bably exhausted of failing to locate the “smoking gun” in media
violence and started to search for it under “media sex”.
What lesson should we learn from the analysis? It is probably
possible to establish some relationship between being exposed
to violence on television to disposition towards violence, which
then may translate to some increase in the level of violent crime.
However, the attention given to this connection by the scientific
community, politicians and the public at large is all but propor-
tional to its size. This article does not aim to explain the moti-
vations behind ascribing so much power to such small effect,
but it is obvious that in contrast with other factors that encour-
age acts of violence such as family, friends, schools and the
welfare system—the media system is probably the most eagerly
willing to serve as a scapegoat. Finally, a few words of caution
are due about the scope of the conclusions. The studies we have
reviewed took place mostly in the United States. Even though
American TV shows are broadcast worldwide, we cannot au-
tomatically generalize the findings to other cultures.
Apple, M. (2008). Fictional narratives cultivate just world beliefs. Jour-
nal of Communication, 58, 62-83.
Bandura, A. (1994). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In
J. Bryant, & D. Zillman (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory
and research (2nd ed., pp. 61-90). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Berkowitz, D. (1990). Refining the gatekeeping metaphor for local te-
levision news. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 34, 55-68.
Bortner, M. A. (1984). Media images and public attitudes toward crime
and justice. In R. Surette (Ed.), Justice and the media (pp. 15-30).
Springfield, IL: Thomas.
Brown, J. D. (2001). A comparison of fictional television crime and
crime index statistics. Communication Research Reports, 18, 192-199.
Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the
American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation. Ame-
rican Psychologist, 56, 477-489. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.6-7.477
Centerwall, B. S. (1989). Exposure to television as a risk factor for
violence. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129, 643-652
Comstock, G. (1983). Media influences on aggresson. In A. Goldstein,
& L. Krasner (Eds.), Prevention and control of aggression (pp. 241-
272). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.
Comstock, G., Chaff ee, S., Katzman, N., McCo mbs, M., & Roberts, D.
(1978). Television and human behavior. NY: Columbia University
Comstock, G., & Scharrer, E. (1999). Television: What’s on, who’s
watching and what it means. Sa n Diego: Acade mic Press.
Diefenbach, D. L., & West, M. D. (2001). Violent crime and Poisson
regression: A measure and a method for cultivation analysis. Journal
of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45, 432-445.
Diener, E., & DuFour, D. (1978). Does television violence enhance
program popularity? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
36, 333-341. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1683
Dominick, J. R. (1973). Crime and law enforcement on prime-time
television. Public Opinio n Q ua rte rly, 37, 241-250.
Donnerstein, E., & & Linz, D. (1995). The media. In J. Q. Wilson, & J.
Petersilia (Eds.), Crime (pp. 237-264). San Francisco: Institute for
Doppelt, J., & Manikas, P. (1990). Mass media and criminal justice
decision making. In R. Surette (Ed.), The media and criminal policy
(pp. 129-142). Spr i n gfield, IL: Thomas.
Eron, L. D., & Huesmann, L. R. (1980). Adolescent aggression and te-
levision. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 347, 319-331.
Fedler, F., & Jordan, D. (1982). How emphasis on people affects cov-
erage of crime. Journali s m Q u a r t e r ly, 17, 474-478.
Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Elee y, M., Jackson-Beeck, M., Jeffries-Fox, S.,
& Signorielli, N. (1977). TV violence profile, No. 8: The highlights.
Journal of Communication, 27, 171- 180.
Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., Signorielli, N., & Shanahan, J. (2002).
Growing up with television: Cultivation processes. In J. Bryant, & D.
Zillman (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (2nd
edition, pp. 43-67). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Goldstein, M. (1973). Exposure to erotic and violent stimuli and sexual
deviance. Journal of Social Issu es, 29, 197-219.
Graber, D. (1980). Crime news and the public. NY: Praeger.
Greenberg, B. S., & Collette, L. (1997). The changing faces on TV: A
demographic analysis of network television’s new seasons, 1966-
1992. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 41, 1-13.
Greenberg, B. S., Simmons, K. W., Hogan, L., & Atkin, C. K. (1980).
The demography of fictional TV characters. In B. S. Greenberg (Ed.),
Life on television: Content analyses of U.S. TV drama (pp. 99-128).
Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corpor ation.
Grimes, T., Anderson, J., & Bergen, L. (2008). Media violence and ag-
gression: Science and ideology . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Head, S. W. (1954). Content analysis of television drama programs.
Quarterly of Film, Radio and Television, 9, 175-194.
Heath L., & Gilbert, F. (1996). Mass media and fear of crime. Ameri-
can Behavioral Scientist, 39, 379-386.
Hennigan, K., Heath, L., Wharton, J. D., Del-Rosario, M. L., Cook, T.
D., & Calder, B. J. (1982). Impact of the introduction of television on
crime in the United States: Empirical findings and theoretical impli-
cations. Journal of Personality and Social P s y c h o logy, 42, 461-477.
Hetsroni, A. (2007). Forty years of violent content on prime-time net-
work programming: A longitudinal meta-analytic review. Journal of
Communication, 57, 759-784.
Hetsroni, A., & Tukachinsky, R. H. (2006). TV world estimates and
real world estimates: A new scheme for cultivation. Journal of Com-
munication, 56, 133-156. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00007.x
Jermyn, D. (2006). Crimewatching: Investigating real crime TV. Lon-
don: IB Tauris.
Lasswell, H. D. (1935). World politics and personal insecurity: A con-
tribution to political psychiatry. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Lichter, L. S., & Lichter, S. R. (1983). Prime time crime. Washington,
DC: Media Institute.
Lichter, S. R., Lichter, L. S., & Rothman, S. (1994). Prime time: How
TV portrays American culture. Washington, DC: Regnery.
Lowery, S. A. & DeFleur, M. L. (1995). Milestones in mass communi-
cation research: Media effects (3rd ed.). White Plains, NY: Long-
Maguire, B. (1988). Image vs. reality: An analysis of prime-time televi-
sion crime and police programs. Crime and Justice, 1 1, 165-188.
Meyers, M. (1994). News of battering. Journal of Communication, 44,
Paik, H., & Comstock, G. (1994). The effects of television violence on
antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Communication Research, 21,
Pease, S., & Love, C. (1984). The copycat crime phenomenon. In R.
Surette (Ed.), Justice and the media (pp. 199-211). Springfield, IL:
Philips, D., & & Hensley, J. (1984). When violence is rewarded or pun-
ished: The impact of mass media stories on homicide. Journal of
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.