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Intelligent Information Management, 2010, 2, 306-315 doi:10.4236/iim.2010.25036 Published Online May 2010 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/iim) Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IIM Thermal Model of High-Speed Spindle Units Jeong-Du Kim1, Igor Zverv2, Keon-Beom Lee3 1School of Mechani c al Engineering, Sej o ng Uni versi t y, Seoul, South Kore a 2Crygenmash Co. Moscow, Russia 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic IV, Daejeon, South Korea E-mail: jdkim@sejong.ac.kr Received October 7, 2009; revised January 21, 2010; accepted March 8, 2010 Abstract For the purpose to facilitate development of high-speed Spindle Units (SUs) running on rolling bearings, we have developed a beam element model, algorithms, and software for computer analysis of thermal character- istics of SUs. The thermal model incorporates a model of heat generation in rolling bearings, a model of heat transfer from bearings, and models for estimation of temperature and temperature deformations of SU ele- ments. We have carried out experimental test and made quantitative evaluation of the effect of operation conditions on friction and thermal characteristics of the SUs of grinding and turning machines of typical structures. It is found that the operation conditions make stronger effect on SU temperatures when rpm in- creases. A comparison between the results of analysis and experiment proves their good mutual correspon- dence and allows us to recommend application of the models and software developed for design and research of high-speed SUs running on rolling bearings. Keywords: Thermal Model, High-Speed, Spindle, Unit, Rolling Bearing 1. Introduction SU thermal properties, besides the accuracy of rotation and static and dynamic stiffness, strongly affect the ac- curacy of machine tool. Heating of bearings caused by friction is one of the main factors limiting SU high-speed. Practical and analytical studies prove that when increas- ing rotational speed of SU, friction losses in bearings increase to high values, and this should be estimated when choosing the bearing and drive types. Thus, for example, the estimated friction losses in the bearings of SU of lathe (spindle diameter 90 mm) at 5,000 rpm can reach 2.9 kW after temperature stabilization [1]. Modern requirements to SUs make it necessary to es- timate quantitatively their thermal characteristics at early stage of development. Application of the well-known software complexes, such as I-DEAS, ANSYS, and NASTRAN, makes sense at final stage of designing, when details of structures are under consideration. The standard complexes based on application of Finite Ele- ment Method (FEM) facilitate simulation of SU geome- try, but give no opportunity to consider specific peculi- arities of SU structures (particularly, the type of bearing preloading) and conditions of operation (dependencies of SU heat transfer on rpm and temperature, viscosity of bearings’ lubricant on temperature, etc.). Besides, the standard software does not incorporate the models for numerical estimation of heat generation in bearings, and require a lot of preparatory work before usage. That is why, following the purpose to increase quality and efficiency of SU design process at early stage, we develop a thermal model of SU and specialized software intended for numerical express-evaluation of frictional and thermal characteristics of high-speed SUs in ac- counting for their structural and functional peculiarities [2]. In order to realize the model, we apply the universal beam element analytical diagrams of SUs for solution of the problems of statics, dynamics, and heat transfer of SUs (Figure 1). Using the software developed, we obtain the numeri- cal evaluations of the effect of operation parameters (rpm, external load, bearing preloads, parameters of lubricant, and heat transfer) on the friction and thermal characteris- tics of high-speed SUs of grinding and turning machines. We also perform an experimental study of friction and thermal characteristics of a SU of grinding machine us- ing a special rig and the standard instruments. Compari- son of the results of numerical and experimental studies obtained proves high efficiency of the model and soft- ware developed. J.-D. KIM ET AL. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IIM 307 Figure 1. Diagram of the complex model of spindle units. 2. Principle Statements of Thermal Analysis Thermal model of a system ‘SU-external medium’ pre- sumes estimation of the following characteristics: fric- tion losses (heat generation) in bearings; heat transfer from SU’s surfaces; temperatures and temperature de- formations of SU’s elements. 2.1. Assumptions and Conditions Used in Thermal Analysis When developing a thermal model of SU, we make the following assumptions: 1) The main source of heat generation in bearings is friction; 2) The heat generated in bearing distributes equally between inner and outer races; 3) The bearings are considered to be circular heat sources; 4) The temperatures of spindle and cylindrical housing are constant within structures’ radial cross-sections. When estimating heat generation in bearings and heat transfer from SU’s elements, we assume that: 1) Heat generation in bearings can be determined by hydrodynamic and load components of friction; at that, the lubricant viscosity depends on bearing temperature; 2) Excessive heat dissipates by means of free and forced convective heat transfer and heat conductivity of SU’s materials. 3) Thermal-physical parameters of heat transfer are the J.-D. KIM ET AL. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IIM 308 functions of temperature and rate of surface air-cooling; 4) Variations of clearance-tightness in bearings with temperature are the result of the differences of tempera- tures of SU’s elements, conditions of heat transfer, and differences in the properties of materials of spindle and housing. When developing analytical thermal diagram of SU, we use one-dimensional axial beam elements and radial ring elements. In Figure 2, we show the diagram of heat transfer and analytical diagram of SU mounted in bush- type casing. In result of heat generation in bearing, its temperature increases up to the moment when the generated and transferred heat becomes equal. This condition is as- sumed to be a condition of heat balance (stationary heat exchange), and can be represented in the form of equa- tion of heat balance: QB = QS + QH + QC (1) where QB is the quantity of heat generated in bearing; QS and QH are the heat outputs provided by spindle and housing, respectively; QC is the heat output provided by SU cooling system. Heat generation in bearing can be determined as the function of friction losses for given conditions of SU operation: QB = QB(MF, n) (2) where MF is the bearing friction torque; n is the spindle rpm. Heat transfer from bearings takes place in axial direc- tion along spindle and housing. Interaction of convection and radiation of heat can be estimated by the weighted average values of coefficients of heat transfer from SU’s surfaces. Determination of the coefficients of heat trans- fer for particular conditions of SU operation makes the main difficulty of thermal analysis. The corresponding analytical dependencies of coefficients of heat transfer on temperature and rate of air-cooling of surfaces are presented in [3]. The linear dependencies of coefficients of heat conductivity of SU materials on temperature (in the temperature band 20-100℃) can be obtained from the reference data presented in [3]. (a) (b) (c) Figure 2. Structural (a) heat transfer; (b) analytical; (c) diagrams of the spindle unit. 2.2. The Model of Heat Generation in Spindle Bearings Heat generation in bearings (friction losses) depends on many factors, estimation of which makes a complicated theoretical problem [4]. Since this problem is not solved, yet, we use the simplified engineering method by Palm- gren [5], which gives us the following formula for bear- ing friction torque: MF = M0 + M1 (3) Here, M0 is the hydrodynamic component of friction torque, which does not depend on load, but depend on rpm; M1 is the load dependent component, which does not depend on rpm. The friction losses NF (in W) equal to the power of heat generation QB in bearing, we estimate by the for- mula: NF = QB = 1.04710-3nMF (4) where the hydrodynamic component of friction torque: M0 = 10-7f0(n)2/3dm 3 (if n 2000); (5) M0 = 16010-7f0dm 3 (if n 2000). (6) Here, dm is the averaged bearing diameter in mm; (T) is the lubricant kinematic viscosity at the temperature T in cSt; f0 is the coefficient dependent on lubricant type (see Table 1). The load dependent component of friction torque: M1 = f1P c 0 P C dm; (for ball bearings) (7) M1 = f1Pdm, (for roller bearings) (8) Here, P is the equivalent load applied to the bearing in dN; С0 is the bearing static load carrying capacity in dN; c and f1 are the coefficients dependent on type of bearing and character of loading (see Table 1). The equivalent load can be estimated as follows: P = 0.9Pactg () – 0.1Pr; (for ball bearings) (9) P = 0.8Pactg (); (for taper roller bearings) (10) P = Pr, (for cylindrical roller bearings) (11) where, Pa and Pr are the axial and radial loads; is the bearing contact angle. In the case of double-row cylindrical roller bearing, we specify the friction losses by taking into account the bearing real clearance-tightness following the experi- mental results presented in [6]. For this purpose, we in- troduce the coefficient kr into the Formula (8), which takes into account the real radial clearance-tightness r (m), which varies with temperature and depends on thermal deformations of bearing’s elements: J.-D. KIM ET AL. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IIM 309 Table 1. Factors f0, f1, and c. Type of lubrication factor f0 Bearing loading factor Bearing type factor Bearings Oil-Air Grease Oil- InjectionOil-Circulation Oil-Dropf1 c Double-row cylindrical roller bearing 1.5 - 3 3 - 4 6 - 10 8 - 12 2 - 4 0.00025 0 One-row taper roller bearing 1.5 - 2 1.5 - 4 6 - 8 8 - 10 1.5 - 3 0.0005 0 One-row angular ball bearing 0.7 - 1 0.7 - 2 3 - 4 4 - 5 0.7 - 1 0.002 0.5 Double-row angular ball bearing 1.4 - 2 1.5 - 4 6 - 8 8 - 10 1.4 - 2 0.002 0.33 Double-row taper roller bearing 3 - 4 3 - 6 12 - 16 16 - 20 3.5 - 6 0.001 0 kr = 2 – 104r s d ; (clearance) (12) kr = 0.26 3 r 4 s Δ 210 d , (tightness) (13) where ds is the spindle’s journal diameter in mm. Variation of hydrodynamic component of friction losses in bearing M0 depends on the coefficient f0. In order to facilitate engineering analysis, we propose to use the limiting values of f0 for different types of bearing lubrication (see Table 1), which we obtained by gener- alization of the results of different studies [4,7]. At low and moderate loads applied to SU, the idle friction torque M0 makes the greatest part (up to 85-95%) of the bearing total friction torque. However, the components M0 and M1 interfere, since when the load increases, an increase of the load component M1 brings to an increase of the temperature, which, in turn, causes a decrease of lubri- cant viscosity, and, thus, a decrease of the hydrodynamic component M0. In practice, SU thermal characteristics can vary sig- nificantly, and this variation is caused by a number of factors effecting conditions of heat generation and trans- fer. Particularly, a significant effect makes the variations of lubricant viscosity and volume. When evaluating heat generation in bearings, we estimate the dependence of oil viscosity on temperature T (for the temperature band 20-150℃ using the following power dependence [3]: (T) 40m 40 T , (14) where 40 is the kinematic viscosity (in cSt) at 40℃; m is the exponent. Following the results obtained in Russian Scientific Research Institute for Machine Tools (ENIMS) [8] and applying the graphic ‘viscosity - temperature’ proposed by FAG Company [9], we can estimate the exponent ‘m’ by the formula: m = 2 1 1 2 ν ln ν T ln T , (15) where subscripts 1 and 2 denote the upper and lower values of temperature and viscosity of lubricant in the operation band, respectively. 2.3. Equation of Heat Transfer and Solution Method A solution of the nonstationary problem of heat transfer can be derived by applying FEM and solving the system of linear differential equations in the matrix form [10]: C T + HT = Q(t) , (16) where C and H are the matrices of heat capacity and heat conductivity of SU; T is the vector of unknown node temperatures; Q is the vector of heat load; t is time. The matrices of heat capacity and heat conductivity, we represent as follows: p e e1 CC ; p e e1 HH , (17) where Ce and He are the local matrices of heat capacity and heat conductivity of the element ‘e’; ‘p’ is the number of elements in SU analytical diagram. For the axial beam type and radial elements (see Figure 2), we obtain the expressions for local matrices of heat con- ductivity and heat capacity using the general integrals of FEM [10]. Thus, for a beam type element, we have: J.-D. KIM ET AL. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IIM 310 bT T e22 Ve 2 T 11 1 211 HBDBdVhNNdS 11 ηS1 hN NdS11 L 21 10 1PLhh S 12 01 6 S S (18) Ce b = 1 6cS1L21 12 , (19) where Ve is the element volume; S1, S2, and h1, h2 are the areas and heat-transfer coefficients of the face and side surfaces of the element, respectively; L is the column length; P is the perimeter of column cross-section; , , and c are the coefficients of heat-conductivity, density, and specific heat capacity of material, respectively. For elemental annulus, we have Formulae (20) and (21) 33 ji r ej1 2 ji i2 RR 00 11 2π Hη2πRδh 110 1 3RR 10 2πRδh00 (20) where Rj and Ri are the element external and internal radiuses; is the element thickness; h1 and h2 are the heat-transfer coefficients at external and internal surfaces of the element, respectively. The equation system (16) can be solved using the fi- nite difference method and applying the unconditionally stable central-difference diagram [11]. In order to do this, we replace the derivative in (16) by its approximate fi- nite-difference analogue T (Ti+1-Ti)/t. Here, Ti and Ti+1 are the values of temperature vector in the instants of time ti and ti+1; t is the integration step in time. Then, the equation system (16) takes the following form: (H + t 2 C) (Ti + Ti+1) = t 4 CTi + (Qi + Qi+1) (22) The system (22) can be solved by step-by-step calcu- lations within the time interval under consideration. At that, for each time step, we determine the matrix H and the vector Q following the conditions of previous step, and this gives us an opportunity to specify and vary the conditions of uniqueness of solution (heat-transfer coef- ficients, load, rpm, and lubricant viscosity) in time. Having the results of temperature analysis, we can start estimation of temperature deformations of SU’s elements. Thus, we calculate temperature elongation L of each one-dimensional element (column type or radial) using the formula: L = LT, (23) where L is the initial linear dimension of the element under consideration, is the linear expansion coefficient, T is the element excessive temperature. Variations of clearance-tightness in bearings with temperature are caused by the non-uniform heating and differences in linear expansion coefficients of materials of SU’s elements. Thus, variation with temperature of the radial clearance-tightness r in cylindrical roller bearing can be determined from the balance of displace- ments: r = d1 - d2 + d3 - d4 - d5, (24) where d1 is the thermal expansion of housing bush; d2 is the thermal expansion of spindle’s journal; d3 and d4 are the thermal expansions of bearing’s outer and inner rings, respectively; d5 is the thermal expansion of rolling bodies (balls or rollers). The temperature defor- mations d1, d2, d3, d4, and d5 can be calculated using the Formula (23). 2.4. Algorithm of Thermal Analysis In Figure 3, we present a flow chart of algorithm for SU thermal analysis, which incorporates the following main procedures. In blocks 1 and 2, we introduce the vector of initial temperature T0, the duration of thermal process , and the integration time step t, and calculate the matri- ces of heat capacity C and heat conductivity H of SU by summation of the local matrices. In block 3, we calculate the vector of SU heat load Q (the power of heat generation in bearings) as a function of the vector of current temperature T. The algorithm of bearing temperature analysis is of iteration type, since bearing temperature depends on heat generation in bear- ings, which, in turn, depends on the temperature via lu- bricant viscosity, i.e., Q = Q() and = (T). Heat bal- ance, as we mentioned in i. 2.1, takes place when heat generation equals heat transfer in bearings. In general case, in order to estimate both of these components, we need to introduce some initial temperature. In Figure 4, we present in general the process of successive approxi- mation to the searched bearing’s temperature TB, starting from some initial T0. In block 4, we solve the equation of SU heat conduc- tivity (16) reduced to the form (22), and determine the 523455445 r e54455 4325 2 2203012 355 3 πρc C3 5531230202 30 jjijii jjijii jjijiijji jii RRRRRRRRRRRR RRRRRRR RRRRR (21) J.-D. KIM ET AL. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IIM 311 Figure 3. Algorithm diagram of the thermal problem solu- tion. Figure 4. Heat balance in bearings. vector of node temperatures T. Besides, in the cycle, where we determine the temperature in dependence from lubricant viscosity, we check the condition of iteration process conversion. In order to do this, we calculate the absolute values of temperature differences at current and previous steps of iteration for each bearing. We assume that bearing temperature stabilizes, when the temperature difference dose not exceed 0.1℃. Our experience of computations proves that the estimated temperature sta- bilizes after 5-7 iterations, if to assume that initial tem- perature of the bearings is equal to the temperature of the environment. Then, in block 5, knowing the temperatures T, we calculate the temperature deformations of SU’s elements and the temperature variations of clearance-tightness in bearings. In block 6, we switch to another time interval ti+1 = ti + t. In block 7, we check, whether the process has rea- ched the given time . When this condition will be fol- lowed, we stop computations. If not, we recalculate the power of heat generation in SU’s bearings for the next time interval in accounting for the values of temperature and clearance-tightness in bearings calculated at previous step, and then, solve again the equation of SU heat con- ductivity (block 4) and determine the thermal character- istics of SU. 3. Investigation of Friction and Thermal Properties Using the algorithms and software developed, we made the numerical studies of friction and thermal properties of the SUs of grinding and turning machines and com- pared the results with those obtained in experimental studies. At that, we studied the effect of operation condi- tions (rpm, axial preload of bearings, external load, con- ditions of heat transfer from SU’s surfaces, type of bear- ing lubrication, and lubricant viscosity) and checked the validity of mathematical models and software developed. The experimental study of a grinding machine’s SU (Figure 2) we carried out using a rig presented in Fig- ure 5. The SU was mounted in the air bearing designed for measurements of the bearing friction torque using a thread, one end of which was attached to a strain-gauge transducer, and the other one - to the SU’s housing. The strain-gauge transducer signal was amplified by KWS-73 (Hettynger Co) and, then, inputted to the spectrum ana- lyser 2031 (B & K Co.). The spindle was rotated by a belt Figure 5. Layout of the experimental rig. J.-D. KIM ET AL. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IIM 312 drive using DC motor. The spindle was constantly radial loaded by a contactless electromagnetic loading device. The SU bearings were axially preloaded with the help of a calibrated spring and a special screw device in the housing to adjust a variable number of working spring coils. The SU temperature we measured using a contact type thermometer (SKF Co.), which provided the accu- racy of temperature measurements within 1 ℃ in the temperature band from – 40 to + 120℃. In order to measure the temperature of the front bearing, the SU’s housing was drilled through, and the temperature gauge was placed inside the hole. The bearings were lubricated by grease NBU15 (Kluber Co.) having viscosity 13.7 cSt at 40℃. Before the tests, the SU was run-in at 5,000 rpm at idle for 4 hours (Figure 6). From Figure 6(a) it follows that in process of run-in and lubricant mixing, the lubricant viscosity decreases with temperature, and the friction torque decreases ap- proximately in 2.5 times during the first 1.5-2 hours of (a) (b) Figure 6. Aggregate friction torque (a) and temperature (b) in time. (a) friction torque of the bearings; (b) temperature of the front bearing. SU operation. The bearing temperature stabilization takes place approximately at the same time (Figure 6(b)). The dependencies of stabilized total friction torque of SU’s bearings on rpm and radial load Pr are presented in Figure 7(a) (for the bearing axial preload 290 N). It follows that at idle (Pr = 0), an increase of rpm brings to decrease of the torque increment (which is caused, besides the other reasons, by an increase of tem- perature and decrease of lubricant viscosity), and this does not happen when the spindle is heavy loaded in radial direction (Pr = 800 N). We explain it by the fact that an additional radial loading of high-speed SU brings to loose contacts of a part of bearing’s balls with the races, and, thus, to gyroscopic sliding of the balls that increases the friction losses (hydrodynamic component of friction torque). When increasing the bearing preload up to 500 N, the destabilizing effect of radial load on friction torque decreases, because the preload increases (a) (b) Figure 7. Experimental aggregate friction torque of the bearings related to rpm. (a) bearing preload 290 N; (b) bearing preload 500 N. J.-D. KIM ET AL. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IIM 313 the loads at balls’ contacts and eliminates gyroscopic sliding (Figure 7(b)). In Figure 8, we present the dependencies of estimated friction torque (Figure 8(a)) and the calculated and measured temperatures of SU’s front bearing (Figure 8(b)) on rpm (at idle, i.e., when Pr = 0, for the axial pre- load 290 N). We can see that the dependence of bearing temperature on rpm is close to linear. The maximal rela- tive error of bearing temperature calculation at the max- imum 25,000 rpm makes 13.5%, and this can be consid- ered to be a satisfactory result in engineering analysis. From contact-hydrodynamic theory of lubrication [12], it follows that lubricant viscosity and amount, as well as the type of lubrication significantly influence on the fric- tion losses in rolling bearings. That is why improving the parameters and systems of bearing lubrication at present is one of the principle means to increase SU high-speed [8]. In Figure 9(a), we present the results of numerical es- timation of the effect of oil viscosity on SU’s ball bear- (a) (b) Figure 8. Aggregate friction torque (a) and temperature (b) related to rpm. (a) friction torque of the bearings; (b) tem- perature of the front bearing. ing temperature. In Figure 9(b), we present the results of estimation of the effect of lubrication type on the SU’s bearing maximum temperature. From Figure 9 it follows that the effect of lubricant parameters on bearing temperature increases with in- crease of rpm. Thus, variation in lubricant viscosity brings to more serious variation in temperature at high rpm (see Figure 9(a)). We can see that at 25,000 rpm (Figure 9(b)), SU lubrication with oil-mist (oil-air mix- ture), reduces the bearing temperature approximately in two times with respect to lubrication with oil. The lubri- cant volume should be adjusted with rpm to minimize excessive heating. A numerical evaluation of the effi- ciency of so-called ‘minimum’ lubrication is presented in [13]. The bearing temperature is greatly influenced by the factor of convective heat transfer from SU’s surfaces. Our analysis proves that at low rpm spindle accepts ap- proximately 20-30% of heat generated in bearings. At high rpm, this figure increases up to 45-55% because of the increase (in the power 0.7) of heat transfer from the open rotating air-cooled surfaces. When making numeri- cal experiments (as shown in Figure 10), we varied the heat-transfer coefficient of SU housing of grinding ma- chine within 20 W(m-2℃-1) (that is typical for natural cooling) and 200 W(m-2℃-1) (that is typical for forced cooling). The results of analysis show that a significant increase of heat transfer from the housing surface can bring to decrease of bearing temperature by 7-8℃ at the rela- tively low rpm (5,000 rpm) and by 20-22℃ at the high rpm (20,000 rpm). At that, the share of heat transferred by the housing increases up to 80%. A general analysis that we made to study the heat transfer conditions proves high efficiency of this method to bearing temperature decrease. In SUs with double-row roller bearings, the character of dependence of temperature on rpm can turn to be non- linear. In the SU assembly, a mounting radial clearance in double-row roller bearings should be provided. At that, when the rpm increases, and the heat generated in bear- ings increases, as well, a non-uniform heating of the housing and spindle usually brings to a decrease of clearance, which can transform to tightness (Figure 11(a)). When the tightness appears, the friction losses in bearing increase drastically (according to the Formula (13), the dependence has the power 3), and the tempera- ture increases (see Figure 11(b)) too. The temperature increase with rpm has a dual charac- ter. If in the result of heating the clearance does not transform into the tightness, the dependence of tempera- ture on rpm keeps linear, but if the transform takes place, the temperature increases drastically. In Figure 11, we can see that it happens at 5,500 rpm (if the mounting clearance is 5 m). The transformation of clearance into J.-D. KIM ET AL. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IIM 314 (a) (b) Figure 9. Temperature of the front bearing related to rpm. (a) effect of lubricant viscosity; (b) effect of lubrication type. Figure 10. Temperature of the front bearing related to heat transfer co e f f icient. (a) (b) Figure 11. Real clearance-tightness (a) and temperature (b) related to rpm. (a) clearance-tightness of the front roller bearing; (b) temperature of the front roller bearing. tightness in SU’s bearings, in turn, can bring to the changes of elastic-deformation and dynamic properties of SU (see Figure 1). Thus, the mounting clearance in rolling bearings operating at high rpm should be chosen based on preliminary analysis, and this is of great prac- tical importance. Availability of the SU thermal model even gives us an opportunity to simulate and predict heat ‘seizure’ in cylindrical roller bearings, which can be caused by a drastic increase of friction losses and temperature in result of the transformation clearance- tightness. 4. Conclusions Having a purpose to improve quality of designing of high-speed SUs on rolling bearings, we have developed a SU thermal model, which is one element of a SU com- plex model. We represented the thermal model as soft- ware for express analysis of SUs at the initial stage of designing. The thermal model incorporates a model of heat generation in bearings, a model of heat transfer from J.-D. KIM ET AL. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IIM 315 bearings, and the models for evaluation of temperature and temperature deformations of SU elements. The model is based on application of beam type finite ele- ment analytical diagrams of SUs to apply them for solu- tion of problems of statics, dynamics, and heat conduc- tion, which is of a great importance for practical realiza- tion of our complex approach to simulation of SUs in designing. We have made the experimental studies and the nu- merical estimations of the effect of operation conditions on the friction and thermal properties of SUs of grinding and turning machines. We found out that the dependence of ball bearing temperature on rpm is approximately lin- ear. In the SUs running on double-row roller bearings in the case of small preliminary radial clearance, an in- crease of rpm can bring to a temperature ‘jump’ caused by a transformation of clearance into tightness followed by drastic increase of heat generation in the bearing. Under minor external loads, an increase of rpm brings to a decrease of friction torque increment, but this dose not happen under significant external radial loads and low preloads in ball bearings. The effect is caused by un- loading a part of balls in the bearing loaded by heavy radial force, and the ball gyroscopic sliding followed by an increase of friction losses. The lubricant parameters and the parameters of SU cooling make stronger effect on bearing temperature when rpm increases. The com- parisons of the results of calculations and tests made prove efficiency of the thermal model and its applicabil- ity for SU design. 5. References [1] Z. M. Levina, I. G. Gorelik, I. A. Zverev and A. P. Segida, “Computer Analysis of Elastic-Deformation, Dynamic, and Temperature Characteristics of Spindle Units at De- signing,” Proceedings of Moscow Research Institute of Machine Tools, Russia, 1989, pp. 3-89. [2] I. A. Zverev and A. V. Push, “Spindle Units: Quality and Reliability at Designing,” Moscow State University of Technology Press, Russia, 2000. [3] A. I. Leontiev, “The Theory of Heat Interchange,” High School, Moscow, 1979. [4] N. A. Spitsin and S. G. Atras, “Friction Losses in Rolling Bearings,” Proceedings of Moscow Institute of Bearing Industry, Russia, 1966, pp. 121-130. [5] A. C. Palmgren, “Grundlage der Waelzlagertechnik,” Auflage, Stuttgart, 2000. [6] A. M. Figatner, “The Effect of Radial Clearance-Tight- ness of Roller Bearings of Precise Spindle Units,” Jour- nal of Machines & Cutting Tools, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1967, pp. 15-18. [7] K. G. Gan and L. M. Zaitov, “Dependence of Friction Torque of High-Speed Ball Bearing on Rotation Speed and Axial Preloading,” Bulletin of Machine Industry, Vol. 11, No. 5, 1988, pp. 21-23. [8] V. I. Dzuba, “Effective Lubricant Systems for High- Speed Spindle Units on Rolling Bearings,” Ph.D. Desser- tation, Moscow Research Institute of Machine Tools, Moscow, 1985. [9] K. Brandlein, “Machining Spindle and its Bearings,” Proceedings of the Symposium of FAG Company, Mos- cow Research Institute of Machine Tools, Moscow, 1985, pp. 52-78. [10] L. J. Segerind, “Applied Finite Element Analysis,” John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York/London/Sydney/Toronto, 1976. [11] G. Forsythe, M. Malcoln and C. Moler, “Computer Methods for Mathematical Computations,” Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersy, 1977. [12] D. S. Kodnir, “Contact Hydrodynamics of Lubrication,” Mashinosrtoenie, Moscow, 1979. [13] A. I. Smirnov, “Optimisation of Lubrication Systems of High-Speed Spindle Units,” Proceedings of Moscow En- gineering Research Institute, Moscow, 1979, pp. 3-69. |