Vol.1, No.1, 17-23 (2010)s
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/as/
Agricultural Science
Effects of different priming treatments and priming
durations on germination percentage of parsley
(Petroselinum crispum L.) seeds
Atilla Dursun*, Melek Ekinci
Atatürk University, Agriculture Faculty, Department of Horticulture, Erzurum, Turkey; *Corresponding Author: atilladursun@hotmail.com
Received 16 March 2010; revised 15 April 2010; accepted 20 April 2010.
The effects of different priming treatments and
priming durations on germination percenta ge at
different temperatures in parsley seeds were
studied. The seeds were treated for 2, 4, 6 and 8
days with the PEG 6000 (0.5 MPa, 1.0 MPa and
1.5 MPa), KNO3 (0.30 mol/L and 0.35 mol/L),
Mannitol (0.50 mol/L and 0.60 mol/L) and hy-
dropriming (12h, 24h, 36h and 48h) and un-
primed (control). Germination studies were
made at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25°C. Percentage of
germination at different temperatures was sig-
nificantly affected by priming treatments. Hy-
dropriming (12h, 24h and 36 h) and mannitol
0.60 mol/L at 2 day generally had the highest
germination percentages. In general, the high-
est germination percentage with priming was
determined at 10°C. It may be said that seed
priming treatments increased seed germination
percentage at both low and high temperatures.
The highest germination percentages were ob-
served in both hydropriming and mannitol
treatments as compared with PEG and KNO3
treatments. The PEG and KNO3 (2 and 4 days)
treatments were better than unprimed treatment
in all of the temperatures.
Keywords: Parsley; Germination Percentage;
Seed Priming; PEG; KNO3; Hydropriming
Vegetables are important for human nutrition and its
importance is getting increase in all around of the world.
Good and high crop establishment is one of the major
challenges to crop production in the world and its im-
portance is recognized by farmers as well as researchers
[1,2]. Constraints to good crop establishment include
poor seedbed preparation, low quality seed, untimely
seed sowing, and adverse weather conditions after sow-
ing [2,3]. To improve vegetable stand establishment,
priming techniques including osmopriming, solid matrix
priming and hydropriming can be used. Seed priming is
a pre-sowing physiological seed enhancement treatment
involving the controlled hydration of seeds. Hydration is
sufficient to allow pregerminative metabolic activation
to take place, but insufficient to allow radicle protrusion
through the seed coat [4]. This technique has been used
in some vegetable seeds to increase the seed vigor, the
germination speed, total germination rate and seedling
uniformity, mainly under unfavorable environmental
conditions. The technique can lead to better crop stands
and higher crop yields [5,6].
Seed germination and emergence of parsley growing
period especially in early spring, summer and late au-
tumn are critical. Parsley is one of the most important
vegetable that seed germination has taken long time and
it is difficult to be germinated it especially under unfa-
vorable environmental conditions [7]. The germination
percentage of parsley seed is lower than 55-75% in these
kinds of conditions [8]. Thus, slow emergence and low
emergence rate lead to smaller seedlings [9]. However,
uniformity and rapidity of seed germination and emer-
gence are essential to increase yield, quality and profits
in crops [9,10]. For this reason, seed priming techniques
have recently been used for many plant species to in-
crease crop stands and higher yields [11]. Also, it is re-
ported that seed priming is a suitable method of shorten-
ing the time to early crops and obtain flexibility in proc-
essing plant schedules [12].
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of
different priming treatments and durations on germina-
tion percentage of parsley seeds.
The experiment was carried out at the Horticultural Re-
search Laboratory at the Agricultural Faculty of Ataturk
University. D’Giant İtaliana parsley seeds were treated at
A. Dursun et al. / Agricultural Sciences 1 (2010) 17-23
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/as/
2, 4, 6 and 8 day with PEG 6000 (–0.5 MPa, –1.0 MPa
and –1.5 MPa), KNO3 (0.30 mol/L and 0.35 mol/L),
mannitol (050 mol/L and 0.60 mol/L) and hydropriming
(12h, 24h, 36h and 48h) and non primed (control). The
experiment was conducted in growth cabinet at five
temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25°C) with four replicates of
25 seeds placed on two sheets of filter paper and with
deionized water. The number of germinated seeds was
recorded and removed daily. The experiment was made
based on a completely randomized design. All data were
subjected to a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
and separated by LSD0.05.
Seed germination was significantly affected by priming
treatments at different temperatures (Ta b le 1, Figures 1
-5). Hydropriming (12 h, 24 h and 36 h) and mannitol
0.60 mol/L at 2 day had generally the highest germina-
tion percentages. In general, the highest seed germina-
tion percentage with priming was determined at 10°C
(Table 1, Figure 2). If temperatures were separately
evaluated, it could be seen that the highest seed germi-
nation percentage was obtained from hydropriming (12h,
24h and 36 h) and mannitol 0.60 mol/L at 2 day at 5°C
(Ta b l e 1 , Figure 1); from hydropriming (12h and 24h),
mannitol 0.60 mol/L at 2 day and –1.5 MPa PEG / 2 day
at 10°C (Ta b l e 1, Figure 2); from hydropriming (48 h)
and mannitol 0.50 mol/L (2 day) and 0.60 mol/L (2 day)
at 15°C (Ta ble 1, Figure 3); from hydropriming (24 h),
–1.0 MPa PEG / 4 day and –1.5 MPa PEG / 2 day at 20°C
(Table 1, Figure 4); from hydropriming (24 h and 48 h)
at 25°C (Table 1, Figure 5). It was determined that seed
priming treatments increased seed germination percent-
age at both low and high temperatures in the presented
Table 1. Effect of seed priming on germination percentage of parsley at different temperatures (%).
***: Significantly important at p < 0.001.
Applications 5°C 10°C 15°C 20°C 25°C Mean
Control 30.75 klm*** 69.25 fgh *** 77.25 a-d *** 28.00 i ***49.25 g *** 50.90 jkl ***
Hydropriming 12 h 88.00 a 90.00 a 78.00 abc 61.25 abc 63.00 def 76.05 a
24 h 73.50 cd 83.25 a-d 74.75 a-e 69.25 a 77.25 a 75.60 a
32 h 84.00 ab 81.25 bcd 80.00 ab 62.75 abc 69.25 bcd 75.45 a
48 h 65.50 ef 76.00 def 82.50 a 53.00 de 77.25 a 70.85 bc
–0.5 MPa PEG 2 day 60.00 fg 77.25 cde 69.50 c-g 64.00 abc 72.00 abc 68.55 cde
4 day 32.00 kl 63.25 h 45.25 lm 61.25 abc 61.25 ef 52.60 ijk
6 day 21.00 nop 65.25 gh 56.00 jk 46.75 ef 65.25 cde 50.85 jkl
8 day 9.50 q 40.00 j 26.00 o 37.00 gh 45.25 gh 31.55 o
–1.0 MPa PEG 2 day 59.00 fg 80.75 bcd 73.25 b-f 63.00 abc 71.00 abc 69.4 bcd
4 day 46.75 hij 70.75 e-h 60.00 h-k 66.00 a 68.50 bcd 62.40 h
6 day 28.00 k-n 54.75 i 53.00 kl 41.00 fgh 61.50 ef 47.65 lm
8 day 28.00 k-n 39.00 j 30.00 no 36.00 h 40.00 h 34.60 n
–1.5 MPa PEG 2 day 62.75 ef 84.00 abc 73.00 b-f 68.00 a 72.00 abc 71.95 b
4 day 48.00 hij 65.50 gh 69.00 d-h 63.00 abc 73.00 ab 63.7 gh
6 day 33.25 k 68.00 gh 46.50 lm 52.00 de 70.50 abc 54.05 ij
8 day 25.00 l-o 46.00 j 31.00 no 38.00 gh 42.00 h 36.4 n
KNO3 0.30 mol/l 2 day 65.00 ef 68.00 gh 63.00 g-j 65.25 ab 63.00 def 64.85 fgh
4 day 43.25 ij 70.00 e-h 62.75 g-j 41.00 fgh 51.50 g 53.80 ij
6 day 23.50 mno 44.00 j 46.00 lm 48.00 ef 65.25 cde 45.35 m
8 day 30.00 klm 43.00 j 34.75 n 23.25 i 22.00 j 30.60 op
KNO3 0.35 mol/l 2 day 66.75 def 65.50 gh 64.50 f-j 63.00 abc 70.75 abc 66.10 d-g
4 day 50.00 hi 53.50 i 60.50 g-k 44.50 fg 48.50 g 51.40 jk
6 day 16.00 pq 45.50 j 30.50 no 42.75 fgh 48.50 g 36.65 n
8 day 19.50 op 44.00 j 27.50 no 21.00 i 29.00 i 28.20 p
Mannitol 0.50 mol/l 2 day 69.25 de 77.50 cde 82.75 a 63.00 abc 69.25 bcd 72.35 b
4 day 59.50 fg 81.50 bcd 68.00 e-h 57.50 bcd 69.00 bcd 67.10 def
6 day 69.00 de 72.50 efg 61.50 g-k 57.00 cd 68.50 bcd 65.70 efg
8 day 53.50 gh 71.00 e-h 43.00 m 57.00 cd 50.00 g 54.90 i
Mannitol 0.60 mol/l 2 day 80.50 bc 86.50 ab 83.50 a 65.00 abc 71.00 abc 77.30 a
4 day 73.50 cd 80.00 bcd 67.00 e-i 62.00 abc 59.00 ef 68.30 cde
6 day 65.00 ef 40.00 j 60.50 g-k 57.00 cd 57.50 f 62.00 h
8 day 41.50 j 56.50 i 58.50 ijk 35.50 h 58.50 ef 50.10 kl
LSD %5 6.87 6.73 7.63 6.74 5.90
Mean (LSD %5: 1.17) 49.11e*** 66.17 a 58.77 c 51.91 d 59.98 b LSD %5: 3.01
A. Dursun et al. / Agricultural Sciences 1 (2010) 17-23
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Figure 1. Effect of seed priming on germination percentage of parsley at 5°C.
Figure 2. Effect of seed priming on germination percentage of parsley at 10°C.
A. Dursun et al. / Agricultural Sciences 1 (2010) 17-23
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Figure 3. Effect of seed priming on germination percentage of parsley at 15°C.
Figure 4. Effect of seed priming on germination percentage of parsley at 20°C.
A. Dursun et al. / Agricultural Sciences 1 (2010) 17-23
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Figure 5. Effect of seed priming on germination percentage of parsley at 25°C.
The findings presented on seed germination of parsley in
this research showed similar results with different re-
searches being made on priming treatment at different
plant seeds so far. As matter of fact that, Zheng et al. [13]
for canola, YeonOk et al. [14] for salvia, YeonOk et al.
[15] for carrot, lettuce and onion, Nascimento [16] and
Nascimento and Aragao [4] for muskmelon reported that
priming treatments affected on seed germination at dif-
ferent temperatures in different plant species. Perezgar-
cia et al. [17] detected that the highest germination per-
centages for celery seeds were obtained from 15°C and
25/15°C (day-night temperatures). Nascimento [18] also
observed that primed melon, watermelon, eggplant and
tomato seeds had higher germination rate at low tem-
perature degrees. In addition, Elkoca et al. [19] reported
that osmopriming and hydropiriming treatments in-
creased chickpea seed germination rates at different
temperatures ranging from 5 to 32°C.
When the treatments used in this study were evaluated,
the highest germination percentage was observed in hy-
dropriming and mannitol treatments as compared with
PEG, KNO3 and the control. Hence, it could be said that
PEG and KNO3 (2 and 4 day) treatments were better
than unprimed treatment in all of the temperature re-
gimes. Our results are good to fit those of Olszewski et
al. [20] who reported that osmotic priming (–1.5 or
–1.0 MPa for 7, 14 or 21 at 20 deg C) increased parsley
germination rates, but decreased germination percentage
depending on treatments. Olszewski et al. [21] also
found that when increasing priming duration (–1,0 MPa
for 7, 14 or 21 at 20 deg C), it quadratically increased
parsley germination rate and additionally increased line-
arly seed moisture content. Pill and Kilian [22] reported
that priming treatments (osmotically in polyethylene
glycol or matrically in fine, exfoliated vermiculite at
–0.5 MPa for 4 or 7 days at 20 or 30 deg C with 0 or 1
mM GA3) have stimulated and hastened parsley seed
germination. Duman and Eşiyok [10] reported that ger-
mination percentage of carrot seed increased in using
PEG (81%) or KH2PO4 (79%) compared to control
(75%). Similarly, Duman [23] and Yıldırım et al. [24]
determined that PEG, KNO3 and NaCl treatments had
significantly increased on germination percentage of
onion seeds compared that of the control. Demir and
Mavi [25] reported that the pepper seed germination was
higher and sensivity index were lower in NaCl than in
PEG treatments in both water potential and harvest. In
the another research, they reported that the salt priming
(KNO3, 3%, 6 day, 20°C) increased watermelon emer-
gence and produce well-developed seedlings particularly
in early spring sowings at low temperatures in green-
house conditions [26]. Elkoca et al. [19] reported that
A. Dursun et al. / Agricultural Sciences 1 (2010) 17-23
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/as/
hydropriming for 12 h or osmopriming with –0.5 MPa
PEG for 24h resulted in the highest seed germination of
chickpea. Arin and Kiyak [27] stated that priming of
tomato seeds (especially KNO3) improved emergence
and seedling growth under stress (low temperature,
drought and salinity) conditions. Osmopriming (PEG-6000)
treatments had the best conditions for leek seeds in 7-10
days at 15°C and –15 bars [28]. Similarly, PEG solution
(–1.1 and –1.8 MPa) improved germination soybean
seed compared to control [29]. And also Pazdera and
Hosnedl [30] reported that the osmopriming was suitable
method for lettuce seed germination. Sivritepe and Eriş
[31] detected that priming treatments (–0.25, –0.50 and
–0.75 MPa with PEG-8000, 10-3 M and 10-4 M with
ABA and 2, 4 and 6 days with distilled water (H2O) ) at
16°C increased the germination percentage and de-
creased the mean germination time in pea seeds.
Sadeghian and Yavari [32] reported that the highest
concentration of mannitol decreased seedling growth and
germination rates on sugar beet seed. Nascimento [16]
suggested that salt solutions (0.30 mol/L or 0.35 mol/L
potassium nitrate KNO3; 0.30 or 0.40 mol/L potassium
dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4); 0.15 or 0.20 mol/L
potassium nitrate +0.15 or 0.20 mol/L potassium dihy-
drogen phosphate; 0.50 or 0.60 mol/L mannitol; and 0.04
or 0.05 mol/L polyethylene glycol/liter) had better ger-
mination rate on seeds of muskmelon. It was also re-
ported that the best treatment to seed of muskmelon for
germination and emergence at low temperature was
2.5% KNO3 for 16 h in dark [33]. Demir et al. [34] re-
ported that GA3 and KNO3 treatments influenced on
eggplant seed germination and rate of germination re-
spect comparing that of the control. In addition, Brock-
lehurst et al. [35] stated that PEG gave suitable results
for different vegetable species such as onion, leek, and
celery and KH2PO4 had effect of reducing in percentage
germination and emergence in leek and celery. Accord-
ing to another research, 0.1 M KNO3 and 0.1 M KH2PO4
pre-storage treatments were the most effective for de-
laying viability loss due to ageing in onion seed [36].
Sivritepe et al. [37-39] indicated that priming of melon
seeds with NaCl resulted in increased salt tolerance in
seedling, total germination and mean germination time.
Results of presented research were similar and confirma-
tive to the mentioned studies above.
In conclusion, the effects of seed priming depend on the
crop species. Seed priming is safe, effective and easily
adopted by farmers. It also has the potential to benefit
such farmers in many ways and hence, its importance is
recognized by farmers as well as researchers. Priming in-
creased the percentage of germination of parsley in this
study. Therefore, parsley seed should be primed in order
to perform better under unfavorable environmental con-
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