift in the
When Zinc is introduced, hypsochromic shift is ob-
served with peaks at 261 nm, 373 nm and at 570 nm. In
the case of iron added composites also hypsochromic
shift is observed with peaks at 262 nm, 368 nm and 565
nm, the shift is expected due to less conjugation along
the polymeric chain and the steric effect of the bulky
COOH group and the incorporated metal into the poly-
meric matrix. In the case of magnesium included com-
posites the peaks appeared at 266 nm, 372 nm and 565
3.2. FTIR Studies
The FTIR spectra as shown in Figure 2 shows the fol-
lowing bands for poly (anthranilic acid) namely a band at
3431 cm–1 (N-H stretching), 2615 cm–1 (O-H stretching),
1691 cm–1 (C=O), 1558 cm–1 (quinoid C=C stretching),
1506 cm–1 (benzenoid C=C stretching), 1450 cm–1 (stret-
ching of aromatic ring), 1373 cm–1 (C-N stretching for
secondary aromatic amine), 1247 cm–1 ( C-H stretching),
1166 cm–1 (N=Q=N stretching Q = quinoid ring), 1081
cm–1 and 1045 cm–1 ( aromatic C-H in plane bending),
821 cm–1 and 756 cm–1 C-H out of plane bending and
confirms 1,4 disubstituted benzene ring). This result is
similar to the one published by Rao and Sathyanarayana.
Yan et al. who had similar observations from X-ray pho-
ton spectroscopy for poly (2-aminobenzoic acid) [12].
Introduction of iron into the polymeric chain causes an
increase in the O-H stretching from 2615 to 2854 cm–1.
Appearance of additional bands around 675 cm–1 con-
firms the metal stretching (Further confirmed by EDAX).
In the case of PANA-Zn and PANA-Mg the bands were
almost similar to PANA indicating the absence of any
kind of chemical interaction between the polymer and the
Figure 2. FTIR behaviour of (a) PANA; (b) PANA-Fe; (c)
PANA-Zn; (d) PANA-Mg nanocomposites.
3.3. Cyclic Voltammogram Behaviour of
Polymer Metal Nano Composites
Cyclic voltammogram of PANA and its metal nano com-
posites were recorded by cycling the potential between
–0.2 V and 1.2 V in 0.1N HCl as shown in Figure 3.
Here appeared one anodic and a broad cathodic peak for
polymer. Similarly metal introduced composites also ex-
hibited anodic and cathodic peaks but potential of peaks
is different from polymer this might be due to incorpora-
tion of metal ions. As the scan rate increases the peak
current of polymer and polymer metal composites also
increased linearly, it is indicating an adherent film on the
glassy carbon electrode, this was further confirmed by a
straight line graph obtained by plotting peak current Vs
scan rate as presented in Figure 4.
3.4. EIS and Polarisation Studies
Electrochemical impedance measurements were carried
over a frequency range from 1000 Hz to 0.01 Hz at open
circuit potential. The simple equivalent Randle circuit for
studies is given in Figure 5. The presence of a single
semi circle (Figure 6) shows the coating acts as a barrier.
It is seen that introduction of metal atom increases the
values of Rct and reduces the Cdl. The charge transfer
resistance (Rct) value for bare SS is low (40 cm2),
whereas for the metal polymer nano composites it is high.
Also the decrease in Cdl is attributed to increase in thick-
ness of electronic double layer [19]. The increase in Rct
value is attributed to the formation of protective film on
the metal/solution interface. These observations suggest
that metal PANA composites function by adsorption at
metal surface thereby causing the decrease in Cdl values
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. OJSTA
Figure 3. Cyclic voltammogram of (a) PANA; (b) PANA-Fe;
(c) PANA-Zn; (d) PANA-Mg.
Figure 4. Plot of peak current Vs scan rate.
Figure 5. Electrical equivalent circuit.
and increase in Rct values. The charge transfer resistance
(Rct) and the interfacial double layer capacitance (Cdl)
derived from these curves are given in Table 1. From the
table it is clear that the Rct value increases gradually and
is maximum for PANA-Zn indicating that the PANA-Zn
film imposes a certain inhibition to the corrosion process
of the steel and then comes PANA-Fe. The inhibitor effi-
ciency for PANA- Mg and the polymer without the metal
is the same indicating that this metal composite is not a
Figure 6. Electrochemical Impedance spectra of (a) PANA;
(b) PANA-Fe; (c) PANA-Zn; (d) PANA-Mg.
Table 1. Rct, Cdl , I.E% and Surface Coverage (θ) for PANA,
polymer Rct(cm2) Cdl (µFcm–2) I.E% θ
Blank 40.00 211.1 - -
PANA 88.56 161.7 54.83 0.23
PANA-Fe 95.22 103.0 57.99 0.51
PANA-Zn 110.50 100.2 63.80 0.53
PANA-Mg 88.50 201.5 54.80 0.05
good inhibitor. The surface coverage value (θ) also is
higher in the case of Zinc when compared to Fe.
3.5. Polarisation Studies
The polarisation behavior of SS in 1.0 M HCl without
metal and with metal is shown in Table 2. Tafel curves
show that the protective action of the polymer metal
composite promotes a change of the corrosion potential
to more positive values for stainless steel coated with
PANA-Zn and PANA-Fe. The observations of the pre-
sent results pointed out the remarkable capability of
PANI-Zn and PANA-Fe to protect steel against corrosion
in 1.0 M HCl solutions. By comparison, it can be found
that the EIS data are consistent with the Tafel curves of
each PANA film-covered stainless steel electrode in
Figure 7.
3.6. XRD Behaviors of Polymer and Polymer
Metal Nano Composites
The X-ray powder diffraction patterns for the polymers
of o-amino benzoic acid as in Figure 6 are typical of
semi crystalline polymers. Polymers with high crystalli-
nity usually show higher conductivity. The particle size
was calculated using Scherrer equation [20]. In the case
of the polymer metal nano composites the particle size
was 2.0 nm. On introducing the metals the particle size
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. OJSTA
Table 2. Polarization data for polymer and metal polymer
nano composites.
polymer Ecorr Icorr I.E%
Blank –0.3247 19.27 -
PANA –0.1077 15.95 17.23
PANA-Fe –0.0817 12.15 36.95
PANA-Zn –0.0220 10.05 47.85
PANA-Mg –0.0980 15.18 21.22
Figure 7. Tafel plot for (a) PANA; (b) PANA-Fe; (c) PANA-
Zn; (d) PANA-Mg.
of the nano composites gradually increased. XRD pattern
as shown in Figure 8 shows a broad peak for PANA, in
the case of polymer metal composites the peaks are
rather sharp indicating more crystallinity and hence more
3.7. SEM and EDAX Behaviours of Polymer and
Polymer Metal Nano Composites
The SEM micrographs were used to investigate the mor-
phology of the polymer and metal polymer nano com-
posites. Polyanthranilic acid displays spherical shaped
structures (Figure 9). PANA-Fe shows an agglomerated
structure. The polymer metal nanocomposites especially
the PANA-Zn and PANA-Mg exhibits mixed granular
and agglomerates morphology which may result from
intramolecularly hydrogen bonded amino benzoic acid
units [21].
EDAX confirms the incorporation of Fe, Zn and Mg
into the polymer matrix as shown in Figure 9. Sharp
intense peaks were obtained in the case of PANA-Fe
composite. In the case of PANA-Zn composite, though
the peak for Zn was less intense, the incorporated Zn
provided better inhibition on SS. As far as PANA Mg
Figure 8. XRD of (a) PANA; (b) PANA-Fe; (c) PANA-Zn;
(d) PANA-Mg.
composite is concerned, the peak due to Mg is very weak
and its inhibition property is also almost similar to the
PANA as revealed from EIS and polarization studies.
3.8. TGA/DTA
The weight loss patterns in Figure 10 are in good agree-
ment with previous reports on polyaniline. The TGA
curve for PANA showed a rapid decomposition from
about 100 until about 800˚C. DTA curves showed endo-
thermic peaks around 95˚C, while exothermic peaks were
The first weight loss observed around is 125˚C and
250˚C due to loss of moisture, the second weight loss is
due to the removal of dopants and the weight loss after
295.64˚C corresponds to the decomposition of the poly-
mer [22-25]. In the case of PANA-Fe, the polymer metal
nanocomposite is stable up to 664.46˚C and after this
temperature it starts decomposing. In PANA-Zn the first
weight loss observed up to 200.24˚C is due to loss of
moisture and the removal of dopants and the weight loss
after 295.04˚C corresponds to the decomposition of the
polymer. In PANA-Mg the first weight loss observed up
to 204.18˚C is due to loss of moisture and the removal of
dopants and the weight loss after 296.26˚C corresponds
to the decomposition of the polymer.
3.9. TEM
TEM as in Figure 11 shows a light coloured crystalline
like structure as in PANA, when iron is introduced it
shows both dark (metal) and light coloured region (poly-
mer) tightly bounded crystalline with sponge like struc-
ture, when zinc is incorporated there is more darker gra-
nular structure indicating that more of zinc is incorpo-
rated when compared to iron. Magnesium used nanocom-
posites shows sponge covered granular like structure.
4. Conclusion
Chemical Synthesis of PANA, PANA-Fe, PANA-Zn and
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. OJSTA
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. OJSTA
Figure 9. SEM photograph and EDAX behaviour of (a) PANA; (b) PANA-Fe; (c) PANA-Zn; (d) PANA-Mg.
Figure 10. TGA/DTA curves of (a) PANA; (b) PANA-Fe; (c) PANA-Zn; (d) PANA-Mg.
Figure 11. TEM images of (a) PANA; (b) PANA-Fe; (c) PANA-Zn; (d) PANA-Mg.
PANA-Mg were successfully carried out. The characteri-
zation of the chemically synthesized nano composites
was done by using UV-Vis and FTIR studies. EIS and
polarization studies agreed very well indicating PANA-
Zn and PANA-Fe act as very good anti corrosive agents
for SS. CV studies revealed an adherent film on GC ele-
ctrode. SEM studies show a mixed granular morphology
in the case of Zn and Mg introduced polymer nano com-
posites. Thus the chemically prepared polymer metal
nano composites especially the PANA-Zn and PANA-Fe
can be used as an anti corrosive pigment for paints.
5. Acknowledgements
The authors are extremely grateful to DST (FAST TRA-
CK and FIST) New Delhi, INDIA for using CHI Elec-
trochemical workstation and Jasco UV-VIS Spectropho-
tometer. One of the author Irudaya Antonat Sophia thanks
to TNSCST for financial assistance provided for this
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