Vol.3, No.1, 72-80 (2012) Journ al of Biophysical Chemistry
“Doubling” of local photon emissions when two
simultaneous, spatially-separated, chemiluminescent
reactions share the same magnetic
field configurations
Blake T. Dotta, Michael A. Persinger*
Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada; *Corresponding Author: mpersinger@laurentian.ca
Received 5 September 2011; revised 30 October 2011; accepted 12 November 2011
The aim of the present experiments was to dis-
cern if the “entanglement”-like photon emis-
sions from p airs of cell cultures or hu man brains
separated by significant distances but sharing
the same circling magnetic field could be dem-
onstrated with a classic chemiluminescent re-
action produced by hydrogen peroxide and hy-
pochlorite. Simultaneous injection of the same
amount of peroxide into a local dish (above a
photomultiplier tube) and a dish 10 m away in a
closed chamber produced a “doubling” of the
durations of the photon spikes only when the
two reactions were placed in the center of sepa-
rate spaces around each of which magnetic
fields were generated as accelerating group ve-
locities containing decreasing phase modula-
tions followed by decelerating group velocities
embedded with increasing phase modulations.
The duration of this “entanglement” was about 8
min. These results suggest that separate dis-
tances behave as if they were “the same space”
if they are exposed to the same precise temporal
configuration of magnetic fields with specific
angular velocities.
Keywords: Photon Emission; Entanglement;
Angularly Accelerating Magnetic Fields; Hydrogen
Peroxide/Hypochlorite Reaction
The concept of locality (local causes) requires each
physical event or change in event to have a physical
cause which occupies the immediate space-time of the
effect [1-3]. We have been developing a procedure to
study experimentally the characteristics of nonlocality [4,
5]. When particular temporal configurations of changing
angular velocities of weak magnetic fields are generated
at the same time within two separate rings of solenoids
separated by 10 m simultaneous phenomena that are
congruent with the theoretical expectations for “excess
correlations” or “entanglements” are observed [6]. Meas-
urements in two separate loci that should have been ran-
domly associated were excessively correlated if they
shared the same unique magnetic space. We interpreted
the effect as a transposition of space-time coordinates for
the two distant loci such that they behave as the “same
space” without involvement of classically propagating
electromagnetic fields.
We found that the most robust “excess correlations”
that implied nonlocality required accelerating or deceler-
ating rates of change in angular velocity as determined
by the duration of the magnetic field at each solenoid
within a circular array as they were serially activated.
For example, when two human subjects separated by 10
m shared the same circumcerebrally rotating magnetic
fields the changes in power within specific electroen-
cephalographic frequencies of the person sitting in the
dark reflected the light flash frequency presented to the
other person who was sitting in a closed acoustic cham-
ber in another room [7].
To pursue this phenomenon with more precision, and
fewer organismic complexities subsequent experiments
measured photon emission by a photomultiplier tube
(PMT) from cells in one space within the ring of sole-
noids while light flashes were delivered to cells within
another ring of solenoids. Dotta et al. [5] found reliable
and statistically significant increases (~2×) in photon
emissions (background levels of ~5 × 10–11 W/m2) from
plates of approximately one million melanoma cells
housed in darkness if the other plate of melanoma cells
in the closed chamber was stimulated with light. The
cells housed in the dark and in the other room shared the
same configurations of magnetic fields rotating around
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B. T. Dotta et al. / Journal of Biophysical Chemistry 3 (2012) 72-80 73
the plates. The effect was not evident if the light was
flashed without the presence of the shared magnetic
fields with changing angular velocities.
However this excess correlation required two stages
of magnetic field exposure that involved first an accel-
erating rotational field for about 5 min followed by a
decelerating magnetic field for a comparable period; the
“shared photon” effect was evident only during the lat-
ter sequence. Additional research [8] indicated that the
likely source of the photon emissions from melanoma
cells was the plasma cell membrane as it slowly depo-
larized following removal from incubation. There are
multiple hypothesized processes that could mediate this
effect through relatively complex biochemical sequ-
ences including lipid peroxidation, excited triplet state
carbonyls [9] and interactions with oxygen radicals
In order to discern if this nonlocal photon coupling
could be reproduced with a more direct photon reaction,
we selected a classic physical chemical process: H2O2
+ NaClO H
2O + NaCl + O2 or more precisely
HOOH + OCl 1O2 for generating photons [11]. The
source of the photon has been attributed to the excited
singlet oxygen 1O2. When repeated quantities of 0.1 cc
hydrogen peroxide were injected at fixed intervals
(every 1 min) into the same 6 cc of sodium hypochlo-
rite plates placed over the aperture of the PMT, discrete
reliable spikes with fixed durations (~2 s) in photon
emissions between 10–8 W/m2 and 10–9 W/m2 (or when
the aperture of 1.26 × 10–3 m2 is accommodated, quan-
tum amounts of between ~10–11 and 10–12 J) were ob-
However if both this plate and the plate 10 m away in
an acoustic chamber (and Faraday cage) were exposed to
the same magnetic field protocol as the one that pro-
duced the “double photon” effect in the melanoma cells
[5] and 0.1 cc of hydrogen peroxide was injected into
both plates simultaneously, there was a conspicuous wid-
ening of the duration of the photon emission that oc-
curred reliably for about 6 to 8 min during a specific type
of change in angular acceleration. An example of the
spikes of photon emissions during serial single local in-
jections and the local + nonlocal paired injections are
shown in Figure 1.
The duration that nonlocal + local injections produced
the effect was much longer than the 0.5 msec mainte-
nance of entangled spin states reported by Julsgaard et al
[12] for paired volumes of about 1012 molecules of cae-
sium gas. The effect from local + nonlocal paired injec-
tions compared to single local injections was so qualita-
tively conspicuous we designed a series of experiments
to isolate the important components of the physical con-
ditions that promoted the phenomenon. Unlike the “dou-
ble photon” effect seen with the coupled plates of mela-
Figure 1. Photon emissions (1 unit ~5 × 10–11 W/m2) as a func-
tion of time (in increments of 0.3 s) from injections of H2O2
into NaClO. The narrow spikes occurred during single local
injections while the conspicuously wider spikes occurred dur-
ing the simultaneous nonlocal + local injections.
noma cells, which continually generate photons (espe-
cially after they are removed from the incubator), we
found that the injections of the reactant to produce the
enhanced photon emission during the local + nonlocal
paired injections required simultaneous injections of 0.1
cc into both plates of sodium hypochlorite. Here we pre-
sent the results of our experiments that show the tempo-
ral duration and magnetic field configurations required to
generate the “photon doubling”.
2.1. Photon Emission Procedures and
The equipment and rooms used for these experiments
were identical to those employed for the tissue culture [4,
5] and human brain [7] studies. There was only one ex-
periment per day which was conducted between 18 and
21 hr local time. A total of 6 cc of refrigerated reagent
grade 4% Cl) of NaHClO (Sigma-Aldrich) was placed
into each of two tissue culture dishes (Sarstedt, 60 × 14
mm) that were then covered. They were transported to
the experimental room.
One plate (cover removed) was placed over the aper-
ture of the PMT sensor that was housed in a dark room.
The Model 15 Photometer from SRI instruments (Pacific
Photometric Instruments) and the PMT housing (BCA
IP21) for a RCA electron tube had been employed in
other experiments [4,5]. It was connected to the meter
(scaled 1 to 100) whose voltages were recorded by an
IBM laptop computer with a sampling rate of 3 times per
sec. Two methods of calibration indicated that an in-
crease of 1 unit was equivalent to ~5 × 10–11 W/m2. At
this setting the typical background range for the meter
over days was between 45 and 55 units. Within a single
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B. T. Dotta et al. / Journal of Biophysical Chemistry 3 (2012) 72-80
hour the range of variation around the central tendency
was between 5 and 6 units.
The PMT sensor was surrounded by an array of 8 so-
lenoids as described previously. A 1 cc plastic syringe
with a 23 gauge needle was inserted into a 0.6 m length
of intramedic tubing. The distal 2 cm of the tubing was
attached to the wooden (cotton removed) center of a Q-
tip to add weight and stability to the end of the tubing.
After 2 cc of 3% H2O2 (purchased from local pharmacies)
was slowly injected through the tubing (outside of the
PMT box) to insure fresh reactant for each trial, the tip
was placed in the middle of the tissue dish containing the
fresh hypochlorite over the center of the aperture of the
PMT (beneath the plate). The box containing the PMT
and the ring of eight solenoids was then covered with
several layers of black heavy cloth. The background
photon emissions for this procedure have been remarka-
bly reliable and stable over the last two years except
during the days that precede major global seismic events.
The second dish, also containing 6 cc of hypochlorite,
was placed in the second circular array of 8 solenoids
that was housed 10 m away in an industrial acoustic
chamber that was also a Faraday environment in another
2.2. Magnetic Field Exposures
Both arrays of 8 solenoids in the different rooms were
connected to custom constructed (US Patent 6,312,376
B1: Nov. 6, 2001; Canadian Patent No: 2214296) units
that controlled the sequential activation of each of the
solenoids. The control units were connected to the same
IBM 286 computer that contained the custom-cons-
tructed software for generating the magnetic fields. The
shapes and intensities of the magnetic fields were com-
pleted by transforming a column of numbers each be-
tween 0 and 256 to between –5 and +5 V (127 = 0 V)
through a digital to analogue converter. The duration
each number (or voltage) that was activated was pro-
grammable and in these experiments was 1 msec. The
duration was selected on the bases of theoretical assump-
tions [3].
On the bases of their effectiveness to produce biologi-
cal responses in human volunteers [13], rats [14], and
cell cultures [15] two “physiologically patterned” mag-
netic fields were employed. Their shapes are shown in
Figure 2. The first frequency modulated pattern was
considered decreasing while the second pattern was con-
sidered increasing. The numbers of points (numbers be-
tween 0 and 256) that composed each pattern was 859
and 230, respectively.
These patterns were continuously presented but were
also rotated to each of the 8 solenoids in a counterclock-
wise (from the top) direction. Each solenoid was sepa-
(a) (b)
Figure 2. The decreasing frequency or “phase velocity” (left)
and increasing frequency or “phase velocity” wave forms that
were generated continuously during the accelerating or decel-
erating angular velocities required to produce the nonlocal +
local “double photon duration” effect.
rated by 45 deg around a circumference of ~60 cm. The
software was constructed to generate two parameters: 1)
initial duration of the magnetic field generation at the
“first” solenoid in the circle, and, 2) the rate of change of
the duration. For the increasing angular velocity (accel-
eration) of 20 + 2 ms, this meant that the duration of the
magnetic field at the first solenoid was 20 ms, and then
decreased to 18, 16, 14, 12, 10, 8, and 6 ms to each of the
successive solenoids before increasing to 20 ms continu-
For the decreasing angular velocity (deceleration) of
20 – 2 ms, this meant that the duration of the field at the
first solenoid was 20 ms which then increased with each
successive solenoid to 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 ms.
The time required to deliver the patterned magnetic field
to each solenoid (the port time) was about 200 µs. The
strength of the magnetic field within the center of the
array of solenoids where the dishes containing the sodium
hypochlorite were placed averaged 1 µT (10 mG) as
measured by an AC milligauss meter. Each solenoid was
a pair of reed switches [16] contained within a plastic
cylinder (film canisters) that were connected to its own
custom constructed commutator and both units were
controlled by the same computer at a central location.
2.3. Experimental Protocol and
The complex magnetic field configurations simulta-
neously generated in both arrays of solenoids involved
two major components. We employed the terminology
from Tu and his colleagues [17] who described that one
of the implications of the photon displaying a nonzero
mass would be to produce a difference between group
velocity and phase velocity. We did not assume that our
utilization of these terms were identities with their infer-
ences but instead served as convenient metaphors for the
application of our procedures to future theoretical pur-
The first component of the magnetic field configura-
tion was the changing angular velocity of the circular
rotating magnetic field which we considered analogous
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B. T. Dotta et al. / Journal of Biophysical Chemistry 3 (2012) 72-80 75
to the “group velocity.” The second was the changing
frequency modulation of the patterned magnetic field
which we considered analogous to the “phase modula-
tion”. We had found by trial and error in the previous
cell-based experiments [5] that to obtain the excess cor-
relation between enhanced photon emission from cells in
the dark and intervals when the other cells in another
room were receiving light flashes both dishes must be
first exposed for about 5 minutes to an accelerating group
velocity (20 + 2) containing a decreasing (Figure 2(a))
phase modulation (AD) followed by a comparable time
of exposure to a decelerating group velocity (20 – 2 ms)
carrying an increasing (Figure 2(b)) phase modulation
(DI). This ADDI sequence was defined as our standard
The protocol involved the following sequences. Once
each dish in the two rooms was centered in its array of
solenoids (about 5 to 10 min after removal of reactants
from the stock solutions), 40 repetitions of the AD con-
figuration (about 30 s) were presented to each array of
solenoids to verify the presence of the magnetic fields in
both locations. This was completed by listening to the
sound from a commercial audioamplifier connected to a
telephone solenoid sensor. The sound pattern also al-
lowed verification of the fidelity of the temporal pattern.
After about 2 min, the two experimenters synchronized
their cell phone stop watches to the nearest 0.1 s and then
the DA configuration was again activated.
For the next 6 min during odd minutes (1, 3, and 5) the
experimenter in the PMT room injected 0.1 cc of hydro-
gen peroxide through the tubing. During even minutes (2,
4, and 6) both experimenters in the separate rooms in-
jected 0.1 cc of hydrogen peroxide into their respective
dishes simultaneously. At the end of 6 min, the AD field
was stopped and the DI field was activated from the
computer, which required about 50 s, and occurred con-
tinuously for the next 12 min. Starting at 9 min single
quantities of 0.1 cc of hydrogen peroxide were injected
during the odd minutes (9, 11, 13, 15) and the simulta-
neous “double” quantities at the nonlocal and local dishes
were injected during even minutes (10, 12, 14, 16, 18
min). Each injection by both experiments required ~2 s
and was always verified independently by stopwatches.
As indicated the increased duration of photon emission
occurred only during this second component and during
the local + nonlocal paired injections (Figure 3). Subse-
quent manipulations of the parameters were then de-
pendent upon the results of each triplet of experiments.
2.4. Data Analysis
The primary measure for the photon emission was the
duration of the spike (Figure 1). Each raw data file com-
prising the 3 samples per sec were observed visually. The
Figure 3. Absolute duration for the photon spikes dur-
ing our standard protocol for single (local) and double
(nonlocal + loal) simultaneous injections once per
minute (odd numbers, local injections; even numbers,
nonlocal + local injections) while both plates were
exposed to only the DI phase (control = the dashed
line) or the AD component for 6 min followed by the
DI component for 9 to 22 min.
number of serial samples (~333 ms/sample) from the
time the PMT values deviated by 10 units above the
background baseline and then return to below this crite-
rion was converted to seconds. These values were
strongly correlated with the calculated area under the
curve of the spike (see Figure 4). Because of the con-
venience of employing the spike duration and the ro-
bustness of the visual display, this measure was selected
for analyses.
The means and standard deviations for the 3 local and
local + nonlocal injections during the AD field exposures
and the 5 local and local + nonlocal injections during the
DI field exposures were obtained. Two way analyses of
variance for these values (AD:local, AD:nonlocal + local,
DI:local, DI:nonlocal + local) were completed for each
experiment. One way analyses of variance were also
Figure 4. Correlation between the photon spike duration (in
sec) and the total number of PMT units under the curve of the
spike for events randomly selected from several initial ex-
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B. T. Dotta et al. / Journal of Biophysical Chemistry 3 (2012) 72-80
conducted when appropriate. Effect sizes, the amount of
variance explained, were calculated in order to estimate
the magnitude of the effect. Spectral analyses employed
classic methods. All data were analyzed by PC SPSS 16.
3.1. Reliability and Validity of Effect
The means and standard deviations for the durations of
the photon emission for the local (single) injections and
nonlocal + local paired injections for the AD and DI
components for a total of 15 experiments on different
days distributed over a three month period are shown in
Figure 5. Analysis of variance demonstrated a statisti-
cally significant difference [F(1, 71) = 59.81, p < 0.001]
that explained (2 estimates) about 50% of the variance
of the dependent variable. The effects were so large and
qualitatively conspicuous that statistical analyses were
note required to discern them but were included as a
Because the duration of the photon emission when
both experimenters each injected 0.1 cc of hydrogen
peroxide simultaneously (nonlocal + local paired injec-
tions) were only about 0.65 to 0.69 wider than a single
local injection, twice (0.2 cc) the usual amounts of hy-
drogen peroxide were serially injected once per min into
the dish above the PMT. As can be seen in Figure 6, the
photon duration of the 0.2 cc single local injection did
not differ significantly from the nonlocal + local paired
injection trials when the two experimenters each injected
0.1 cc simultaneously into the dish over the PMT and
Figure 5. Means and standard deviations for the net
increase in duration of the photon spike during the si-
multaneous nonlocal + local injections of 0.1 cc of hy-
drogen peroxide compared to the previous single 0.1
cc (local) injection during the presentation of the AD
(accelerating angular velocity, decreasing phase veloc-
ity) and DI (decelerating angular velocity, increasing
phase phase velocity) periods for 15 experiments.
Figure 6. Mean and standard deviations for the net in-
crease of the width of photon spike when 0.2 cc (dou-
ble the standard amount) was injected locally (into the
plate over the PMT) during the AD and DI durations.
into the dish in another room that shared the same mag-
netic field configuration. We inferred that equivalent
quanta of photon emission from the single 0.2 cc injec-
tion in the dish over the PMT and the two 0.1 cc injec-
tions in separate dishes indicated that the latter was
equivalent to 0.2 cc injected locally.
3.2. Verifying Optimal Magnetic Field
Temporal Sequence and Configuration
We then investigated if the continuous application for
20 min of only either the AD field or the DI field would
produce “double” photon duration that we obtained dur-
ing the nonlocal + local paired injections. There was no
significant widening of the photon spike between the
nonlocal + local and local injections during the 9 to 18
min period, the interval where the effect was reliably
produced using the standard protocol. Presentations of
the DI field first for 6 min and then the AD field after-
wards (reversed sequence) for 9 to 18 min also did not
evoke the effect. Because these results suggested that a
DI configuration must follow an AD configuration, we
first applied the typical AD field for 6 min and then ap-
plied the DI field as usual except that the same patterned
(“phase-modulated”) field was the reversed temporal
order of the 859 points of the decreasing frequency or
“phase” modulation field. In other words, the frequency
or “phase” was now increasing (the reversed direction
for the pattern in Figure 2(a)). As can be seen in Figure
7 the significant increases in the durations of photon
spikes, the nonlocal + local paired injection effect, were
again displayed. These results suggested that the re-
quirement for the AD-DI sequence as an operational
process rather than dependent upon a specific wave form.
3.3. Manipulating the Acceleration and
Phase Modulation Components
To discern if the AD-DI configuration was essential,
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B. T. Dotta et al. / Journal of Biophysical Chemistry 3 (2012) 72-80 77
Figure 7. Means and standard deviations for the net
increase in the durations of the photon spike when the
decreasing frequency or “phase velocity” pattern gen-
erated during the accelerating angular velocity condi-
tion was reversed (DI2) so it was displaying an in-
creased frequency or “phase velocity” during the de-
celerating angular velocity condition.
the accelerating group velocity was presented with the
increasing phase modulation (AI) and the decelerating
group velocity was presented with the decreasing phase
modulation (DD). This was the opposite of our standard
protocol where the accelerating packet was associated
with a decelerating phase (AD) and the decelerating
packet was associated with an increasing phase (DI).
There was no statistically significant evidence of the
local + nonlocal effect regardless of the presentation or-
der AI-DD or DD-AI.
To test the importance of the “phase-modulation”
within the group velocity the same accelerating field (20
+ 2 ms) contained a synchronous, sine-wave 7 Hz pattern
(no frequency or phase modulation) and the decelerating
field (20 – 2 ms) also contained the synchronous (sine
wave) 7 Hz pattern. The pattern was generated by con-
verting the appropriate row of numbers that produced the
7 Hz sequence to voltages by the same software and
hardware as the “phase modulated” patterns. Again, there
was no evidence of significant widening of the photon
emission duration during the nonlocal + local double
injection. In all of the above experiments the average
durations of photon spikes during the single (local) injec-
tions in the dish over the PMT did not differ from any of
the other single (local) injections. The mean and SD of
40 randomly selected values from our records for single
injections was 1.92 sec and 0.29 sec (coefficient of varia-
tion = 15%), respectively, which reiterates the precision
of the duration of the photon emission and rate of injec-
tion of reactant.
To verify that the change in velocity of the rotating
magnetic field was important for the 20 + 2 ms (AD) and
20 – 2 ms (DI) group acceleration, the standard protocol
was applied using 20 + 0 ms for both the AD and DI
components. This meant that, with the exception of the
“acceleration” of moving in a circle, the “velocity” of the
changing magnetic field (duration of activation of each
successive solenoid) was constant. There was no signifi-
cant widening of the duration of the spike during the
local + nonlocal paired injections.
To insure that the acceleration component was impor-
tant but was not unique to the 20 + 2 ms and 20 – 2 ms
parameters, the standard protocol was applied using 100
+ 10 ms during the DA component and 100 – 10 ms dur-
ing the DI component, or, 30 + 3 ms during the DA
component and 30 – 3 ms during the DI component. The
phase directions remained the same. For the first pa-
rameter, for the 100 ms base duration, this meant that the
duration of the field at each successive solenoid along
the 8 circularly arranged solenoids changed from 100 ms
to 30 ms during one rotation and from 100 ms to 170 ms
during one rotation, respectively. The widening effect
during the local + nonlocal paired injections was clearly
observed for both the 30 ± 3 ms and 100 ± 10 ms con-
figurations; the latter is shown in Figure 8. These result
reaffirmed the observation that the sequence of an accel-
erating field embedded with a decreasing phase modula-
tion followed by a decelerating field embedded with an
increasing phase modulation was essential for the phe-
3.4. Determining the Temporal Window of
the Effect
In our standard protocol in which we first observed the
local + nonlocal paired injection effect the AD compo-
nent was presented for 6 min while the DI component
was presented for 18 min. To isolate the temporal dura-
Figure 8. Means and standard deviations for the net
increase in the duration of the photon spike when the
same decreasing and increasing frequency or “phase
velocity” fields were employed and the accelerating
and decelerating angular velocity durations where 100
+ 10 ms and 100 – 10 ms instead of the standard 20 +
2 ms and 20 – 2 ms.
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B. T. Dotta et al. / Journal of Biophysical Chemistry 3 (2012) 72-80
tion of this “window” for the “doubling” of photon emis-
sion, the duration of the first standard component, AD,
was varied in a randomized order over several days to be:
0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 16 min before the stan-
dard AI field was initiated. The sequence of single and
double injections followed the same procedure as usual:
single injections 1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17 min after
the beginning of the experiment and nonlocal + local
paired injections 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 min after
the beginning of the experiment. The emergence of the
local + nonlocal paired injection effect was measured by
averaging the duration of those photon spikes and sub-
tracting the values from the previous spike durations of
the local injections. The results are shown in Figure 9. A
statistically significant increase (divide the SD by the
numbers of trials, i.e., 12) in the spike duration during
the DI field when the nonlocal + local injections oc-
curred was evident if only 1 min of the AD field was first
presented. The optimal duration of the AD pre-exposure
before the AI field was presented was between 3 and 6
min. However if the AD field was presented for more
than 8 min, the effect did not emerge even if the DI field
was applied for an additional 16 min.
The macroscopic demonstration of “excess correla-
tion” between spatial loci from which photons are emit-
ted would have potentially paradigm-shifting implica-
tions for our interpretations of interactions between che-
mical reactions within and without the living cell. The
results suggest that under special conditions two loci
separated by significant distances would become “the
same space”. Living cells and organisms emit photons in
the order of 106 photons/m2·s [18]. Hippocampal slices
emit photons with power densities of about 10–12 W/m2
Figure 9. Means and standard deviations of the net increase in
duration of the photon spike during the usual DI phase during
nonlocal + local injections as a function of the initial duration
of the first AD phase (the duration “0” means the DI phase was
presented from the beginning).
that are phase-locked to theta activity [19]. Theta activity
(4 to 7 Hz), upon which 40 Hz ripples are carried, is the
intrinsic dominant frequency band for this neuroanatomi-
cal structure that is central to memory consolidation for
the mammalian brain, that is, the representation of spatial
Human beings instructed to engage in imagery while
sitting in the dark also display reliable increases of com-
parable densities in photon emissions that are strongly
correlated with the quantitative electroencephalographic
activity. The imagery-coupled increases in photon emis-
sion from the right side of the head are about a factor of
2 (doubling) within the order of 10–11 W/m2 or the
equivalent energy associated with about 107 cortical neu-
rons if each generated 10 action potentials per second
with ~2 × 10–20 J per action potential. During the last ten
years several experiments [20] in our laboratory have
shown that the conditions that contribute to entanglement
between two brains, a history of shared spatial proximity,
is associated with coherent experiences and cognitive
processes if both participants shared the same circularly
rotating magnetic fields with the changing angular ve-
locities employed in the present experiment. However
the complexity of these biological systems has made
pursuit of the mechanism difficult.
In the present study a discrete chemical reaction that
produces a reliable, measured amount of photon emis-
sions displayed an even more robust effect that did not
require complex statistical analyses to be discerned.
When two spatially separate volumes of liquid hypochlo-
rite shared the same configuration of angularly acceler-
ating magnetic fields simultaneous injection of 0.1 cc of
hydrogen peroxide into each volume by two experiment-
ers (nonlocal + local) produced a widening of the photon
duration in the volume over the PMT that was equivalent
to injecting twice the amount (0.2 cc) only into this
volume in that location.
4.1. The Precision of Temporal
The results of approximately 45 different experiments
over several months demonstrated this “entanglement”:
two separate loci behaved as a single space for the dura-
tion of about eight (8) minutes under optimal conditions.
This first required the application of an accelerating
group velocity within which the phase modulation was
decreasing followed by a second application of a decel-
erating group velocity within which the phase modula-
tion was increasing. The “double photon” effect from
nonlocal + local injections was evident with only 1 min
of exposure to the first application but was maximal be-
tween 3 and 6 min of exposure before the second appli-
cation was presented.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
B. T. Dotta et al. / Journal of Biophysical Chemistry 3 (2012) 72-80 79
The data clearly indicated that a change in angular ve-
locity (acceleration) was required; constant velocity
magnetic fields did not produced the effect. In addition,
the phase modulation of the group velocity must be
changing (in the opposite direction to the group velocity)
as well; a fixed frequency “phase” did not produce the
effect. That this combination of temporal processes was
essential rather than the precise 20 msec base rate of the
magnetic field for the first solenoid was shown by the
production of the effect if the base rate was shifted to
100 ms but the vectorial configuration of the group and
phase velocities remained the same.
We selected the nomenclature of Tu et al. [17] so that
potentially convenient applications might be applied to
potential mechanisms. One of the implications of a pho-
ton mass being non-zero is the resulting frequency de-
pendence of the velocity of electromagnetic waves pro-
pagating in free space. Although the magnetic fields in
our study were not propagating but were time-coupled,
spatially rotating, time-varying fields, the application
may be relevant for conditions of non-locality and entan-
glement. The superposition principle of entanglement
can be satisfied if classical phases of interfering electro-
magnetic waves, such as optical holograms, occur [21].
4.2. Potential Origins for the “Temporal
The challenge is to discern the mechanism that would
accommodate the approximately 8 min duration of en-
tanglement (or the effective transposition of two loci), as
inferred by the “doubling” of the photon spike duration
during simultaneous nonlocal + local stimulation. In ad-
dition to the obvious similarity between the time required
for light to travel between the earth and the sun in com-
parison with the presumed instantaneous effect of gravi-
tational waves [22], there are avenues of investigation for
which experiments can be designed to systematically
manipulate critical variables. For example, with a non-
zero photon mass, the dispersion elicits a frequency de-
pendence whereby the group velocity and the phase ve-
locity differ as we simulated in our experiments. A dis-
persion of velocity of a photon with a nonzero mass al-
lows a potential condition for space-time dilation or con-
The direct experimental measurements of the disper-
sion of light within the 108 Hz to 1015 Hz range, the in-
crement associated with visible light, showed a relative
difference in velocity of c/c < 10–7 [17]. Using the clas-
sic Lorentz contraction of
the above
difference would be equivalent to about 500 s or 8 min-
utes. This “window” is within the range of the doubling
of the photon effect measured repeatedly in this study.
If we assume there is some scale invariance operating
within the phenomenon then the duration of our infer-
ence of entanglement, about 8 minutes, should be pro-
portional to the maintenance of the 0.5 msec (5 × 10–4 s)
spin state observed [12] for two volumes of caesium gas
each containing 1012 molecules. The number of mole-
cules in the quantum of H2O2 we injected would be 0.1 cc
(10–4 L) × 3 × 10–2 (3%) in water (55 M/L) times 6.023 ×
1023 molecules/M or ~1020 molecules. When the quantum
efficiency and the results of photon scatter are accom-
modated, the numbers of molecules could be ~1018. The
proportional entanglement would be in the order of 500 s
which is within the range of our observations.
From a third perspective with direct connections to
causal quantum gravity [23], the phenomenon observed
may be explored as events within quantum gravity Hil-
bert space and a possible extended particle analogous to
a soliton. El Naschie [24] mathematically reproduced the
result of this assumption and deduced that the mass of
the fundamental exotic transfinite particle would be ~1.8
MeV or ~3 × 10–13 J in a standardized setting. This may
be important because the quantum of photon energy as-
sociated with the 0.1 cc injections was within this order
of magnitude (10–12 to 10–11 J). Although often consid-
ered exotic, gravitational instantons are related to tun-
neling events where there is a sudden appearance of a
microscopic window in space-time.
The results presented in this manuscript are the most
reliable and internally consistent demonstrations of a
possible macroscopic example of nonlocality and entan-
glement that we have encountered in the laboratory.
Unlike the cell studies where concurrence of photon
emissions between two loci could not be controlled easily,
the photon emissions from H2O2 and NaClO between
two sites could be synchronized. The experimental ex-
amination of the maximum distance between the two
plates sharing the appropriate magnetic configurations
that exhibit the phenomenon is the next logical step.
Thanks to Dr. W. E Bosarge, Jr, Chairman, Quantlab LLC for finan-
cial support and Viger M. Persinger for technical comments.
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