J. Software Engineering & Applications, 2010, 3: 419-425
doi:10.4236/jsea.2010.35047 Published Online May 2010 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/jsea)
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JSEA
A Reference Model for the Analysis and
Comparison of MDE Approaches for
Web-Application Development
João de Sousa Saraiva, Alberto Rodrigues da Silva
INESC-ID/Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa, Portugal.
Email: joao.saraiva@inesc-id.pt, alberto.silva@acm.org
Received January 26th, 2010; revised March 18th, 2010; accepted March 20th, 2010.
The emerging Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) paradigm advocates the use of models as first-class citizens in the
software development process, while artifacts such as documentation and source-code can be quickly produced from
those models by using automated transformations. Even though many MDE-oriented approaches, languages and tools
have been developed in the recent past, there is no standard that concretely defines a specific sequence of steps to obtain
a functional software system from a model. Thus, the existing approaches present numerous differences among
themselves, because each one handles the problems inherent to software development in its own way. This paper presents
and discusses a reference model for the comparative study of current MDE approaches in the scope of web-application
development. This reference model focuses on relevant aspects such as modeling language scope (domain, business-logic,
user-interface), usage of patterns, separation of concerns, model transformations, tool support, and deployment details
like web-platform independence and traditional programming required. The ultimate goal of this paper is to determine
the aspects that will be of greater importance in future web-oriented MDE languages.
Keywords: Model-Driven Engineering, Web Engineering, Software Development
1. Introduction
The worldwide expansion of the Internet in the last years
has made it a powerful platform for the deployment of a
variety of artifacts and systems. This has led to the ap-
pearance of a myriad of frameworks and libraries that
attempt to harness the power of Internet-based technolo-
gies in order to accomplish various objectives. Typical
examples of widely-used web-application frameworks
include Microsoft’s ASP.NET [1], Sun’s Java EE [2],
PHP (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) [3], Ruby on Rails
[4,5], Django [6], or Catalyst [7].
This paper proposes a reference model for the analysis
and comparison of MDE (Model-Driven Engineering)
approaches to web-application development. This refer-
ence model is focused on particularly relevant aspects
such as the scope of modeling language scope (i.e., if it
addresses modeling of domain, business-logic, and
user-interface), separation of concerns, time-saving fea-
tures such as usage of patterns and/or model-to-model
transformations, tool support available, and deployment
aspects like web-platform independence and whether the
approach still requires traditional programming (i.e., de-
velopment of source-code). The goal of this reference
model is to identify concepts, principles and best practices
that are likely to become important in future model-driven
web-application languages.
It should be noted that, although currently there are not
many MDE-oriented approaches to web-site or web-ap-
plication development, there are some approaches – the
analysis of which was not included in this paper due to
length constraints – that we believe should be mentioned.
Of those, we highlight WebML (Web Modeling Language)
[8,9], UWE (UML-based Web Engineering) [10], XIS2
(eXtreme Modeling Interactive Systems) [11,12], the
OutSystems Agile Platform [13], OOHDM (Object-Ori-
ented Hypermedia Design Model) [14], or OPM/Web
(Object Process Methodology for Developing Web-Ap-
plications) [15]. We also point out that there are other
studies and tools regarding MDE-oriented approaches and
languages, not directly related to web-application devel-
opment, but rather to other important aspects such as 1)
the usage of meta-metamodels [16], 2) user-interface
modeling [17-21], or 3) the usage of prototyping tools to
provide a way for stakeholders to draw and communicate
A Reference Model for the Analysis and Comparison of MDE Approaches for Web-Application Development
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JSEA
design ideas, as is the case with Microsoft Sketchflow
This paper is organized as follows. Section 1 introduces
the context of web-applications and frameworks. Section
2 describes the reference model that we defined for the
analysis and comparison of MDE-oriented web-applica-
tion development approaches. Section 3 provides a dis-
cussion regarding this reference model; this discussion
also features some examples from web-application mod-
eling approaches that we have analyzed in our research,
and to which we have applied this reference model. Fi-
nally, Section 4 concludes this paper.
2. Reference Model
This reference model is defined according to a set of aspects
that are relevant to MDE-based development, namely(see
Table 1): 1) the language used; 2) the usage of model-to-
model transformations; and 3) the tool support for the design,
generation, and deployment of the web-application.
2.1 Modeling Language
The language used by the approach is analyzed in terms of
the meta-metamodel used (if any), and whether it ad-
dresses a set of modeling concerns, such as domain mod-
eling, business-logic modeling, and user-interface mod-
Meta-metamodel. Besides the web-application model-
ing language, it is important to identify the language’s
meta-metamodel (if any) and the modeling elements that
it provides. We consider that this aspect is important be-
cause: 1) this meta-metamodel’s expressiveness can affect
the number of elements that the language itself can pro-
vide, which in turn can have a direct impact on the lan-
guage’s own expressiveness and its adequacy to solve
complex web-application problems; and 2) the meta-
metamodel used by the language can have a profound
influence on the tool support that is – or may become –
available to the approach, e.g., languages specified as a
UML 2.0 profile [23] are likely to be supported by the
majority of UML modeling tools that support the Profiling
Domain Modeling. Domain modeling concerns the
identification of problem-domain concepts, and their
representation using a modeling language (e.g., UML
diagrams). This aspect is analyzed regarding: 1) whether it
is independent of persistence or user-interface details (i.e.,
domain models do not need to be “adjusted” to support
those layers); and 2) the elements provided by the lan-
guage, such as enumerations (which are useful to avoid
specifying multiple concepts with no particular differ-
ences between themselves) or associations (namely their
arity, i.e., the number of possible associated entities).
Business-Logic Modeling. Although the definition of
business-logic modeling can be considered somewhat
subjective, in this work we consider it as the specification
of the web-application’s behavior. This aspect is analyzed
regarding the following subjects: 1) whether it supports
querying and manipulating domain concepts in a either
textual or graphical manner, e.g., using SQL-like state-
ments; 2) whether this querying and manipulation support
is “low-level”, in a manner similar to traditional source-
code; 3) support for process specification; and 4) usage of
patterns, such as the typical “create-read-update-delete”
(CRUD) set of business-logic patterns. It should be noted
that the “low-level support” subject is considered relevant
because it often reflects the expressiveness of the lan-
guage: typical source-code-oriented languages (such as C
or C#), although complex, are nevertheless very expres-
Navigation Flow Modeling. The approach’s support for
specifying the navigation flow (in the context of the
modeled web-application) between different HTML
pages, or even inside HTML pages, is also analyzed in this
User-Interface Modeling. Another important aspect is
the approach’s support for specifying/modeling the
user-interface (UI). The subjects analyzed are the fol-
lowing: 1) whether the UI modeling language is plat-
form-independent (i.e., does not require specific software
to present the UI); 2) supports access-control specification
(i.e., certain controls are shown/hidden according to the
authenticated user); 3) allows the definition of custom UI
elements; 4) allows the usage of interaction patterns (e.g.,
create, edit, associate/dissociate); and 5) supports binding
between UI elements and domain model elements.
2.2 Model-to-Model Transformations
This subsection examines whether the approach uses (or
even considers) the usage of model-to-model transforma-
tions. This kind of transformations is typically used to
accelerate the task of designing the web-application, by
using model analysis and inference mechanisms to auto-
matically specify some parts of the web-application model,
thus releasing the model designer from some repetitive
and error-prone tasks.
2.3 Tool Support and Deployment
This subsection analyzes the tool support that is available
for the approach, regarding the following aspects.
Modeling Tool. This aspect determines whether the
approach (and its language) is supported by a design tool,
and if that design tool is proprietary (i.e., if it is built
specifically for supporting the approach), or if it is a ge-
neric tool, adapted to specific details of the language.
Need for Traditional Programming. This aspect ana-
lyzes if the tools supporting the approach allow the gen-
eration of (parts of) the web-application, and whether the
generated application is complete (i.e., it does not require
the manual implementation of specific features by pro-
A Reference Model for the Analysis and Comparison of MDE Approaches for Web-Application Development
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JSEA
Deployment Environment. Finally, this aspect deter-
mines the target platform(s) considered by the approach,
and whether those target platforms are proprietary (in
other words, if there is supposed to be a tight coupling
between the approach and the target platform).
3. Discussion
This section provides a discussion regarding the criteria
described in Section 2. Some of the arguments that we
present in this discussion are based on our own application
of this reference model to some MDE-oriented web-ap-
plication development approaches (such as WebML and
UWE), while others are based on our own previous ex-
periences in this field of study (such as XIS2).
3.1 Modeling Language
It is frequent for this kind of development approaches to
define a graphical modeling language, sometimes with
textual elements involved (e.g., OCL constraints in UWE).
Nevertheless, the language’s users can certainly benefit
from having textual specifications assisted by graphi-
cally-oriented features, such as using drag-and-drop to
place such textual elements.
Regarding syntax, UML-based approaches and lan-
guages tend to use UML’s graphical syntax (e.g., boxes
for representing classes or enumerations, a “stickman”
figure for representing a stakeholder), mainly due to their
nature as UML-extending metamodels and as UML pro-
files. On the other hand, other languages typically define
their own syntax, albeit some parts of those syntaxes are
usually based on existing modeling languages, with the
objective of facilitating their learning process.
Finally, regarding semantics, the difference between
UML-based and non-UML-based languages is also
quickly noticeable. The semantics of most UML-based
languages are defined verbally – in their respective lan-
guage specification documents – with some OCL restric-
tions defined; validation of models specified using these
languages is dependent on the expressiveness of OCL and
the modeling tool’s support for OCL restrictions. On the
other hand, the semantics of other languages, although not
specified in a “formal” manner, are supported by cus-
tom-built tools that can easily address all aspects of the
language’s semantics, because of those tools’ use of low-
level programming languages. Nevertheless, we consider
that this difference is present mainly because of the
compromise, that each approach must assume, between
the “tool support” and “model exchangeability” factors: 1)
for “real-world” languages (with a high degree of com-
plexity), it is usually easier to provide adequate modeling
and validation facilities via a custom tool with a low-level
programming language, than by a UML generic modeling
tool with a “UML Profile + OCL restrictions” customiza-
tion mechanism; 2) however, due to their typically aca-
demic nature, UML-based approaches are also concerned
with exchanging models between tools, a concern not
shared by commercially-oriented approaches, which ac-
counts for the choice to use UML in such approaches.
Meta-metamodel. We have noticed that commer-
cial-oriented approaches usually define their languages
without using a standard meta-metamodel, while aca-
demic approaches tend to use existing meta-metamodels
(e.g., UML [23]) as the basis for their web-application
modeling language.
This is possibly due to the common belief that the
meta-metamodels available today, such as UML or MOF,
are too complex and attempt to address too many prob-
lems (which is one of the major factors that drive the
discipline of Domain-Specific Modeling [24]). Consid-
ering that commercial approaches are supposed to be
practical and “easy to use”, the creators of such ap-
proaches are likely to opt for the creation of a language
from scratch (even if this involves some initial extra ef-
fort), in order to avoid dealing with issues due to the in-
herent complexity of existing meta-metamodel languages.
On the other hand, academic approaches are typically
more focused on obtaining and divulging results that
contribute to advance the state-of-the-art, while aspects
such as simplicity and “ease of use” are usually consid-
ered secondary. Thus, in this kind of environment, using a
standard meta-metamodel is not only recommended, but it
is also a way to ensure that other researchers can quickly
build upon those results and advance the state-of-the-art
even further.
Domain Modeling. Domain modeling is a subject that
must be addressed by any application development ap-
proach. This is because an application, with the purpose of
solving a certain problem, will undoubtedly manipulate a
set of entities, directly or indirectly related to that problem;
these entities, in turn, are described by a domain model.
Most software development approaches and best prac-
tices advocate the independence between the domain
model and other parts of the application functionality (e.g.,
separating the domain model from persistence or UI layer
details). However, most languages usually end up re-
quiring that the domain model be “adjusted” to UI- or
persistence-oriented details (e.g., in the Address Book
example at the UWE tutorial [25], the “Address Book”
class has an attribute “introduction”, in order for the main
screen of the application to show a small introductory
message to the user). Although from a theoretical per-
spective this can be regarded as a bad thing, in practice it
does have the advantage of endowing the designer with a
greater level of control over the web-application imple-
mentation itself, instead of just relying on possibly fallible
automated mechanisms. Nevertheless, this advantage can
also be obtained by the technique of adding modeling
elements, outside of the domain model, to establish the
mappings between the domain model elements and the
elements of other models.
A Reference Model for the Analysis and Comparison of MDE Approaches for Web-Application Development
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JSEA
Also, most languages usually provide some degree of
support for important concepts like enumerations and
associations. Associations are obviously important, as
they enable the definition of relationships between entities.
On the other hand, enumerations are also important be-
cause they enable the a-priori definition of “instances”
while avoiding a potential explosion of entity types.
UML-based approaches can inherit support for these
concepts automatically; other languages typically provide
support for associations, but enumerations are seldom
supported (e.g., WebML does not support enumerations,
but the OutSystems Agile Platform does).
Business-Logic Modeling. Business-logic modeling is
usually addressed by this kind of modeling approaches,
although how this is handled varies greatly according to
the approach. Modeling features typically found are the
usage of pre-defined business-logic patterns, the possi-
bility for designers to define their own business-logic
patterns, and the deference of business-logic specification
to traditional, source-code-oriented, development. How-
ever, most approaches frequently adopt a combination of
these possibilities: XIS2 provides the typical create-read-
update-delete operations automatically, and the designer
can add more operations; on the other hand, the OutSys-
tems Agile Platform only supports its pre-defined opera-
tions, although the wide variety of operations that it sup-
ports should be adequate for most of the business-logic
that the designer would want to specify.
A relevant issue that should be mentioned here is the
trade-off between abstraction and expressive power. Al-
though languages such as XIS2 or WebML try to raise the
abstraction level at which designers have to think and
specify their models (as opposed to just developing the
web-application in a manual source-code-oriented fash-
ion), the fact is that this higher abstraction usually also
affects the expressive power available to designers in a
negative manner. On the other hand, approaches that are
not particularly oriented towards raising the abstraction
level (e.g., business-logic modeling in the OutSystems
Agile Platform is intended to provide developers, who
have experience in dealing with web-application-related
concepts such as “request parameters”, “session values”
or “asynchronous requests”, with a graphical environment
for them to do their tasks) suffer almost no impact on the
expressive power available to business-logic modeling.
Navigation Flow Modeling. Navigation flow modeling
is an aspect that is fundamental to any kind of web-ap-
plication, and so these development approaches must
address it. Due to their “web-application modeling” nature
and all that this implies (e.g., the existence of HTML
pages, hyperlinks to navigate between pages, using re-
quest parameters or a similar mechanism to provide nec-
essary parameters), this kind of development approach
typically all follow the same guidelines: a directed graph
is drawn, where nodes correspond to HTML pages, and
edges correspond to the possible navigation flows that are
available to the user within the context of a certain page.
The difference between most approaches, however, lies
in whether the designer can specify the sets of edges (i.e.,
actions or links) available in each node. An example of
this difference can be found in XIS2 and WebML: in XIS2
the designer can specify actions, associated to UI elements
in a page, and the navigation flows will afterward be as-
sociated with the corresponding page’s actions, while in
WebML each Data-Unit node has a well-defined set of
links, for input and output, and so the designer cannot
specify additional links.
User-Interface Modeling. Most web-application de-
velopment approaches address UI modeling in a graphical
manner, using a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You
Get) approach. However, there are many variations on
what can be modeled in the UI. For example, the WebML
language, as described in [26], only allows the specifica-
tion of what elements will be present on the page, but not
where they will be located (although its commercial tool
does provide support for this kind of UI modeling). On the
other hand, other approaches (such as the OutSystems
Agile Platform or XIS2) do allow the specification of the
location of such elements.
An issue that should be mentioned, related to
WYSIWYG-like UI modeling, is the possibility of using
and or capturing UI patterns to address the UI’s behavior.
From our experiences in using this reference model, we
have noticed that most approaches (such as XIS2,
WebML and the OutSystems Agile Platform) usually
address this behavioral aspect through the capture of UI
patterns (e.g., associate/dissociate, list, create item), ena-
bling applications to interact with users, instead of just
displaying requested resources.
An aspect where most approaches actually differ be-
tween themselves is the possibility of reusing page or
interface components. As an example, WebML and
OutSystems’ Platform support this feature, while XIS2 or
UWE do not. Nevertheless, we consider this to be a very
important feature, as it allows designers to specify certain
screen sections only once, and “import” those sections
into some/all of the application’s screens, with the obvi-
ous added advantage that changes to such a section need
to be done only in a single point in the model; a good
example of such a component would be a web-site banner,
or a web-site contents’ navigation tree.
Regarding platform-independence, we believe that
there is not much to be said, considering that these ap-
proaches have to generate regular HTML to be sent to a
web-browser, and so can be considered as target-platform-
Finally, it is very frequent for these approaches to allow
binding UI elements to domain elements (e.g., configure
the rows of a table to show the values of field in specific
instances). However, these approaches usually differ on
A Reference Model for the Analysis and Comparison of MDE Approaches for Web-Application Development
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JSEA
whether they allow the customization of those bindings in
the model (e.g., change a cell in a table row to show a
different value for each instance). Although not being able
to customize these bindings can certainly simplify the
modeling task and avoid designer errors, in practice this is
also a limitation on the expressiveness of the language,
which can force developers to change generated source-
code in order to address specific requirements.
3.2 Model-to-Model Transformations
From our own experience regarding both academic and
non-academic web-application tools and approaches,
support for model-to-model transformations is an aspect
seldom addressed by these approaches, and typically
found only on the UML-based ones. This is possibly be-
cause model-to-model transformations are typically im-
plemented in such a way that user-defined information on
the destination model may be lost. Additionally, most
approaches use a single modeling language, and so the
information that would be present in the destination
“model” can be inferred from the information that has
already been modeled.
The approaches that do consider the usage of model-
to-model transformations typically use them to accelerate
modeling tasks, by taking the information already mod-
eled at the time the transformation is performed and gen-
erating new views. These transformations reflect how
those views would typically be modeled, and the designer
is free to change the generated views to suit the applica-
tion’s needs (e.g., showing an extra field in the UI, or
adding an extra step in an activity diagram).
3.3 Tool Support and Deployment
For any web-application modeling approach to actually be
usable, it has to provide some kind of tool support.
Modeling Tool. Tool support is an aspect typically in-
fluenced by the meta-metamodel used (if any), and by the
academic/commercial orientation of the approach. Aca-
demic approaches based on UML are usually tool-agnostic
and are supposed to be usable in any UML modeling tool
that supports the Profiling mechanism. On the other hand,
commercial approaches provide their own proprietary
(and language-specific) modeling tools; nevertheless, it is
sometimes possible to specify UML profiles that enable
the modeling of such languages in regular UML modeling
tools (albeit in a somewhat limited fashion). An example
of this can be found in [27], which defines a WebML-
oriented UML profile.
It should be noted, however, that such language-specific
tools have a great advantage over “generic” tools, as they
can assist the user throughout the entire development
life-cycle (by means of mechanisms such as contextual
help or helpful validation tips), in a manner that is well
adjusted to the approach.
Need for Traditional Programming. Although it would
certainly be desirable that a modeling approach required
no programming efforts (for reasons such as avoiding
programming errors, or reduced software development
costs), the fact is that most web-application modeling
approaches typically consider typical programming tasks
(i.e., manual editing of generated source-code artifacts) as
an activity to occur during the development life-cycle, in
order to account for particular requirements that may not
be expressible by the approach’s modeling language. Of
the approaches that are known to us, only the OutSystems
Agile Platform considers that source-code should not be
edited in a manual fashion: designers/developers can only
edit the model itself, and generated code and databases are
always kept “behind-the-scenes”.
This is an aspect that clearly illustrates one of the con-
sequences of the traditional MDE question “how expres-
sive should the modeling language be?” This question is
actually a dilemma because increasing the expressiveness
of a language typically involves adding elements to it, in
order to address more semantic possibilities, which in turn
can increase the difficulty for a new designer to learn the
language, as well as possibly reducing its level of ab-
straction. On the other hand, if the language does not
provide many elements, it is easier to learn, but it may also
be unable to specify some desirable features. So, current
modeling languages are actually the result of a “balanced
compromise” between these factors, always taking into
account the purpose of the language.
Deployment Environment. Most web-application mod-
eling approaches are actually independent of the de-
ployment environment, because they do not target a spe-
cific technology or platform (e.g., MySQL database,
Apache web-server); nevertheless, although the concepts
in the languages of some approaches may pose some
technological restrictions, developers are sometimes able
to use “workarounds” to remove such restrictions (e.g.,
replacing a Java servlet with an adequate ASP.NET class).
As an example of this kind independence, we can point
out WebML, UWE and XIS2: because of their usage of
high-level elements, they can generate code for any
web-oriented platform (e.g., ASP.NET, Apache Tomcat);
in fact, XIS2 can also generate code for desktop-based
platforms. However, models that are created in the Out-
Systems Agile Platform can only be deployed to the
OutSystems deployment stacks, which use either 1) the
JBoss application server and Oracle database, or 2) Mi-
crosoft’s IIS application server and SQL Server Express
Nevertheless, we consider it important to note that, al-
though in the deployment aspect the Agile Platform is
apparently much more limited than other approaches, this
“disadvantage” is actually what allows the Agile Platform
to automate most of the web-application development
life-cycle, namely deployment and application upgrade/
rollback scenarios, something that is clearly lacking in
A Reference Model for the Analysis and Comparison of MDE Approaches for Web-Application Development
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JSEA
most of the web-application modeling approaches that we
4. Conclusions
Most web-applications are still created in a traditional
manner, by manually developing source-code, which is a
slow and error-prone task. This is a problem, not specific
to just web-applications but to the software engineering
discipline in general, that MDE aims to address. Fur-
thermore, the web-based development paradigm intro-
duces a set of Internet and HTTP-related concepts that
have to be addressed by the designer (e.g., page, naviga-
tion, request, GET, POST).
In this paper, we proposed a reference model for com-
paring current MDE-driven approaches for web-applica-
tion development, according to relevant criteria such as
support for domain, business-logic, UI and navigation-
flow modeling, as well as usage of model-to-model
transformations and tool support. Table 1 summarizes
the key issues of the proposed reference model. Finally,
this paper discussed the defined reference model.
Some reflections can be made regarding the criteria
identified in this reference model. The first aspect con-
cerns the compromise between language expressiveness,
simplicity, and learning curve for new designers. Al-
though the purpose of the language must always be a
factor to weigh in on this compromise, the fact is that
very expressive languages can be harder to learn because
of their great number of elements than languages with
few elements, which are typically simpler. Moreover, if a
creator of a language starts increasing its expressiveness
by adding new elements, it is likely that its level of ab-
straction over another language is also diminished, be-
cause those new elements must reflect particular seman-
tic possibilities of the lower-level language. Note that we
say “very expressive languages” instead of “languages
with many elements”. This is on purpose, as a language
can provide many elements, and still not be very expres-
sive; in these cases, some of those elements have exactly
the same semantic meaning but different syntax, what we
typically call syntactic sugar. Java and C# e.g., have
about the same level of expressiveness, although C# pro-
vides a greater number of elements (e.g., delegates).
Another aspect concerns the compromise between tool
support, and integration with the deployment platform.
Although, in theory, using a generic tool to create models
and generate the desired source-code is a good idea, in
practice it actually increases the difficulty of obtaining a
working system from the model. A good example of this
can be found in the OutSystems Agile Platform vs. a ge-
neric UML-based modeling approach such as XIS2: the
latter requires the generation, compilation and deploy-
ment of artifacts (clearly a task to be performed by a
programmer or a technical user), while the former han-
dles all these deployment aspects in a manner completely
transparent to the designer.
Table 1. Main issues of the proposed reference model
Analysis Aspects Examples of Possible Analysis Options
Meta-metamodel UML 2.0 (Profile)
Independence of database
Independence of UI
Support for enumerations and associations
Support for domain model query and manipulation
Usage of business-logic patterns
Navigation Flow
Modeling Designer-defined navigation links between pages
Language Modeling
Custom interface elements
Designer-defined UI patterns
Modeling levels concerned PIM-to-PIM
Transformation languages Programming-language specific
Independent of programming-language (e.g., QVT)
Modeling Tool
Integrated into (or an extension for) a generic CASE/IDE tool
Language-specific tool
Need for Traditional
Targets specific platform
Tool Support and
Deployment Environment
Targets specific platform
A Reference Model for the Analysis and Comparison of MDE Approaches for Web-Application Development
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JSEA
Finally, although there is work regarding MDE ap-
proaches for the development of web-applications, it
does not address platforms of a more specialized nature,
such as CMS (Content Management System) or DMS
(Document Management System) platforms. Although
this is understandable, as these platforms provide addi-
tional concepts and supporting them would introduce
even more problems (e.g., what to do when a language
element can not be mapped to an implementation con-
cept), we consider that it also constitutes additional mo-
tivation to use a set of languages and the corresponding
model-to-model transformations: each language could
address a specific kind of platform, and the model-to-
model transformations would be responsible for mapping
concepts between those languages/platforms.
[1] “The Official Microsoft ASP.NET Site”. http://www.asp.net
[2] “Java EE”. http://java.sun.com/javaee
[3] “PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor”. http://www.php.net
[4] “Ruby Programming Language”. http://www.ruby-lang.org
[5] “Ruby on Rails”. http:// rubyonrails.org
[6] “Django–The Web framework for perfectionists with
deadlines.” http://www. djangoproject.com
[7] “Catalyst–Web Framework”.
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