Vol.2, No.5, 511-512 (2010)
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH/
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Diuretic activity of Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.) in rats
A. L. Udupa1*, Sanjeeva2, Adarsh Benegal2, Vinay Prusty2, G. Prabhath Kodancha2,
M. C. Satish Kumar2, Vinutha Bhat3, U. P. Ratnakar4
1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados; *Corresponding Author:
2Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba medical college, Manipal, India
3Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba medical college, Manipal, India
4Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba medical college, Mangalore, India
Received 10 December 2009; revised 1 February 2010; accepted 3 February 2010.
Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri (200 mg/kg
and 400 mg/kg. p.o. single dose) was tested for
its diuretic activity and compared with the stan-
dard drug hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/ kg p.o.;
single dose). Significant increase in the volume
of urine and excretion of sodium, potassium
and chloride was recorded when aqueous ex-
tract of Phyllanthus niruri was administered to
hydrated albino rats.
Keywords: Phyllanthus niruri; Diuretic action
Phyllanthus niruri  is claimed to have diuretic and
antilithiatic activity in indigenous system of medicine. A
survey of the literature revealed the absence of any sys-
tematic study on diuretic activity of the plant. Hence a
study has been taken up to verify the claims made in the
indigenous Ayurvedic system of medicine.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The plant material—phyllanthus niruri was collected
locally during the month of July to December. The bota-
nical identity was confirmed by the Department of Bot-
any Sri Poornaprajna college Udupi. Institutional Ethical
Committee clearance was obtained for the experiment.
The shade dried plant (2 kg) was boiled with water in
batches of 600 gm each. The aqueous extract was con-
centrated and dried on water bath (yield = 10%).
4. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY 
Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri was administered
orally in varying doses of 1, 2, 4 and 8 g/kg to Wister
strain albino rats of either sex (n = 6/group. 180-250 g).
Animals were observed for acute toxic effect initially
continuously for two hours and thereafter at frequent
intervals for 24 hours and thereafter once daily for 14
5. DIURETIC ACTIVITY [3,4]
Albino rats of either sex (180-250 g) fasted over night
were used, each group consisting of 10 animals. The
animals were orally hydrated with 5 mL water, immedi-
ately before starting the procedures. Rats were placed
individually in a metabolic cage and the urine was col-
lected in tubes containing two drops of liquid paraffin to
prevent evaporation. The urine collected over a period of
24 hours was measured, pH was noted and sodium, po-
tassium, chloride, magnesium, phosphate and uric acid
concentrations were determined.
Each animal was given three trials at biweekly inter-
vals and the average was taken as the reading for calcu-
lation. The tests were done with single oral dose of
aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri (200 mg and 400
mg/kg p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg p.o.).
These results were then compared with the diuretic ac-
tivity of the orally administered vehicle as control. This
was repeated with single oral dose of aqueous extract of
Phyllanthus niruri (200 mg and 400 mg/kg p.o.) and hy-
drochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg p.o.) and compared with
that of the orally administered vehicle as control.
6. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Student ‘t’ test was used for statistical analysis.
7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect up to
4 g/kg p.o. in a single dose p to 14 days. In 8 g/kg p.o. u