2012. Vol.2, No.2, 133-140
Published Online April 2012 in SciRes (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/sm) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sm.2012.22017
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 133
The Exclusion of Black Women from National Leadership
Positions in the United States: Taxation with Limited
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey, USA
Received December 20th, 2011; revised January 22nd, 2012; accepted February 20th, 2012
This article claims that the United States is progressing well when examined through the racial and cul-
tural diversity of its young people aged 29 and younger with earned doctorates. The data show that fe-
males in general and Asian and Black females in particular are earning very high proportions of doctorate
degrees among individuals aged 29 and younger in 2009 and 2008. For example, of the 117,000 doctorate
degrees (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.) held by individuals in the US aged 25 - 29 in 2009, females accounted for
65,000 (55.6%), with Black females and Asian females accounting for 11.1% (13,000) and 10.3% (12,000)
respectively. In 2008, of the 14,000 doctorate degrees (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.) held by individuals aged 18 - 24
in the US, females accounted for 11,000 (78.6%), and Black females and Asian females each accounted
for 4000 (28.6%). The article points out, however, that while high levels of educational attainment is
shown to result in Asian, White and Hispanic women being elected or appointed to the United States Sen-
ate, Governor’s Office and the United States Supreme Court, Black American women continue to be ex-
cluded from these three national leadership positions—Taxation without Representation.
Keywords: United States; Black Women; Gains in Academic Degrees; National Leadership Exclusion;
US Senate; Governor’s Office; US Supreme Court
There are many ways to determine whether a society or
country is progressing. One way is to measure the progress of
the incomes of the top 20% or bottom 20% of households for a
given number of years. Another way to determine whether a
society is progressing is to measure the standard of living of
minorities or women within that society or country. Or, another
way to determine the progress of a society is to examine how
many baby boys and baby girls under the age of one survive or
die. Another way to determine the success of a society is to
examine whether it is involved in fighting many different wars
or military conflicts at the same time. Finally, an important way
to determine the progress of a society or country is to measure
the progress in doctorate degrees earned by young people (29
years or younger). An increase in the number of young people
earning doctorate degrees indicates that the major institutions in
that society such as governments, schools, colleges and univer-
sities, businesses and religious institutions are making serious
efforts to educate or train a highly skilled workforce of young
people for a sustained progress of the society.
This article examines the numerical distribution and ra-
cial/cultural characteristics of young people in the United States
aged 25 - 29 with earned doctorates, such as Ph.D., Ed.D, etc.
(excluding professional degrees, such as Medical Doctorates or
Juris Doctorates) in the year 2009 (In a number of instances
comparisons are made with those aged 18 - 24 with doctorates
in the US in 2008). The article begins by presenting statistics of
young people in the US aged 25 - 29, the number of doctorates
earned by the various racial/cultural groups, percent of all doc-
torates, percent of doctorates within and between sexes or genders,
and percent of total doctorates by each racial/cultural group.
Next the article presents the total population of the US in 2007,
including for the various racial/cultural groups, and the percent
that is native born. Next the article examines the factors re-
sponsible for the gender and racial diversity of the numbers and
percentages. Next the article presents the implications for the
society or country of the gender or sex differences in doctoral
degree attainment by these young people. Next the article
claims that although Black American women continue to ex-
perience serious or visible exclusion from important positions
of national leadership such as the United States Senate, the US
Supreme Court and the Office of Governor within the states of
the Union, their persistence in attaining high levels of education
and their improvement in longevity would eventually overcome
this serious exclusion as the society continues to gradually ma-
ture intellectually and morally. Finally, the article presents a
Summary and Conclusions section. Let us now begin by exam-
ining statistics showing the numbers and racial/cultural charac-
teristics of young doctorate holders aged 25 - 29 in the United
States in 2009.
Young American (25 - 29 Years Old) Doctorate
Holders in 2009
The United States Census Bureau categorizes racial/cultural
groups as follows: All Races; Black Alone; Black Alone or in
Combination with Another Race; Asian Alone; Asian Alone or
in Combination with Another Race; Hispanic (of any Race);
White Alone; and White Alone or in Combination with Another
A. J. KABA
All Races (Both Sexes)
According to Table 1 below, as of 2009, there were
21,256,000 individuals in the Uni ted States aged 25 - 29. Of that
total, males accounted for 10,867,000 (51.1%) and females
accounted for 10,389,000 (48.9%). In 2009, 117,000 (0.55% of
21.3 million) individuals in the United States aged 25 - 29 held
doctorates, with females accounting for 65,000 (55.6%) and
males accounting for 52,000 (44.4%). The 65,000 females aged
25-29 with doctorates in 2009 is 0.63% of the almost 10.4 mil-
lion females in that age group, and the 52,000 males comprised
0.48% of the almost 10.9 million males in that age category
Among individuals aged 18 - 24 in the US in 2008 with
earned doctorates, females also comprised the majority. For
example, according to Kaba (2010), although there were more
males, 14,392,000 (50.7%) than females among the 28,398,000
people in the United States aged 18 - 24, females accounted for
78.6% (11,000) of the 14,000 individuals in that age group with
doctorates (p. 109).
Black Alone (Both Sexes)
There were 2,882,000 (13.6% of 21.3 million) individuals
aged 25 - 29 categorized as Black Alone, with females ac-
counting for 1,519,000 (52.7%, but 7.1% of all 21.3 million)
and males accounting for 1,363,000 (47.3%, but 6.4% of all
21.3 million). There were 17,000 (14.5% of 117,000) Blacks
Alone aged 25 - 29 with earned doctorates, with females ac-
counting for 13,000 (76.5%, but 11.1% of all 117,000), and
males accounting for 4000 (23.5%, but 3.4% of all 117,000).
The 17,000 Blacks Alone with doctorates is 0.59% of the
2.882 million aged 25 - 29. The 13,000 Black females alone
with doctorates is 0.86% of the 1,519,000 Black females alone
aged 25 - 29, and the 4000 Black males alone with doctorates is
0.29% of those aged 25 - 29 (Table 1).
In 2008, there were 4,112,000 Blacks Alone aged 18 - 24,
with males accounting for 1,973,000 (48%) and females ac-
counting for 2,138,000 (52%). Of the 4000 doctorates earned
by Blacks Alone in that year (28.6% of the 14,000 doctorates),
females accounted for all of them (Kaba, 2010a: p. 109).
Individuals aged 25 t o 29 in the United States with Doctorate Degrees by sex and race: 2009.
Population % of Population Doctorates % Within Sex % Between % Of
Category 25 - 29 Yea r s 25 - 29 Yea r s Number (25 - 29 Years) Sexes Total Docs.
White Alone (Both Sexes) 16,659,000 78.4 79,000 0.47 .. 67.5
Male 8,651,000 40.7 37,000 0.43 46.8* 31.6
Female 8,008,000 37.7 41,000 0.51 51.9* 35
Non-Hispa ni c White Alone (Both Se x es) 12,727,000* 59.9 74,000* 0.58 .. 63.2
Male 6,432,000 30.3 36,000 0.56 48.6* 30.8
Female 6,294,000 29.6 37,000 0.59 50* 31.6
Black Al one (Both Sexes) 2,882,000 13.6 17,000 0.59 .. 14.5
Male 1,363,000 6.4 4000 0.29 23.5 3.4
Female 1,519,000 7.1 13,000 0.86 76.5 11.1
Asian Alone (Both Sexes ) 1 ,044,000 4.9 22,000 2.1 .. 18.8
Male 507,000 2.4 10,000 1.97 45.4 8.5
Female 536,000 2.5 12,000 2.2 54.5 10.3
Hispanic (o f any race) (Both Sexes) 4,260,000 20 8,000 0.19 .. 6.8
Male 2,415,000 11.4 4,000 0.17 50 3.4
Female 1,845,000 8.7 4,000 0.22 50 3.4
White Alone or in Combination (Both Sexes) 16,987,000 79.9 79,000 0.46 .. 67.5
Male 8,835,000 41.6 37,000 0.42 46.8 31.6
Female 8,152,000 38.3 41,000 0.5 51.9 35
Black A l one or in Combination (Both Sexes) 3,012,000 14.2 17,000 0.56 .. 14.5
Male 1,420,000 6.7 4000 0.28 23.5 3.4
Female 1,592,000 7.5 13,000 0.82 76.5 11.1
Asian Alone or in Combination (Both Sexes) 1,130,000 5.3 22,000 1.9 .. 18.8
Male 548,000 2.6 10,000 1.8 45.4 8.5
Female 582,000 2.7 12,000 2.1 54.5 10.3
All Races (Both Sexes) 21,256,000 117,000 0.55 .. 100
Male 10,867,000 51.1 52,000 0.48 44.4 44.4
Female 10,389,000 48.9 65,000 0.63 55.6 55.6
Source: Compiled and Computed by author from “Census Bureau Reports Nearly 6 in 10 Advanced Degree Holders Age 25 - 29 Are Women”, United States Census
Bureau. Retrieved from April 20 to April 26, 2011 from: http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/education/cb10-55.html.
*Note: Due probably to rounding the numbers do not add up to total when broken down into sexes.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
A. J. KABA
Black Alone or in Combination with Another Race
There were 3,012,000 (14.2% of 21.3 million) Black alone
and in combination with another race aged 25 - 29, with fe-
males accounting for 1,592,000 (52.9%, but 7.5% of all 21.3
million) and males accounting for 1,420,000 (47.1%, but 6.7%
of all 21.3 million). There were 17,000 (14.5% of 117,000)
Blacks alone or in combination with another race aged 25 - 29
with earned doctorates, with females accounting for 13,000
(76.5%, but 11.1% of all 117,000), and males accounting for
4000 (23.5%, but 3.4% of all 117,000) (Table 1).
The 17,000 Blacks alone or in combination with another race
with doctorates is 0.56% of the 3,012,000 million aged 25 - 29.
The 13,000 Black females alone or in combination with another
race with doctorates is 0.82% of the 1,592,000 Black females in
that category aged 25 - 29, and the 4000 Black males alone in
that category with doctorates is 0.28% of Black males aged 25 -
29 in that category (Table 1).
Asian Alone (Both Sexes)
There were 1,044,000 (4.9% of 21.3 million) individual s aged
25 - 29 categorized as Asian Alone, with females accounting
for 536,000 (51.3%, but 2.5% of all 21.3 million), and males
accounting for 507,000 (48.7%, but 2.4% of all 21.3 million).
There were 22,000 (18.8% of 117,000) Asians Alone aged 25 -
29 with earned doctorates, with females accounting for 12,000
(54.5%, but 10.3% of all 117,000), and males accounting for
10,000 (45.5%, but 8.5% of all 117,000).
The 22,000 Asians Alone with doctorates is 2.1% of the
1.044 million of them aged 25 - 29. The 12,000 Asian females
alone with doctorates is 2.2% of the 536,000 Asian females
alone aged 25 - 29, and the 10,000 Asian males alone with doc-
torates is 1.97% of Asian males alone aged 25 - 29 (Table 1).
In 2008, there were 1,173,000 Asians Alone aged 18 - 24,
with 593,000 (50.5%) males and 580,000 (49.5%) females.
There were 4000 (28.6% of the 14,000 total) of them with doc-
torates and females accounted for all of them (Kaba, 2010a: p.
Asian Alone or in Combination with Another
Race (Both Sexes)
There were 1,130,000 (5.3% of 21.3 million) Asian alone or
in combination with another race aged 25 - 29, with females
accounting for 582,000 (51.5%, but 2.7% of all 21.3 million)
and males accounting for 548,000 (48.5%, but 2.6% of all 21.3
million). There were 22,000 (18.8% of 117,000) Asian alone or
in combination with another race aged 25 - 29 with earned
doctorates, with females accounting for 12,000 (54.5%, but
10.3% of all 117,000), and males accounting for 10,000 (45.5%,
but 8.5% of all 117,000) (Table 1).
The 22,000 Asians alone or in combination with another race
with doctorates in 2009 is 1.9% of the 1,130,000 million aged
25 - 29. The 12,000 Asian females alone or in combination with
another race with doctorates is 2.1% of the 582,000 Asian fe-
males in that category aged 25 - 29, and the 10,000 Asian males
alone or in combination with another race with doctorates is
1.8% of Asian males aged 25 - 29 in that category (Table 1).
Hispanic (of Any Race) Both Sexes
There were 4,260,000 (20% of 21.3 million) individuals aged
25 - 29 categorized as Hispanic (of any Race), with males ac-
counting for 2,415,000 (56.7%, but 11.4% of all 21.3 million)
and females accounting for 1,845,000 (43.3%, but 8.7% of all
21.3 million).There were 8000 (6.8% of 117,000) Hispanics
aged 25 - 29 with earned doctorates in 2009, with females and
males each accounting for 4000 (50%, but 3.4% of all 117,000)
The 8000 Hispanics with doctorates is 0.19% of the 4.260
million aged 25 - 29. The 4,000 Hispanic females with doctor-
ates is 0.22% of the 1,845,000 Hispanic females aged 25 - 29,
and the 4000 Hispanic males with doctorates is 0.17% of His-
panic males aged 25 - 29 (Table 1).
In 2008, there were 5,011,000 Hispanics (of any race) aged
18 - 24, with male s accounti ng for 2,629, 000 (52.5% ) and females
accounting for 2,382,000 (47.5%). All 1,000 doctorates earned
in that year by Hispanics aged 18 - 24 were by females (Kaba,
2010a: p. 109).
White Alone (Both Sexes)
It is useful to note that due probably to rounding, the num-
bers presented in this category for doctorate degrees do not add
up. According to Table 1, there were 16,659,000 (78.4% of
21.3 million) people categorized as White Alone aged 25 - 29
in 2009, with males comprising 8,651,000 (51.9%, but 40.7%
of 21.3 million), and 8,008,000 females (48.1%, but 37.7% of
21.3 million). Table 1 shows that there were 79,000 (67.5% of
all doctorates) Whites Alone aged 25 - 29 with doctorates. How-
ever, the figures for males and females are short by 1,000 due
probably to rounding. For example, 41,000 females (51.9%, but
35% of 117,000) aged 25 - 29 held doctorates, while 37,000
males (46.8%, but 31.6% of 117,000) held doctorates. The
79,000 doctorates by Whites Alone aged 25 - 29 is 0.47% of
the 16,659,000 people in that category. The 41,000 doctorates
held by females are 0.51% of the 8,008,000 females in that
category, and the 37,000 doctorates held by males is 0.43% of
the 8,651,000 males in that category.
In 2008, there were 22,056,000 Whites Alone aged 18 - 24,
with males accounting for 11,267,000 (51.1%) and females
accounting for 10,789,000 (48.9%). Of the 6,000 doctorates
(42.8% of the 14,000 doctorates) they held, males and females
each had 3000 (21.4% each of the 14,000 doctorates) (Kaba,
2010a: p. 109).
Non-Hispanic White Alone (Both Sexes)
It is useful to also note that due probably to rounding, the
numbers presented in this category for the population and doc-
torate degrees do not add up. For example, according to Table
1, there were 12,727,000 (59.9% of 21.3 million) individuals in
the US in 2009 categorized as non-Hispanic White Alone. Of
that total, 6,432,000 (50.5%, but 30.3% of 21.3 million) were
males, and 6,294,000 (49.5%, but 29.6% of 21.3 million) were
females. According to Table 1, there were 74,000 (63.2% of
117,000) Non-Hispanic Whites alone aged 25 - 29 with doctor-
ates. However, Table 1 also shows that 37,000 females (50%,
but 31.6% of 117,000) held doctorates, while 36,000 males
(48.6%, but 30.8% of 117,000) held doctorates. The 74,000
doctorates is 0.58% of the 12,727,000 people aged 25 - 29 in
this category. The 37,000 doctorates held by females is 0.59%
of the 6,294,000 in this category, while the 36,000 held by
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 135
A. J. KABA
males is 0.56% of the 6,432,000 in this category.
In 2008, 17,525,000 non-Hispanic Whites Alone were aged
18 - 24. There were 5000 non-Hispanics Whites Alone with
doctorates (35.7% of the 14,000 doctorates); 3000 (21.4% of
the 14,000 doctorates) for males and 2000 (14.3% of the 14,000
doctorates) for females (Kaba, 2010a: p. 109).
White Alone or in Combination with Another Race
It is again useful to note that due probably to rounding, the
numbers presented in this category for doctorate degrees do not
add up. There were 16,987,000 (79.9% of 21.3 million) White
alone or in combination with another race aged 25 - 29, with
males accounting for 8,835,000 (52%, but 41.6% of all 21.3
million) and females accounting for 8,152,000 (48%, but 38.3%
of all 21.3 million). There were 79,000 (67.5% of 117,000)
White alone or in combination with another race aged 25 - 29
with earned doctorates, with females accounting for 41,000
(52%, but 35% of all 117,000), and males accounting for
37,000 (46.8%, but 31.6% of all 117,000) (Table 1).
The 79,000 Whites alone or in combination with another race
with doctorates in 2009 is 0.46% of the 16,987,000 million
aged 25 - 29. The 41,000 White females alone or in combination
with another race with doctorates is 0.50% of the 8,152,000
Whites females in that category aged 25 - 29, and the 37,000
White males alone or in combination with another race with
doctorates is 0.42% of White males aged 25 - 29 in that cate-
gory (Table 1).
What are some of the factors that have contributed to the
relatively high number of racially diverse young doctorate
earners and specifically why are such high proportions females?
Factors Contributing to the Increasing Racially
Diverse Numbers of Young Doctorate
Earners and High Proportions of
Females in the United States
One could point to many factors that have contributed to the
increasing and racially diverse numbers of young doctorate
degree holders in the United States, with majority female pro-
portions. Among the factors that have contributed to this very
important development are: the 1965 US Immigration Law,
Religion and Increase in wealth of Americans.
1965 US Immigration La w
One important factor contributing to the increasing and di-
verse numbers of young doctorate degree holders in the US is
the 1965 United States immigration law. Compared with pre-
vious US immigration laws, such as the 1924 Immigration Law,
which gave preference primarily to Western and Northern
Europeans and other European nations, but limited entry to
racial groups such as Black Africans and Chinese, the 1965
Immigration Law opened up the country to peoples and racial
and ethnic groups from all over the world (Dinnerstein et al.,
2010: pp. 187-189; Kim, 2007; Yang, 2010; Zinn, 2003: p. 382).
As a result, K-12 and college and university classrooms in the
US are a lot more diverse today. In fact, as Table 1 illustrates, 1
out of every 5 individuals aged 25 - 29 in 2009 was Hispanic
and 4 out of every 10 were minorities.
Religiosity plays a contributing role in the increase in the ra-
cial, ethnic and cultural diversity of young doctorate degree
holders in the United States. This is especially the case for fe-
males, who comprised a strong majority in the statistics pre-
sented above for both 2008 and 2009. Religiosity helps indi-
viduals to stay out of trouble, which leads them to focus on
their academic studies. Religion also influences individuals to
be discipline, obedient and diligent in what they are doing. It
makes it easier for students to do what their teachers and pro-
fessors tell them to do. Diligence also helps students to concen-
trate and persevere when they apply for grants or scholarships.
In the case of females, due to gender discrimination, they real-
ize that they must work harder to be recognized in society. All
of these efforts result in good grades, which lead to the increase
in confidence in applying to graduate school. In explaining why
Black American females are succeeding in higher education,
Kaba (2008) claims that: “Religion could serve as the inde-
pendent variable of these factors, with the other dependent
variables including avoidance of drugs, committing very few
crimes as a proportion of their total population, diligence and
discipline, all connecting back to Religion” (p. 327).
Increase in Wealth of Americans
One must never underestimate the massive wealth of a very
high proportion of Americans. For example, in 2007, the net
worth of all Americans was $57.5 trillion (“Flow of Funds Ac-
counts of the United States,” 2008), 87.6% of the Gross World
Products (GWP) of $65.61 trillion in 2007. By the beginning of
2011, the top 5% of households in the United States are re-
ported to have a net worth of $40 trillion.1 The tax laws of the
country are set up to influence these wealthy individuals to
donate certain amount of their annual income and then deduct it
during tax season, many students end up benefiting from their
generous scholarships. Moreover, females and minorities tend
to benefit from these gifts since they have suffered more dis-
crimination and lack of opportunities in the past few hundred
years (Kaba, 2008: pp. 330-331). Are there implications of this
There are important implications or consequences of the rise
in the diverse numbers of young people with earned doctorates,
especially females. For example, in explaining some of the
implications of more 18 - 24 year-old females earning doctor-
ates in 2008, Kaba (2009) points out that:
“What are the economic implications for this progress of
women in earned doctorates? One answer is that because fe-
males live longer than males, they will pay taxes longer than
their male counterparts. Also, many academic studies have
shown that females are more liberal than males, which means
that the communities where these female geniuses reside might
benefit economically from their relatively high incomes. Such
benefits could come from contributions to religious organiza-
tions such as churches, synagogues, mosques, etc. since more
females attend religious services than their male counterparts.
1“Unfair Share: The wealthy have taken almost all the gains for a genera-
tion,” 2011, April 13. Metrotimes (Detroit, Michigan). Retrieved on May 5,
2011 from: http://www2.metrotimes .com/about/default.asp
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
A. J. KABA
In some religious congregations members contribute up to 10
percent of their annual incomes.”2
Let us now examine the very serious issue of taxation without
representation in the US Senate, the Office of Governor and on the
US Supreme Court of native born Black American Women
despite their persistent success in earning high levels of college
Native-Born Status an d th e S trategic Positi on of
Table 2 presents 2007 population figures of the US with the
percent of the total population and five racial/cultural groups
and their native-born status. According to Table 2, in 2007,
there were 301,621,000 people in the United States, and of that
total, 257, 542,0 00 (87.4% ) were native-b orn; 257,54 2,000 ( 87.3%)
out of 295,112,000 for White Alone; 190,838,000 (96.1%) out
of 198,553,000 for non-Hispanic White Alone; 34,362,000
(92%) out of 37,335,000 for Black Alone; 4,325,000 (32.7%)
out of 13,233,000 for Asians; and 27,361,000 (60.2%) out of
45,427,000 for Hispanics (of any race) (Table 2).
Table 2 shows that while over nine out of every ten non-
Hispanic Whites and Blacks are native born, just over three out
of every ten Asians and six out of every ten Hispanics are native-
born. To become president of the United States one must be
born in the country or born to a citizen of the United States.
Furthermore, one must be born in the US or to citizens of the
US to be considered for a number of important jobs in the
However, while the doctorate degrees data above show that
Black women have relatively high proportions relative to their
proportion of the total population, they continue to be excluded
from three key national leadership positions—Taxation Without
Representation: 1) The US Senate, which has 100 members; 2)
Governor of any of the 50 states and 3) the US Supreme Court,
which has nine members (Kaba, 2011ab; Harris-Perry, 2011;
Jeffries & Wavro, 2011; Jones & Shorter-Gooden, 2003; Wash-
ington, 2006). For example, a foreign born man Arnold Schwar-
zenegger was Governor of California, and two South Asian
Americans (India), Piyush “Bobby” Jindal and Nimrata Nikki
Randhawa Haley have been elected Governors of Louisiana and
South Carolina respectively. But it is Black women who actu-
ally built Louisiana and South Carolina with their free labor.
Three non-Black women, a Black man and five White men are
on the US Supreme Court, but not a single Black woman has
been appointed. Why are Black women excluded from these
three important national leadership positions in the society?
Why are there no real advocates for Black females for this par-
ticular visible exclusion they are experiencing at a time when
the country and the world are supposed to be in the most mod-
ern period? Is modernity different from prejudice? What is it
that Black females have done to non-Black females to suffer
this visible humiliation that the whole world is watching?
There are many serious implications to Black Americans for
this exclusion. One such implication is the high death rate of
Black baby-girls under the age of one. For example, according
to the 2011 Statistical Abstract of the United States, in 2007,
there were 618 deaths per every 100,000 of baby girls in the US
Population of the United States by Race and Hispanic Origin and Na-
tive Born Status: 2007.
Category Total Populat i on
2007 % Nati ve
White Alone (Both Sexes)295,112,000 87.3 257,542,000
Non-Hispanic White Alone
(Both Sexes) 198,553,000 96.1 190,838,000
Black Al o ne (Both Sexes)37,335,000 92 34,362,000
Asian Alone (Both Sexe s)13,233,000 32.7 4,325,000
Hispanic (of any race)
(Both Sexes) 45,427,000 60.2 27,361,000
All Races (Both Sexes) 301,621,000 87.4 257,542,000
Source: Compiled and Computed by author from Grieco, Elizabeth M. 2010,
January, “Race and Hispanic Origin of the Foreign -Born Population in the United
States: 2007”, United States Census Bureau, US Department of Commerce Eco-
nomics and Statistics Administrati on, ACS-11, p. 4.
under the age of one; 517 deaths for Whites; 1132 deaths for
Blacks; and 398 deaths for Asian or Pacific Islanders.3 An-
other implication is the high poverty rate of Black children in
the United States. For example, in 2008, there were 13,507,000
(18.5%) children in the United States below the poverty level;
8,441,000 (15.3%) for Whites; 3,781,000 (34.4%) for Blacks;
430,000 (14.2%) for Asian and Pacific Islanders; and 4,888,000
(30.3%) for Hispanics.4 This is a very good reason to have
Black women in these three positions of national leadership to
advocate on behalf of these vulnerable Black children.
What this visible exclusion of Black American women
shows is that the society is progressing very slowly in its moral,
legal, ethical and intellectual maturity. Human mental and heart
maturity, it a ppears are far different from mode rnity in the con-
text of the US or the American experience. Educational attain-
ment is crucial to obtaining important jobs in the country. For
example, Kaba and Ward (2009) point out that:
“Out of 435 members in the House of Representatives, 92%
have a Bachelors degree. Out of 100 members of the Senate,
97% have a bachelor’s degree. In the House of Representatives:
176 had law degrees, 12 with medical degrees, 18 with doc-
toral degrees, 123 with master’s degrees, and 399 with bache-
lor’s degrees. In the Senate, out of 100 members, 59 had law
degrees, three with medical degrees, 19 with master’s degrees,
and 97 with bachelor’s degrees” (p. 36).
Since Black females have shown evidence of being among
the most highly educated in the United States, it is only a matter
of time before a new generation of Americans emerge and tear
down this wall of prejudice against Black children and women
that is causing so many unnecessary deaths of Black children
because they do not have Black women within the institutions
where life and death decisions are made that seriously impact
th eir lives. According to Dr. Leslie Jones (2011): “... as Professo r
3“Table 108. Death Rates by Age, Sex, and Race: 1950 to 2007,” 2011.
Statistical Abstract of the United States. United States Census Bureau.
Retrieved on A pril 26, 2011 from:
4“Table 711. Children Below Poverty Level By Race and Hispanic Origin:
1980 to 2008,” 2011. Statistical Abstract of the United States. United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved on April 26, 2011 from:
http://www.census.gov/ compendia /statab/2011/tables/11s0711.pdf
2Kaba, Amadu Jacky. 2009, November 17. “Gender and Economic Progress
The Contributions of Female Geniuses in the United States” (3 pages).
oller Africa! Magazine. Retrieved o n April 26, 2011 from:
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 137
A. J. KABA
Rushton puts it in Race, Evolution, and Behaviour, “people
give preferential treatment to those who genetically resemble
themselves”. The political under-representation of blacks in
Congress may therefore have exacerbated the black-white wealth
gap. It is noteworthy in this context that as of June 2011 there
was no black member of the Senate.”5 (also see Kaba, 2011c: p.
The various reasons stated decades ago to exclude Black
women from these three important positions of national leader-
ship are not credible today in the second decade of the
twenty-first century. To claim that Black women are just not
ready yet to hold these positions because they are too young
will not be accurate. Black females are not only older than
Black males, but their life expectancy is higher than those of
men in general and non-Hispanic White men. For example, in
2008, the average life expectancy of all males in the United
States was 75.5 years; 75.9 years for White males; and 70.9
years for Black males. But it was 77.4 years for Black females
during that same year.6 Also, due primarily to Black women, a
higher proportion of Black Americans than Whites are 85 years
old and over, and among those 85 years old and over, a higher
proportion of Black Americans than Whites are 100 years old
and over. For example, Kaba (2008) points out that:
“Due largely to black women living longer, a higher per-
centage of blacks tend to be 85 years or over. Also, when one
extracts those who are 100 years or over from those 85 years
or over, blacks have a higher percentage than whites. For ex-
ample, in 2000, there were 3,778,504 whites aged 85 years and
over, with men accounting for 1,088,377 (28.8%) and women
accounting for 2,690,127 (71.2%). In 2000, there were 313,286
blacks aged 85 years and over, with men accounting for 84,780
(27.1%) and women accounting for 228,509 (72.9%...). In 2005,
there were 5,096,000 Americans aged 85 years and over;
4,567,000 are white alone; 370,000 are black alone; 233,000
Hispanics or Latinos; and 4,347,000 non-Hispanic whites. In
2005, there were 70,000 Americans 100 years and over (1.4%
of the 5,096,000 who are 85 years or older); 58,000 whites
alone (1.3% of the 4,567,000 who are 85 years or older); 9000
blacks alone (2.4% of the 370,000 who are 85 or over); 5000
Hispanics (2.1% of the 233,000 who are 85 years or older);
and 54,000 non-Hispanic whites (1.2% of the 4,347,000 who
are 85 years or older)…. This shows that the rate for blacks 85
years and over is doubled that of non-Hispanic whites” (p. 323).
To claim that Black women are just not ready yet to hold
these positions because their total population is not large
enough is a weak argument. In 2009, there were 5.818 million
more Black females or mixed with another race (21,808,000 or
7% of the total population of the United States) than the total
Asian alone population or mixed with another race (15,990,000)
in the United States.7 Yet, in 2012 there were two Asian Ame-
rican governors in the United States.
To claim that Black women are just not ready yet to hold
these positions because they lack high levels of college degrees
is a weak argument. The first half of this paper has demon-
strated that Black American females are among the most edu-
cated groups in the United States and when foreign-born indi-
viduals are not considered, their rates increase substantially,
while the rates for other groups, including Black males and
White males decrease significantly. For example, in 2010 there
were 292.233 million people in the United States aged 3 and
over. Of that total, 20.275 million (6.9%) were enrolled in col-
lege. But the rate for Black females alone or mixed with an-
other race (9.6%) was second only to Asian males alone or
mixed with another race (10.2%); Asian females alone or mixed
with another race (9.4%); non-Hispanic White females (7.1%);
Hispanic females (7%); Black males alone or mixed with an-
other race (6.9%); non-Hispanic White males (6.1%); and His-
panic males (5.5%) (Kaba, 2012a: p. 15; also see Kaba, 2012b).
In 2011, of the 3.437 million Blacks (or mixed with another
race) aged 18 and over with at least a bachelor’s degree, 2.028
million (59%) were women and 1.409 million (41%) were men;
of the 1.275 million with master’s degrees, 808,000 (63.4%)
were women and 467,000 (36.6%) were men; of the 189,000
with professional degrees (such as Juris Doctorates and Medical
Doctorates), 119,000 (63%) were women and 70,000 (37%)
were men; and of the 181,000 with doctorate degrees, 79,000
(43.6%) were women and 102,000 (56.4%) were men.8 This
shows that in 2011, there were 3.437 million Blacks (or mixed
with another race) aged 18 and over who held 5.082 million
bachelor’s, master’s, professional and doctorate degrees com-
bined; 3.034 million combined degrees for Black women and
2.048 million combined degrees for Black men. It is important
to note that Black Americans, especially Black females, go
deep into debt to pay for their higher education. For example,
“The average cumulative debt (undergraduate and graduate) of
those who earned doctorates in 2009 was $41,018 for Blacks…
and $22,518 for Whites. In addition, 27.1% of the Black gradu-
ates had debt of $70,001 or more; [but] 10.5% of Whites…”
(Kaba, 2012a: p. 14).
To claim that Black women are just not ready yet to hold
these leadership positions because they do not pay as much
taxes is inaccurate. In fact, Black females, young and old alike,
are among the most important tax payers and investors in the
United States. And because they, like their female counterparts,
live longer than males, pay taxes longer. According to Kaba
(2012a), in 2005, the per capita tax in the United States was
only $2199.11. In 2006, there were 213,000 Black females with
an income of $100,000 or more (pp. 1-8).
To claim that Black women are just not ready yet to hold
these positions because they do not represent the United States
in the military is inaccurate. According to Patten and Parker
(2011), in 2010, of the 167,000 active-duty women in the US
Military, 31% (51,770) were Black women. The proportion of
Black men among men was 16 percent (p. 2; also see Kaba,
2005: p. 13).
5Jones, Leslie. 2011, August 17. “Race and Poverty,” The Quar terly Review .
Retrieved on 25 Februa ry 2012 from:
6“Table 104. Expectation of Life at Birth, 1970 to 2008, and Projections,
2010 to 20 20,” 2012. Stat istical Abstr act of the United S tates. United Stat es
Census Bure au. Retrieved on 23 February 2 012 from:
http://www.census.gov/ compendia/ statab/2012/tables/12s0105.pdf
7“Table 6. Resident Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic-Origin Status:
2000 to 20 09,” 2012. Stat istical Abstr act of the United S tates. United Stat es
Census Bure au. Retrieved on 23 February 2 012 from:
The only logical reason or factor then for the exclusion of
Black American women from these three important positions in
the United States is prejudice against them. Just as there are
those people today who wonder why humans in the United
8“Table 1. Educational Attainment of the Population 18 Years and Over, by
Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 2011,” 2012. Educational Attainment
in the United States: 2011—Detailed Tables. United States Census Bureau.
Retrieved on 25 Februa ry 2012 from:
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
A. J. KABA
States were so cruel to Black Americans 50 years ago, 100
years ago or 300 years ago, so also the human beings in the
United States 50 years, 100 years and 300 years from now
would wonder why all non-Black American females, including
Black males showed such visible lack of support for Black
women by excluding them from three of the most important
offices in the land, even though they account for tens of mil-
lions in the country and have been living and working on this
soil continuously for almost 400 years (since 1619). The United
States will continue to remain an incomplete nation as long as
Black women are excluded from these three positions of lead-
ership. Through their direct connection to those first Black
females on this soil in 1619 and before, it is important that peo-
ple in the world see and hear them in those three positions since
they know more as keepers of the history of this land because
they inherited that information directly from their female an-
cestors before them, just as White women also inherited their
own history from their female ancestors who inhabited this soil
around that same period. According to Rogers (1944): “The
groups most native to America are Negroes, the white Moun-
taineers, and certain communities in New England” (p. 98). The
dream or vision of ‘a more perfect union’ will not be achieved
without Black women represented in the US Senate, the Office
of Governor within the 50 states, and the US Supreme Court.
On this vision of a more perfect union, Wycliff (2009) quotes
President Barack Obama as saying that:
“The path to a more perfect union means acknowledging that
what ails the African-American community does not just exist in
the minds of black people; that the legacy of discrimination and
current incidents of discrimination, while less overt than in the
past—are real and must be addressed. Not just with words, but
with deeds-by investing in our schools and our communities; by
enforcing our civil-rights laws and ensuring fairness in our
criminal justice system; by providing this generation with lad-
ders of opportunity that were unavailable for previous genera-
tions” (p. 39).
Summary and Conclusion
This article has presented information showing that the
United States is progressing when examined through the racial
and cultural diversity of its young people aged 29 and younger
with earned doctorates. The data show that females in general
and Asian and Black females in particular earned very high
proportions of doctorate degrees among individuals aged 29
and younger in 2009 and 2008. The article points out, however,
that while high levels of educational attainment is shown to
result in Asian, White and Hispanic women being elected or
appointed to the United States Senate, Governor’s Office and
the United States Supreme Court, Black American women con-
tinue to be excluded from these three important national lead-
ership positions, leading to the persistent suffering of millions
of Black American children.
The fact that powerful and influential women from all ra-
cial/cultural groups in the United States have not confronted
this issue and agitated for change is very unfortunate. The sup-
pression of tens of millions of Black females hurts all females,
regardless of class or race. To wipe out tens of millions of peo-
ple from a group just because of their race utterly weakens that
entire group (Zinn, 2003: pp. 103-124). The late First Lady El-
eanor Roosevelt would have agitated on this current plight of
Black American women if she were alive today, because she
did so as First Lady at a time when most influential men and
women in the country were too afraid or had no such courage.
Bynum (2005) points out that in 1951, “Upon resigning, [her
chairmanship of the United Nations Human Rights Commission,
Eleanor Roosevelt]… recommended to President Harry Truman
that he replace her with an African American woman…” (p.
156; also see Kaba, 2010b: pp. 49-53).
On the specific issue of the exclusion of Black people in
general from the United States Senate, one can point to a
modern-day Eleanor Roosevelt named United States Senator
Dianne Feinstein, a White female Democrat from California,
who exhibited moral courage in early January 2009 when she
challenged the morality and legality of efforts by the male
dominated Democratic leadership of the United States Senate
after they attempted to disqualify a 71 year-old Black American
Statesman named Roland Burris, who had been legally selected
by the then Governor of the great state of Illinois (Rod Bla-
gojevich) to finish out the last two years of then President-elect
and United States Senator from Illinois Barack Obama. The
great state of Illinois is an extreme outlier among all 50 states of
the Union. It is the state that President Abraham Lincoln re-
presented in Congress before he was elected President. It is the
State that elected the only Black woman to the United States
Senate in the history of the United States, Carol Elizabeth Moseley
Braun, who served from January 5, 1993 to January 3, 1999. It
is the state that elected Barack Obama to the United States
Senate in 2004. It is also the state that elected a Black man as
Mayor of Chicago, Harold Lee Washington, who served from
1983 until his death in 1987.
Roland Burris, born in Centralia, Southern Illinois (whose
ancestry in the United States goes back for centuries) and a
Howard University trained lawyer, had an extraordinary record
of service in government. He served as the 39th Illinois Attor-
ney General from January 14, 1991 to January 9, 1995. He had
also served as the 3rd Illinois Comptroller from January 8, 1979
to January 14, 1991. When Burris arrived in Washington DC in
early January 2009 to take his Senate seat as the Junior Senator
from Illinois, the Democratic leadership of the Senate attempted
to stop him from doing so. The world and members of the 1.2
billion people of Black African descent watched on national
television and on the internet as the old man was walking in the
cold rain on the grounds of the United States Congress as the
media followed him around. It was at this sad moment that
Senator Dianne Feinstein decided not to remain silent anymore
as the United States Constitution was being ignored just to
humiliate an old Black man. As Mike Dorning reported for the
Los Angeles Times on January 7, 2009:
“Roland Burris gained a powerful ally in his bid to replace
President-elect Barack Obama on Tuesday when Sen. Dianne
Feinstein of California urged the Senate to seat him, arguing
that his appointment was lawful... “If you don’t seat Mr. Burris,
it has ramifications for gubernatorial appointments all over
America,” she told reporters in a Capitol hallway. “Mr. Burris
is a senior, experienced politician. He has been [state] attorney
general, he has been [state comptroller], and he is very well
respected. I am hopeful that this will be settled” (p. A9; also see
Senator Burris did not get support from the Democratic Party
leadership of the United States Senate to establish a strong
campaign to run for a full term. However, he served the people
of Illinois and the United States in the Senate with great honor,
dignity and wisdom from January 12, 2009 to November 29,
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 139
A. J. KABA
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
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powerful or influential leaders in the country in this generation
to do for highly qualified Black women what Senator Dianne
Feinstein of California did for Senator Roland W. Burris?
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