N. CHANGSRI ET AL.

academic year. In the academic year 2007, the school imple-

mented three phases of lesson study in the 1st grade and in the

4th grade. In 2008 academic year, they extended to 4 classrooms;

1st grade, 2nd grade, 4th grade and 5th grade.

Their teaching practices were as followings:

Lesson study team (teachers, the 5th year undergraduate

students and graduate students) collaboratively planning the

research lessons at least once a week (every Monday or

Tuesday).

Members of lesson study team (teachers, the 5th year un-

dergraduate students and graduate students) collaboratively

observing their friends teaching the research lessons at least

2 - 4 hours per a week.

All teachers (principal, teachers in lesson study team and

other teachers), graduate students attend the phase of doing

post-discussion or reflection on the activities of the two

phases every Wednesday or Thursday.

Moreover, mathematics educators from the University had

engaged in three phases of lesson study at the three project

schools once a month in the academic years 2006 and 2007 and

a semester in the academic year 2008. Researchers had partici-

pated in the school twice a week in the academic year 2007 and

at least four times per month in the acade m i c ye a r 2008.

Context of a Case-Study Teacher

It was until in the academic year 2007, the case-study school

participated in the project. In the initial phase of the project, the

Center for Research in Mathematics Education provided a

workshop on lesson study and Open Approach for the teachers

in the school. In this workshop, the participating teachers were

offered opportunities to express their views on how to apply the

gained concepts in the school. According to their opinions, the

following concerns were revealed:

1) Difficulty in the rearrangement of the regular teaching

schedules to allow at least one teacher to observe the class in

the 1st grade and 4th grade levels which were subject to intro-

duce lesson study an d i n c o r p o rating open approach,

2) Difficulty in the class participation and observation due to

limited number of school’s teachers,

3) They worry that they could not design research lesson, in

which open-ended problems were emphasized, and

4) They worry that their students could not gain learning

achievement nor obtain class content.

After they participated in the workshop, the school imple-

mented the project on June 26, 2007. The implemented active-

ties were as follows.

1) Collaboratively designing research lesson

Every Thursday after reflection session, a case-study teach er,

observing teacher, graduate students and mathematics educators

collaborated in designing lesson plan with emphasis on open-

ended problems in the form of short instruction. The process of

designing the materials has patterned the Japanese mathematics

textbook. It was noted that the case—study teacher played a

dominant role in providing comments on the developed direc-

tions for suitability on students’ ways of thinking.

2) Collaboratively observing their friend teaching the re-

search lesson

The research lessons would be taught in classroom by a case-

study teacher in 1st grade which was carried-out for four times a

week. Teaching was conducted in a sequential order. First, the

case-study teacher posed the open-ended problem by either

mounting or writing the instructions on the blackboard, include-

ing introducing teaching materials. Thereafter, the students

were allowed to be involved in problem solving or doing group

activities; meanwhile, the case-study teacher walked around,

observing actions of the students during the activity interaction.

The case-study teacher approached the students to repeat the

directions in the event that the students were thought that they

didn’t understand the instructions. Moreover, the case-study

teacher kept stimulating the students to collaborate in solving

the problems. Then, at the end of the class, the teacher let the

students present their work by telling what they had done. Next,

after the presentation by every single of group, the case-study

teacher again made a summary of the current lesson taught and

learnt. In fact, the lesson summary of the case-study teacher

was mainly based on the content of the materials used regard-

less of connecting students’ concept.

In this phase, all of the observers underwent observation and

recording the activities performed by the students. Contents of

the observation included the students’ problem interpretation,

problem solving, presentation and group process. The period of

time spent by the observers was different i.e. the observing

teacher participated in class observation at least once a week;

the school coordination (graduate student) did from Monday to

Thursday; the researcher (graduate student) did every Tuesday

and Thursday; and the principal and a mathematics educator

attended once a month.

3) Collaboratively doing post-discussion or reflection on the

activities of the two phases

Every Thursday from 3 p.m. a reflection session was set. The

reflection, which has emphasis on the students’ interaction, was

provided mainly by the principal and attended by all of the

school’s teachers as well as members of the lesson study team.

The post-discussion or reflection proceeded as follows.

The case-study teacher, who was a class teacher, reported

what was observed during activity interaction of the stu-

dents and what were the objectives of the lesson, including

problems that were arisen.

The observing teacher reflected what was observed from

the students’ activities, whose perspectives could be either

similar or different from those of the case-study teacher.

The researcher or school coordinator (graduate students) re-

flected viewpoints observed in the classroom and not men-

tioned by the case-study teacher and the observing teacher,

for instance the given directions, thinking process of the

students. Occasionally, educational supervisor and mathe-

matics educator collaboratively provided reflection. The re-

flection by the mathematics educator additionally provided

profound academic perspectives from observing the stu-

dents’ thinking process.

The academic year 2008 was the second year the case-study

school participated in the ProDev project. It was noted that

there were internship mathematics students (the 5th year under-

graduate students) from Mathematics Education Program, Khon

Kaen University, who practiced teaching in the case-study

school. Thus, the school system was revised as follows.

1) Collaboratively designing research lesson

Previously, in the academic year 2007, when the collabora-

tive research lesson was designed, it caused some proble ms and

these were: conducting the reflection session has taken pretty

long. This was resulted in the delay of designing lesson and

producing teaching material, which took as late as 7 p.m. Thus,

in the academic year 2008, the phase of designing research

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