American Journal of Anal yt ical Chemistry, 2011, 2, 1-15
doi:10.4236/ajac.2011.228118 Published Online December 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
Developments in Analytical Meth ods for Detection of
Pesticides in Environmental Samples
Rama Bhadekar*, Swanandi Pote, Vidya Tale, Bipinraj Nirichan
Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Information Technology & Biotechnology,
Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune, India
E-mail: *
Received November 19, 2011; revised December 21, 2011; accepted December 28, 2011
The present review gives a survey of all the published methods along with their advantages and limitations.
Traditional methods like thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography etc are still
in use for this purpose. But some recent bio-analytical methods such as immunosensors, cell based sensors
etc. have also gained equal importance. This article also overviews various electro-analytical methods and
their applications as detection devices when combined with FIA and biosensors. Lastly nanoparticle based
biosensors have also been discussed. The review concludes with futuristic approach to reduce the risks
caused by pesticides. This scrutiny should provide concise evaluation of different techniques employed for
pesticide detection in environmental samples.
Keywords: Biosensors, Chromatography, Detection, Flow Injection Analysis, Nano Particles, Pesticides,
1. Introduction
People have contradictory ideas about the meaning of
pesticides. The dictionary defines pesticide as a sub-
stance for destroying harmful insects. The scientists are
of the opinion that pesticides are chemical or biological
substances that are designed to kill or retard the growth
of pests interfering with the growth of crops, shrubs,
trees, timber and other vegetation desired by humans.
The term pesticide includes substances intended for use
as plant growth regulators, defoliants, desiccants or agents
for thinning fruit or preventing the premature fall of fruit.
The substances applied to crops either before or after
harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration dur-
ing storage and transport also come under the category of
pesticides [1].
Pesticides are broadly classified into two groups viz A)
chemical pesticides and B) biopesticides. A) Chemical
pesticides are conventionally synthetic materials that di-
rectly kill or inactivate the pest. They are classified ac-
cording to the type of organisms they act against as for
example 1) insecticides, 2) herbicides, 3) fungicides, 4)
rodenticide, 5) nematicides [2]. Insecticides include or-
ganophosphates (TEPP, parathion. trimesters of phos-
phates and phosphoric acids), carbamates (aldicarb), or-
ganochlorines (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, chlor-
dane, aldrin, dielrin, lindane, endrin) and botanical insec-
ticides (nicotine, rotenoids, pyrethrum). Herbicides are
used to destroy other weeds that interfere with produc-
tion of the desired crop. Based on their structure they are
grouped into chlorophenoxy compounds (e.g.: 2,4-D, 2,
4,5-T), dinotrophenols like 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol
(DNOC), bipyridyl compounds like paraquot, carbamate
herbicides, substituted urea, triazines and amide herbi-
cides like alanine derivatives. Fungicides include a num-
ber of structurally different chemicals like cap tan, folpet,
pentachlorophenolziram, nambam etc. Fungicides con-
taining mercury are known to cause nerve disorders [2].
Rhodenticides are designed to kill rodents, mice, squir-
rels, gophers and other small animals. They vary from
highly toxic one with the ability to kill an organism with
one-time dose or less toxic ones requiring repeated in-
gestion over a period of time. Nematicides act against
nematodes like Meloidogyne incognita, Criconemella
xenoplax etc.
B) Biopesticides are pesticides derived from natural
sources like animals, plants, bacteria, and certain miner-
als. For example, canola oil and baking soda have pesti-
cidal applications and are considered biopesticides. Bio-
pesticides fall into three major classes:
1) Microbial pesticides consist of microorganisms like
bacteria, fungi, viruses or protozoa as the active ingredi-
ents. They can control many different kinds of pests,
although each with separate active ingredient that is rela-
tively specific for its target pest(s). 2) Plant-Incorpo-
rated-Protectants (PIPs) are pesticidal substances that are
produced by genetically modified plants for example:
introduction of Bt toxin gene in the cotton plants. 3)
Biochemical pesticides are naturally occurring substances
that control pests by non-toxic mechanisms (for e.g. in-
sect sex pheromones that interfere with mating as well as
various scented plant extracts). Biopesticides are envi-
ronmentally safe and non toxic to plants and animals.
However, their use is limited due to 1) less social aware-
ness, 2) comparatively lower crop yields, 3) need for
frequent applications, 4) less worked research area.
On the contrary, application of chemical pesticides has
proved to be economically beneficial and hence their use
has increased globally especially after the advent of
“Green Revolution”. The productivity of crop has been
increased by use of suitable pesticide. They protect the
crop from disease causing organisms, from plant patho-
gens and also from vector borne diseases. Another im-
portant advantage is reduction in cost of labor.
Even though pesticides play significant role in agri-
culture they are the most important environmental pol-
lutants. This is due to their wide spread presence in water,
soil, atmosphere and agricultural products. Currently it
poses major threat not only to living organisms but also
to environment specially ground and surface water. Syn-
thetic pesticides affect the growth of plants. Chemical
compounds in the pesticides are not biodegradable. This
causes their sedimentation near plant roots making the
supply of essential NPK inefficient. This inefficiency
hinders growth of crops and their resistance to other
harmful microbes. Pesticides percolate into the soil and
get mixed with ground water. This causes draining of
pesticides into the nearby stream or lake. This in turn
adversely disturbs the aquatic eco system. Soil is another
important component for plant growth. Pesticides ham-
per the fertility of soil by inhibiting the storage of nitro-
gen and other essentials in soil. Light and toxic com-
pounds are suspended in air by pesticide spray. This
causes air borne diseases and nasal infections. Besides all
the environmental hazards; pesticides pose serious risk to
mankind. Health hazards caused by some of the pesti-
cides are summarized in Table 1. Different pesticides
have different acceptable residual levels and these are set
up by World Health Organization (WHO), European
Community (EU), FAO (Food and Agricultural Organi-
zation) of UN, US environmental protection agency
(EPA) and the US National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH) [3-5]. The Toxicity of pesti-
cides, made it essential to have accurate and reliable me-
thods of monitoring their levels for safety purposes. Ear-
lier techniques used for pesticide detection were chroma-
tographic methods like Gas Chromatography (GC), High
Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) along with
Mass Spectrometry (MS) etc. They were sensitive and
reliable. However, they had limitations like 1) complex
procedure, 2) time consuming sample treatments, 3) need
of highly trained technicians, 4) inability to perform on
site detection etc. To improve these methods newer tech-
niques are being developed. The new techniques use
more sensitive devices like chromatographic techniques
with various detection methods, electro analytical tech-
niques, chemical and biosensors, spectroscopic tech-
niques and flow injection analysis (FIA). Sometimes a
combination of one or more methods proved successful
in detecting a particular class of pesticide. This article
presents an all embracing survey of the classical methods
along with update knowledge of recent advances in the
2. Spectrophotometry
This was a widely used method for the detection of pes-
ticide residues from environmental samples. Spectro-
Table 1. Harmful effects of pesticides on humans.
Type of pesticide Effects observed Ref.
Organophosphates Adversely affects nerve functioning, direct exposure can cause eye problems like blurring of
vision, reddening, retardation in fetal growth etc. [6,7]
Chlorides Disruption of dopamine transport in the brain, increased risk of lung and pancreatic cancer,
neutrophil inflammation etc. [8]
Methyl Bromide Increase in serum albumin level [9]
Mercury containing fungicides Nerve disorders [10]
Fungicides like atrazines, amides, etc. Irritation of skin and eyes, slowing of heart beats, weakness of muscles, central nervous system
disorders etc. [11]
Rhodenticides like Strychnine Sodium
monofluoroacetate Thallium, etc.
Complete loss of hair, paresthesias, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, pulmonary oedema
bronchopneumonia, diaphoresis, blurred vision and severe symmetric extensor muscle spasms[12]
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
photometry measures the amount of light absorbed by
the analyte solution and this amount of light is directly
proportional to the quantity of the analyte. The technique
is based on two properties of light: 1) particle nature of
light and 2) wave nature of light. The former gives rise to
photoelectric effect and the latter results in formation of
visible spectrum of light. Normally white or UV light is
used as a source of light. The beam of light splits into its
component wavelengths after passing through the prism.
Light of different wavelengths is absorbed by different
analyte solutions to different extent depending on analyte
concentration. The analyte particles absorb photons and
then the unabsorbed photons are converted into electrical
signal by the phototube. The detection unit then records
the difference in the intensity of light. The difference in
the intensities of source beam and the beam coming out
of the analyte determines the concentration of the analyte.
The components of a spectrophotometer are 1) source of
light, 2) cell containing analyte solution, 3) phototube,
and 4) detection unit. Use of this technique for detection
of atrazine and dicamba herbicides from water samples
was described by Hernández et al., (2005). The authors
reported detection limits (LOD) of 0.1 µg/ml for atrazine
and 0.2 µg/ml for dicamba [13]. Moreover spectropho-
tometric detection methods were also found suitable for
detection of organopesticides such as malathion, phorate
and dimethoate from food samples. The procedure was
based on oxidation of organophosphoours pesticides with
slight excess of N-bromosuccinimide. The unconsumed
N-bromosuccinimide was then reacted with rhodamine B
which was followed by spectrophotometric estimation of
decrease in color at 550 nm. The sensitivity of the meth-
ods was up to µg/g [14].
Even with limited success in these methods, some
drawbacks were evident. They were 1) extensive sample
preparation, 2) relatively slow and 3) could not be used
for real time estimation. Hence these days spectropho-
tometric methods are used only for detection of limited
number of pesticides. Sometimes they are coupled with
other systems as terminal detection devices to detect pes-
3. Electroanalytical Techniques
Electroanalytical techniques have gained importance for
analysis of environmental samples. Their main advan-
tages are simplicity in operation, sensitivity, selectivity,
portability and so on. Commonly used electroanalytical
techniques are: potentiometry, conductometry, voltametry,
amperometry etc [15]. The basic principles of these tech-
niques are discussed below.
3.1. Potentiometry
Potentiometry measures the potential of electrochemical
cells. A potentiometric cell is composed of i) reference
electrode ii) salt bridge iii) analyte solution and iv) indi-
cator electrode. The commonly used reference electrodes
are hydrogen electrodes, calomel electrodes or silver/
silver chloride electrodes. The indicator electrodes can
be either metallic or ion selective. The salt bridge acts as
a barrier between the standard electrode and the analyte
solution. Potentiometric methods are governed by Nernst
equation. The potential (E) is calculated as (1) [16,17].
E cellE indicatorE reference
3.2. Conductometry
It is based on the property of electrolyte solutions to dis-
sociate into ions. It measures the change in electrical
resistance of a solution. A conductometric cell consists
of 1) two electrodes: Anode (positively charged) and
cathode (negatively charged) 2) an electrolyte solution
and 3) battery (current reading detection unit). The
number of ions determines the amount of current gener-
ated which indicates the concentration of electrolytes.
The electrolytic properties of a conductor are described
by Ohm’s law (2) and the conductance is given by (3)
[18, 19].
VIR (2)
Equation (2) is V (voltage), I (current), R (electrical
G1R (3)
Equation (3) is G (conductance).
3.3. Voltametry
It measures the change in the current—potential charac-
teristics of an electrochemical cell. This change is di-
rectly proportional to the concentration of the analyte.
The current—potential relationship is dependent on the
mass transfer rate. It is the rate at which the electroactive
species generated due to oxidation reduction reactions
reach the electrode. This mass transfer can be due 1)
ionic migration (formed due electrochemical gradient) 2)
diffusion under a chemical potential difference or 3) bulk
transfer. In voltametry the potential applied is usually
varied as a function of time. Based on this voltametry is
grouped into A) linear voltametry and B) cyclic Volta-
metry. In former the potential applied to the electro-
chemical cell is gradually increased. In latter, the poten-
tial is varied between a fixed lower and upper value [20,
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
Amperometry can be considered as a sub-class of volta-
metry since both the procedures depend on the same
principal. The only difference in voltametry and am-
perometry is that in amperometry the potential applied
across the cell is constant. It measures the current gene-
rated due to the oxidation-reduction reactions taking place
in the analyte solutions.
The electroanalytical techniques are described in detail
by Bard et al. [22]. Many variations in these techniques
have been reported in literature. For instance amperome-
try and potentiometry are coupled together for quantify-
cation of analytes. One or more of these techniques are
combined with other methods like chromatography, bio-
sensors, flow injection analysis etc. for pesticide analysis
from environmental samples. Applications of these tech-
niques are discussed below.
4. Chromatographic Techniques
Chromatographic techniques are among the first few
techniques that were put to use for pesticide detection.
As technology developed various modifications have
been made in basic chromatography. However all forms
of chromatography utilize the property of the analyte to
distribute itself between two immiscible phases (X and
Y). This co-efficient of distribution remains constant at a
particular temperature and is given by (4)
abCoefficient of distribution (4)
Equation (4) is a = concentration of analyte in X, b =
concentration of analyte in b.
Every chromatographic system consists of two phases
viz. stationary phase which is immobilized (solid, gel,
liquid or mixture of solid and liquid) and a mobile phase
which is passed over the stationary phase (gas, liquid).
While performing the method the analytes continuously
move between the two phases. They get separated from
each other because of the difference in their distribution
co-efficient. A typical chromatographic unit is made of
stationary phase, mobile phase, a column, injector sys-
tem, a detector, chart recorder and fraction collector. The
performance of the system depends mainly on three fac-
tors; 1) Retention time (T) (5) 2) retention factor which
is the time taken by the analyte bound to the stationary
phase to elute from the column relative to the time taken
by the free analyte and 3) column height and resolution.
T = Tx – Ty (5)
Equation (5) is Tx: Time for which the stationary phase
retains the analyte.
Ty: Time taken by the analyte to bind to the stationary
Chromatographic analysis requires sample preparation.
This makes the technique more time consuming. The
main steps of sample preparation are: 1) solvent extrac-
tion (for example by acetone or acetonitrile) or solid
phase extraction, 2) column switching (beneficial for
HPLC: here the analyte is adsorbed on a suitable ad-
sorbtant. The impurities are washed and then the analyte
is eluted with an appropriate organic solvent.), 3) super-
critical fluid extraction (gases for example, liquid carbon
dioxide is used for solvent extraction) and 4) sample de-
rivatisation (involves covering of functional groups in
the analyte, adversely affecting the chromatographic de-
tection). After a pesticide has been extracted and isolated
from the sample, it is further separated from other coex-
tractives. It makes use of gas chromatography or liquid
chromatography or, less frequently thin layer chroma-
tography [23].
4.1. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
In TLC the stationary phase is bound to a glass or a met-
al plate. The sample is spot inoculated or applied as a
thin band near the end of the plate. The mobile phase
flows over the stationary phase by capillary action. Se-
paration of analytes takes place by adsorption or partition
or ion exchange or molecular exclusion depending on the
type of stationary phase. The movement of the analyte
depends on the retardation factor (6)
Retardation factorxy (6)
Equation (6) is x = distance traveled by analyte from
start point, y = distance traveled by mobile phase from
start point.
TLC is usually followed by detection of compounds
by i) examining the plate under UV, ii) spraying the plate
with reagent which reacts with the compound to form
coloured products, iii) use of fluorescent dye iv) by radio
labeling the analytes and observing them by radiography.
The separated compounds can be quantified with a preci-
sion densitometer. A number of modifications in TLC
technique are used to detect pesticides. They are listed
4.1.1. TLC Bioassay
This technique described by N. K. B. Ardikaran et al.
(2009) uses a TLC plate sprayed with spores of Ca-
dosporium cladosporioides for detection of fungicides.
Here the presence of pesticide is confirmed by absence
of fungal growth around the sample spot [24].
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
4.1.2. High Performance Thin Layer
Chromatography (HPTLC)
HPTLC is an advanced form of TLC. The main ad-
vancement is introduction of automation for all the steps
involved in HPTLC. Due to automation it is possible to
attain precision in the sample size and also the position at
which the sample is applied on the TLC plate. This ad-
vancement rules out the possibility of variation in results
due to human error. HPTLC can also be effectively used
for two dimensional TLC. High performance thin layer
chromatography (HPTLC) with use of automated multi-
ple developments (AMD) makes use of gradient to sepa-
rate pesticide compounds. The gradient is formed by
running a single or multiple mobile phases over the TLC
plate. This method has been used for screening of a vari-
ety of pesticides including organophosphates, urea, tri-
azines etc. with LOD ng/l [25].
HPTLC with diode array scanning was used to detect
atrazine, clofentezine, chlorfenvinphos, hexaflumuron,
terbuthylazine, lenacyl, neburon, bitertanol, and metami-
tron from water samples. Here samples were extracted by
solid phase extraction on octadecyl silane. Dichloro-
methane was used as an eluent and LOD was 0.04 - 0.23
ng/spot [26].
HPTLC combined with different detectors like con-
ductometry [27], multi enzyme assay [28] have been used
for pesticide analysis. Advances in TLC are reviewed by
Sherma [29].
4.2. Gas Chromatography
Gas Chromatography (GC) is based on difference in par-
tition coefficients between a liquid stationary phase (si-
licone grease or wax) and a gaseous mobile phase (inert
carrier gas like nitrogen). This method is applicable only
for volatile compounds. The partition coefficients are in-
versely proportional to the rate of volatilization of the
compound. Gas Chromatography (GC) is routinely used
for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticides.
The main components of a GC unit are represented in
Figure 1. The detection unit is an important part of a GC
unit from the analytical point of view. The same unit can
be employed for detection of variety of compounds by
varying the type of detector. The different types of de-
tectors are Flame Ionization Detector (FID), Nitrogen
Phosphorous Detector (NPD), Electron Capture Detector
(ECD), Flame Photometric Detector (FPD), Pulse Pho-
tometric Detector (PPD), infrared detector, Mass Spec-
trometer (MS) etc. The use of these detectors for pesti-
cide detection is summarized in Table 2.
4.3. Liquid Chromatography (LC)
Simple liquid chromatography consists of a column with
a narrow bottom containing the stationary phase. The
column is a made of glass and its length and diameter
depend on the compound to be separated. The optimum
working of LC depends on the matrix on which the sta-
tionary phase is immobilized. The matrix used should
have high mechanical and chemical stability to ensure
optimum flow rate. The matrix is made up of inert mate-
rials like agarose, cellulose, dextran, polyacrylamide,
silica, polysterene etc. The stationary phase is always in
equilibrium with a solvent. The sample is loaded onto the
top of the column by i) direct application, ii) using su-
crose gradient or iii) with the help of a peristaltic pump
along with solvent. The different components in the
sample mixture pass through the column at different
rates. This is due to differences in their partitioning coef-
ficients between the mobile liquid phase and the station-
Figure 1. Components of gas chromatography unit.
Table 2. Gas chromatography with various types of detectors.
System Sample Type Pesticide Detected Detection RangeRef.
GC-PFPD Food Acephate, Aldrin, Dicofol, Endrin, Captan etc. 0.003 - 0.2 ppm[31]
GC-MS with large volume injection Food Trifluralin, Dicholoron etc. 100 ng/l [32]
GC with microwave emission detector Food Parathion 0.5 ppb [33]
GC with PFPD Food Organophosphates ppb [34]
GC-ECD/FID and NPD Food, water, soilNitogen and phosphorous containing pesticides 380 mg/l [35]
Capillary GC Water Organochlorines 6 - 300 µg/l [36]
GC-MS Meconium Cypermethrin, malathion,cyfluthin etc. 0.01 - 4 - 15 µg/g[37]
ary phase. The compounds are separated by collecting
aliquots of the column eluent at different time intervals
[23]. This chromatography is widely used in combination
with MS for pesticide quantification [30]. Methods based
on separation with MS detection are found to be ex-
tremely useful as compared to GC-MS [38]. This tech-
nique has been successfully been applied for detection of
organophosphates, organochlorines etc. However certain
modifications in the LC are essential. This is because
many a time pesticides cannot be detected in one run due
to interference of groups present in the pesticides. In
order to overcome these problems dual LC-MS systems
have been developed. In such a unit two types of ex-
perimental conditions can be simultaneously applied for
effective separation.
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
This type of chromatography has a better edge over other
types of chromatography. The reason behind is the mate-
rials used for making the column can withstand high
pressure and flow rates. Here usually the columns are
long (3 - 50 cm) in length and 1 - 4 mm in diameter. The
HPLC unit consists of 1) stationary phase which is either
in microporous, pellicular or bonded form, 2) mobile
phase, 3) pumps for delivering the eluent and 4) detec-
tors. The detectors used are: Variable wavelength length
detectors, Scanning wavelength detectors fluorescence
detectors, electrochemical detectors, mass spectrometer,
NMR spectrometer, refractive index detector and evapo-
rative light scattering detectors and so on. Vodeb et al.
(2006) have used HPLC with a diode array detector to
quantify β-cyfluthrin with reverse phase and normal
phase types of column [39].HPLC combined with super-
critical fluid extraction has been used to detect multiple
pesticide residues from food samples in the method de-
scribed by Kaihara et al. (2000). The authors have re-
ported LOD of 0.005 - 0.1 ppm [40]. Application of re-
verse phase HPLC with acetonirile gradient and UV
dectector for detection of dalazion, malathion and sumu-
thion is illustrated by Islam et al. (2009) [41]. HPLC
with CD detector has also been used for detection of
chiral pesticides.
5. Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors
Biosensors have been described as analytical machines
coupled with bio recognition elements with various de-
tection techniques. The biological components include
enzymes, antibodies, microorganisms or DNA. The im-
mobilized biocatalyst incorporated into the sensor allows
continuous utilization of substrate. These methods have
been reviewed extensively by Theveno et al. (2001) [42].
With the help of biosensors, on site analysis can be per-
formed to understand the extent of pollution almost im-
mediately [43-46]. The advantages of using biosensors
are: 1) disposable, selective, reliable and economical 2)
they can be produced in large quantities and can be
miniaturized for efficient use for onsite detection, 3) re-
quire less sample size and 4) easy to operate even by non
skilled personnel [47-50]. In spite of their clear advan-
tages, they have certain limitations. They have low re-
sponse stability low mechanical stability, high diffusion
resistance of substrate/bio component assembly; inter-
fering signals form other compounds in real samples etc
[51]. However, these drawbacks can be minimized by
proper designing of the biosensor. For convenient use,
biosensors are usually coupled with an electrochemical
sensor. The sensors are potentiometer, amperometer, vol-
tameter, conductimeter etc. This coupling gives the data
in readable form. A number of electrochemical sensors
are available commercially. Certain characters like selec-
tivity, response time, and linear range, limit of detection,
reproducibility, stability and lifetime of biosensors are
compared with standard IUPAC protocols for their per-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
formance evaluation [52-54]. Different types of biosen-
sors coupled with electrochemical devices are briefly
described below.
5.1. Cell Based Biosensors
They make use of living microorganisms such as algae,
bacteria, yeast and fungi as bio-catalytic elements. Their
main advantage is that they are easy to develop and there
is no need for isolating sub-cellular components like en-
zymes, antibodies, antigens etc to detect pesticides. Va-
rious examples reported in literature are summarized in
Table 3.
5.2. Enzyme Based Biosensors
These biosensors measure the activity of the enzyme or
enzymes used in the system. The activity of the enzyme
depends on the various factors. They are amount of sub-
strate, time of incubation, presence of inhibitors, reac-
tions conditions like pH, temperature etc. To make the
system more cost effective, enzymes are immobilized
using various methods [55-58]. Mostly such biosensors
are based either on enzyme activity or enzyme inhibiton.
Example of former is organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)
with broad substrate specificity. Biosensors of second
type often make use of Choline estarese (CE), acid phos-
phatase, tyrosinase, ascorbate oxidase, acetolactate syn-
thase, aldehyde dehydrogenase etc. In such systems, ace-
tylcholine esterase (ACE) immobilized on activated sil-
ica gel is most commonly used. The method is based on
enzyme inhibition since carbamate and organophosphte
pesticides inhibit the activity of ACE. ACE primarily
hydrolyses neurotransmitters producing choline and ace-
tic acid. (7) Carbamate (C) pesticides reversibly inhibit
this enzyme (8) whereas organophosphates (ORP) inhibit
it irreversibly (9).
ACE + H2O Choline + Acetic acid (7)
ACE + C ACE-C (8)
The production of acetic acid results in change of pH of
the system. This can be easily monitored using spec-
trophotometer [59] fluorescence indicator [60], potenti-
ometer [61] or direct measurement by pH meter using
glass electrode or change in conductance of medium.
Research on enzyme based methods for detection is ex-
tensively discussed in review by Van Dyk et al. [62].
Examples of both the types enzyme based sensors are
summarized in Table 4.
5.3. Immunosensors
These biosensors are based on the property of specific
binding of two immunological molecules viz. antigen
and antibodies. They are characterized by sensitivity,
rapidity, specificity, low cost and ability to analyse large
number of samples. Here pesticide specific antigen-an-
tibody reactions are employed for their detection. For
quantification purposes the antigen-antibody reactions
are coupled with enzyme labels. Immunosensors are of
two types: i) labeled type and ii) label free type. The first
type makes use of different enzymes like glucose oxidase,
horse raddish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatse etc. Two
different methods viz: sandwhich assay and competitive
assay are used with labeled type. Similarly labeled free
types of sensors are grouped into direct and indirect
types. The applications of immunoassay as pesticide de-
tection method have been reviewed in many papers [63-
65]. Commercial immunoassay kits are also available in
the market. In immunosensors, sensing element can be
either an antibody (Ab) or an antigen (Ag) which is im-
mobilized on a transducer. If Ab is immobilized, the
binding of analyte can be measured directly. If Ag is
immobilized, the detection is based on the competition
between immobilized Ag, the analyte, and a fixed amount
of Ab. Mainly four types of immunosensors are reported
viz piezoelectric, optical, electrochemical or thermomet-
ric. Piezoelectric immunosensors: are more common due
to label free detection of atrazine, parathion etc [84-86].
A piezoelectric crystal can be coated with an Ag or Ab
and the change in the mass by the binding of the analyte
can be correlated to the concentration of the analyte [87].
Optical immunosensors: Main optical immunosensros
Table 3. Use of whole cells for pesticide detection.
Type of Cell Electrochemical sensor Pesticide Detected Detection limitRef
Escherichia coli Potentiometric Paraoxon, Parathion, Methylparathion, Diazinon 3 µM [66]
Pseudomonas putida Amperometric Paraoxon, Parathion, Methyl parathion 0.26 - 0.29 ppb[67]
Moraxella sp Triazines, Parathion, Carbamates, Organophosphates 27.5 ppb [68]
Chlorella vulgaris Conductometric Organophosphates 10 ppb [69]
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
Table 4. Biosensors based on enzymes.
Type of Biosensor
(enzyme and its mode of action) Pesticide Detected Transducer Detection limitsRef
Catalytic activity
Organophosphorus acid anhyrolase Fluorine containing
organophosphates Potentiometry 12.5 µm [70]
Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) Organophosphates Amperometry 20 nM [71]
Organophosphates and their
neurotoxin Amperometry and Photometry µm [72]
Enzyme Inhibition
Butyryl Choline Esterase Trichorfon Potentiometry Below 0.1 µm[73]
Acetyl choline estarase Triazophos Amperometry 0.01 µm [74]
Organophosphorous , carbamatesSPE 0.35 µm [75]
Acelyl choline esterase and choline oxidase Aldicarb, Carbofuran, Carbamyl Amperometry µg/l [76]
Cholinesterase,choline oxidase and
peroxidase Trichlorfon Potentiometry 5 nM [77]
Acid Phosphatase Organophosphates and CarbamateAmperometry 40 µg/l [78]
Ascorbate oxidase Ethyl paraoxon, organophosphatesAmperometry ppm [79]
Tyrosinase (competitive inhibition) Organophosphates, carbamates Potentiometry ppb [80]
Tyrosinase Carbamates Amperometry μM/l [81]
Acetolactate Synthatase Herbicides µM [82]
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Dithiocarbamate Amperometry ppb [83]
SPE = Screen Printed Electrode.
developed are based on Surface Plamon Resonance (SPR)
device. In another type of optical immunosensor, the Ab
is coated on the metal sheet causes a minute change in
the refractive index when bound with the analyte and this
change can be detected by the SPR device. Another op-
tical immunosensor is based on total internal reflection
fluorescence (TIRF). These biosensors are used to detect
terbutryn, atrazine, parathion, polychlorophenol etc [88].
5.4. Nucleic Acid Based Biosensors
These biosensors utilize the oxidation property of the
nucleic acid base guanine [89]. They are based on inter-
action of DNA molecules with pesticides. Such reactions
can be detected by monitoring the change in redox po-
tential. For this purpose electrochemical sensors like
voltametry and potentiometry are used (here DNA is
immobilized on the electrodes). Sometimes the change in
electroactive analytes that are intercalated on DNA layer
is also monitored. Nucleic acid biosensors have been
extensively reviewed in a review published by Fang et al.
5.5. Use of Nano Particles in Biosensors
Recent developments in enzyme based biosensors in-
clude use of gold nano particles to increase accuracy.
Moreover these sensors have multiplexing facility which
allows detection of trace amounts of pesticides. Because
pesticides are present in trace amounts pre concentration
and extraction steps are essential prior to detection. De-
velopments in nano materials particularly applications of
carbon nano tubes as sorbant in solid phase micro extrac-
tion techniques has been elaborately discussed by Pyrzy-
nska [91]. These particles increase the adsorption and
stability of ACE on planar gold electrode surface [92].
Nanoparticle layer also improves the sensitivity and de-
tection limit of the device. Slight change in the environ-
ment can disturb the charge based distribution of such
sensors affecting the detection of pesticides. However,
new studies and developments in surface chemistry and
material physics along with proteomics can overcome
this hurdle. It delivers fine and accurate measurement of
any environmental pollutant.
Alvarez et al. [93] has shown the use of nanome-
chanical biosensors for the real time detection of or-
ganochlorine pesticides like DDT. In this method canti-
levers are coated with DDT5 hapten molecules over a
self assembled monolayer of alkanethiol with gold nano-
partilce. Assay is performed by mixing the samples con-
taining a fixed concentration of DDT monoclonal anti-
body with DDT solutions at different concentrations.
After the incubation only the free antibody couples with
the bioreceptor on the cantilever. The difference in the
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
deflection occurs due to change in the surface stress of
the cantilever. It can be detected by a laser beam sensi-
tive photodetector.
Gan et al. [94] have developed a highly sensitive dis-
posable enzyme biosensor based on composite magnetic
nanoperticles modified screen printed carbon electrode
(SPCE). Organophosphates are detected by the inhibition
of the acetyl cholinesterase catalyzed hydrolysis of ace-
tylthiocholine. In this method the biosensor was fabri-
cated by sythesysing acetylcholinesterase (ACE)-coated
Fe3O4/Au (GMP) magnetic nanoparticulate (GMP-ACE).
It is adsorbing on the surface of a SPCE modified by
carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/nano-ZrO2/prussian blue (PB)/
Nafion (Nf) composite membrane by an external mag-
netic field. The biosensor could detect dimethoate from
Chinese cabbage with comparable accuracy. Moreover,
according to Palchetti et al. [95] such electrochemical
biosensors have some advantages over other analytical
transducing systems. There advantages are possibility to
operate in turbid media, comparable instrumental sensi-
tivity, and possibility of miniaturization.
Other pesticides like monocrotophos, methyl parathion
and carbamyl could be detected using a sol-gel-derived
silicate network containing nanoparticles. This arrange-
ment created a biocompatible microenvironment around
the enzyme molecule which aided not only in stabilizing
its biological activity but also preventing its runoff from
the system [96].For detection of malathion, planar gold
electrode coated with chitosan hydrogel containg gold
nano particles was formulated. Here thiocholine was
used as an indicator and the system was based on che-
misortion and desorption of the indicator with LOD of
0.03 ng/ml [97].
Though use of nanoparticles is a promising option in
pesticide detection techniques more studies are essential
to ensure proper standardization and increase in sensiti-
6. Flow Injection Analysis
Flow injection analysis is very sensitive, rapid and effi-
cient tool used to detect presence of pesticides in differ-
ent environmental samples. Other advantages of the
technique are 1) low cost of instrumentation, 2) less la-
bor cost and smaller sample size, 3) continuous sample
injection, 4) better reproducibility and 5) high sampling
rate with precision. This technique involves 3 steps viz 1)
sample injection, 2) sample processing and 3) detection.
The sample processing can be done by dilution, solvent
extraction, medium exchange, enzymatic reactions, im-
munoassays etc. The detection and estimation of sample
makes use of mass spectrometry, spectrophotometery and
measurement of fluorescence or change in pH, use of
biosensors etc [98]. Following is the brief description of
various quantification methods.
Use of Biosensors
Biosensors combined with FIA are reported for detection
of carbamate insecticides in water samples [99] and for
carbofuran in food samples [100]. In the latter method,
ACE is incorporated in lipid films supported on a me-
thylacrylate polymer. Similar enzyme system was used
in the year 2009 for detection of organophosphorous
pesticides. Here ACE is immobilized by adsorption on
lead oxide which acts as an electrode. It catalyzes the
oxidative degradation of thiocholine in the reactor.
Change in the electrochemical gradient due to oxidation
of choline corresponds to the amount of pesticide present
in the sample [101]. Combination of biosensors with FIA
overcomes limitations of biosensors. It also offers better
option for standardization and optimization.
The immobilized ACE-FIA coupled with Spectropho-
tometry systems were used by by Andres and Nara- ya-
naswamy and Xavier et al. (2000) for detection of pro-
poxur, carbofuran and paraoxon. The detection limits
were found to be 0.4 ng, 3.1 ppb and 24.7 ppb respec-
tively [102,103].
The property of photolytic degradation of organo-
phosphorous pesticides in presence of light has been uti-
lized for screening the food samples for presence of or-
ganophosphorous pesticides [104]. Photolysis can be due
to absorption of UV or due to oxygen and hydrogen rad-
icals. In this method FIA is used in combination with
thermal lens spectrometry [105]. Similar technique has
also been employed for detection of dithiocarbamate
fungicides [101] in water samples. FIA in combination
with amperometry can also be used for detection of or-
ganophosphates [106].
FIA combined with immunochemilunisence assay to
detect presence of atrazine in minute quantities (0.01
ng/ml) has been reported by Chouhan et al. (2010). The
immuno-reactor consists of antibody (anti-antrazine) im-
mobilized on protein-A sepharose matrix packed in a
glass capillary column. This is then treated with atrazine
and atrazine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate which fa-
cilitates competitive binding. For generation of photons
the reactants are treated with hydrogen peroxide and lu-
minal. The amount of pesticide present is inversely pro-
portional to the number of photons generated [107,108].
Photo induced fluorosence (PIF) has been used with
FIA for determination of α-cypermethrin pesticide resi-
dues in natural water samples [108]. In nature this pesti-
cide has low fluorescence. It can be enhanced by treat-
ment with UV radiation and cyclodextrins. The FIA-PIF
technique is rapid and can detect this pesticide in con-
centration range as low as ng/ml.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
FIA combined with chemiluminescence has been used
for carbofuran atrazine and similar triazines detection
[109-111]. The method makes use of the property of the
pesticides to get converted into methylamine upon ex-
posure to UV. The methylamine generated is made to
react with tris ruthenium. The light emitted in this reac-
tion is proportional to the amount of pesticide present
[110]. Similar method has been employed for detection
of the herbicide simetryn by Waseem et al. (2008). The
technique is based on the oxidation of luminol by the
photoproducts of the simetryn in alkaline medium [110].
Rapid quantitative analysis of pesticide residues in
food and water samples is reported using FIA-MS [112].
Samples were injected directly into a triple quadrpole
instrument and data was obtained at the rate of 15
s/injection with accuracy limit of 0.01 ng/ml in food
samples and 0.1 ng/ml of water samples with LOD of
0.003 mg/ml for food and 0.03 ng/ml for water samples.
7. Bioassay for Pesticide Detection
Bioassay technique provides a rapid and sensitive assay
for screening water samples for presence of herbicides.
The method makes use of the property of herbicides to
inhibit functioning of photo system II in Chlamydomonas
reinhardtii. Briefly, C. reinhardtii grown on agar plates
is incubated with samples that are dried on paper disks.
The presence of herbicides is confirmed by observing the
zone of inhibition around the disks. The advantage of
the bioassay is that it can detect a wide range of herbi-
cides including acifluorfen, chlorpropham, diclofopme-
thyl (DFM), glyphosate, isoxaben, pinnacle, trifluralin
dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acteic
acid (2,4-D), metobromuron, 2-ethyl-4-chlorophenoxya-
cetic acid (MCPA), metribuzin, atrazine, hexazinone,
norflurazon and terbacil [113]. Similar method has been
described by Amutha et al. (2010) for detection of insec-
ticides [114].
8. Use of Capillary Electrophoresis (CE)
Capillary electrophoresis can be employed for detection
of certain pesticides [115]. The technique is useful for
detection of chiral pesticides like propiconazole. This
technique is a useful analytical tool for measuring the
kinetics of biotransformation of stereoisomers of chiral
pesticides and other pollutants from soil sediment. How-
ever the sensitivity of the method is comparatively low.
Hence more studies are essential before using this me-
thod in routine practice. MS coupled with CE has high
separation efficiency, low analysis time high resolution
power, low consumption of samples and reagents [115].
9. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay
Use of ELISA for pesticide detection has been reported
by Xu Zl et al. (2011). The authors have employed
monoclonal Ab based indirect ELISA technique for de-
tection of organophosphate pesticides. This method had
LOD in ng/ml. However the method has broad specific-
ity and hence can be used only for screening of organo-
phosphates from water samples [116].
10. Conclusions
The persistence of pesticides in environmental samples is
a global issue. With rules and regulations of organiza-
tions like EPA, innumerable methods have been devel-
oped to detect them. Modifications in the traditional me-
thods help in detection of specific pesticides in trace
quantities. Newer methods like biosensors and nano par-
ticles, have overcome the limitations of classical meth-
ods. Use of cell based biosensors, has opened a new
avenue with possibility of exploiting different microor-
ganisms for detection purposes. Another important de-
velopment is use of ELISA and monoclonal Abs for de-
tection purpose with remarkable specificity and sensitiv-
ity. Taking this into account the authors are of the opin-
ion that there should be 1) uniformity in permitted use
of specific pesticides all over the world, 2) consensus
among various organizations on MRL of these pesticides,
3) mandatory rules and regulations to abide by the estab-
lished norms and most importantly 4) uniformity in the
protocols for measurement of MRL in environmental
samples, particularly edible products. In fact, biopesti-
cides are the best alternative to chemical pesticides. How-
ever, government support, technology innovations, in-
crease in social awareness and enhancement in the exist-
ing research and development are necessary to promote
their use. All this will help in lowering the threats posed
by the uncontrolled use of pesticides.
11. Acknowledgements
The authors are indebted to Dr. S. S Kadam, Vice Chan-
cellor Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University (BVDU),
Pune, India and Dr. G. D Sharma, Principal, Rajiv Gan-
dhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology (BVDU) for al-
lowing them to undertake this work.
12. References
[1] “International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and
Use of Pesticides,” Hundred and Twenty-Third Session
of the FAO Council, November 2002.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
[2] B. K. Sharma, “Environmental Chemistry,” Goel Pub-
lication House, New Delhi, India, 2006.
[3] “The EU Water Framework Directive—Integrated River
Basin Management for Europe,” European Commission
Environment, 2000.
[4] “Pesticides,” US Environmental Protection Agency, 2011.
[5] “Pesticide Illnesses and Injury Surveillance,” Center for
Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.
[6] K. G. Harley, K. Huen, R. A. Schall, N. T. Holland, A.
Bradman, D. B. Barr and B. Eskenazi, “Association of
Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Paraoxonase
with Birth Outcome in Mexican-American Women,”
PLoS ONE, Vol. 6, No. 8, 2011.
[7] “Potential Health Effects of Pesticide,” College of Agri-
cultural Sciences, 2011.
[8] W. J. Crinnion,Chlorinated Pesticides: Threats to Health
and Importance of Detection,” Alternative Medicine Re-
view, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2009, pp. 347-359.
[9] “Illness Associated with Exposure to Methyl Bromide-
Fumigated Produce—California, 2010,” Morbidity and
Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 60, No. 27, 2011, pp. 923-
[10] “Mercury Compounds,” US Environmental Protection
Agency, 2000.
[11] “Fungicides,” 2011.
[12] W. Z. Azman and W. Abdullah, “General Classification
Pesticides: Rodenticides,” 2011.
[13] J. A. Hernández, M. V-Manzanares, M. R. G.-Ortiz, B.
H.-Carlos, M. P.-Torres and P. L. L.-de-Alba, “Simulta-
neous Spectrophotometric Determination of Atrazine and
Dicamba in Water by Partial Least Squares Regression,”
Journal of Chilean Chemical Society, Vol. 50, No. 2,
2005, pp. 461-464.
[14] S. B. Mathew, A. K. Pillai and V. K. Gupta, “A Rapid
Spectrophotometric Assay of Some Organophosphorus
Pesticides in Vegetable Samples,” Electronic Journal of
Environmental, Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 5,
No. 6, 2006, pp. 1604-1609.
[15] A. Navaratne and N. Priyantha, “Chemically Modified
Electrodes for Detection of Pesticides,” In: M. Stoytcheva
Ed., Pesticides in the Modern World—Trends in Pesti-
cides Analysis, 2011
[16] “Potentiometry and Redox Titrations,” Chapter II, 2011.
[17] “Potentiometry,” 2011.
[18] “Conductometry,” 2011.
[19] J. Gallová, “Conductometry,” 2011. use r_u pload/ english
[20] S. P. Kounaves, “Voltammetric Techniques,” 2011.
[21] “Basics of Voltametry,” 2011.
[22] A. J. Bard and L. R. Faulkner, “Electrochemical Methods:
Fundamentals and Applications,” Wiley, Hoboken, 2000.
[23] K. Wilson and J. Walker, “Priciples and Techniques of
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,” Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, Cambridge, 2005.
[24] H. M. C. K. Kanatiwela and N. K. B. Adikaram, “A
TLC-Bioassay Based Method for Detection of Fungicide
Residues on Harvested Fresh Produce,” Journal of the
National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, Vol. 37, No. 4,
2009, pp. 257-262.
[25] S. Butz and H. J. Stan, “Screening of 265 Pesticides in
Water by Thin-Layer Chromatography with Automated
Multiple Development,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 67,
No. 3, 1998, pp. 620-630.
[26] T. Tuzimski, “Determination of Pesticides in Water Sam-
ples from the Wieprz-Krzna Canal in the Leczyńsko-
Włodawskie Lake District of Southeastern Poland by
Thin-Layer Chromatography with Diode Array Scanning
and High-Performance Column Liquid Chromatography
with Diode Array Detection,” Journal of AOAC Interna-
tional, Vol. 91, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1203-1209.
[27] J. P. Lautié, V. Stankovic and G. Sinoquet, “Determina-
tion of Chlormequat in Pears by High-Performance Thin
Layer Chromatography and High-Performance Liqui Chro-
matography with Conductimetric Detection,” Analusis,
Vol. 28, No. 2, 2000, pp. 155-158.
[28] R. Akkad, “Determination of Organophosphorus and Car-
bamate Insecticides in Food Samples by High-Perfor-
mance Thin-Layer Chromatography Multi-Enzyme Inhi-
bition Assay,” PhD Dissertation, Institute of Food Chem-
istry, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany, 2011.
[29] Joseph Sharma, “Recent Advances in Thin-Layer Chro-
matography of Pesticides,” Journal of AOAC Interna-
tional, Vol. 84, No. 4, 2001, pp. 993-1000.
[30] W. M. Niessen, P. Manini and R. Andreoli, “Matrix Ef-
fects in Quantitative Pesticide Analysis Using Liquid Chro-
matography-Mass Spectrometry,” Mass Spectrometry Re-
views, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2006, pp. 881-899.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
[31] S.-H. TSeng, Y.-J. Lin, H.-F. Lee, S.-C. Su, S.-S. Chou
and D.-F. Hwang, “A Multiresidue Method for Deter-
mining 136 Pesticides and Metabolites in Fruits and Veg-
etables: Application of Macroporous Diatomaceous Earth
Column,” Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 15,
No. 3, 2007, pp. 316-324.
[32] P. L. Wylie, “Trace Level Pesticide Analysis by GC/MS
Using Large-Volume Injection,” 2011.
[33] H. A. Moye, “Improved Microwave Emission Gas Chro-
matography Detector for Pesticide Residue Analysis,”
[34] L. V. Podhorniak, J. F. Negron and F. D. Griffith Jr.,
“Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric
Detection Multiresidue Method for Organophosphate
Pesticide and Metabolite Residues at the Parts-Per-Billion
Level in Representatives Commodities of Fruits and
Vegetable Crop Groups,” Journal of AOAC International,
Vol. 84, No. 3, 2001, pp. 873-890.
[35] S. Johnson, N. Saikia and A. Kumar, “Analysis of Pesti-
cide Residues in Soft Drinks,” CSE Report, August, 2006.
[36] B. Du, H. Liu, et al., “Determination of Organochlorine
Pesticide Residues in Herbs by Capillary Electrophore-
sis,” Life Science Journal, Vol. 4, No.1, 2007, pp. 40-42.
[37] D. Bielawski, E. Ostrea Jr., N. Posecion Jr., M. Corrion
and J. Seagraves, “Detection of Several Classes of Pesti-
cides and Metabolites in Meconium by Gas Chromatog-
raphy-Mass Spectrometry,” Chromatographia, Vol. 62,
No. 11-12, 2005, pp. 623-629.
[38] L. Alder, K. Greulich, G. Kempe and B. Vieth, “Residue
Analysis of 500 High Priority Pesticides: Better by GC-
MS or LC-MS/MS,” Mass Spectrometry Reviews, Vol. 25,
No. 6, 2006, pp. 838-865. doi:10.1002/mas.20091
[39] L. Vodeb and B. Petanovska-Ilievska, “HPLC-DAD with
Different Types of Column for Determination of β-Cy-
fluthrin in Pesticide,” Acta Chromatographica, Vol. 17,
2006, pp. 188-201.
[40] P. Vinas, N. Campillo, I. Lopez-Garcia, N. Aguinaga and
M. Hernandez-Cordoba, “Capillary Gas Chromatography
with Atomic Emission Detection for Pesticide Analysis in
Soil Samples,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Che-
mistry, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2003, pp. 3704-3708.
[41] S. Islam, M. S. Hossain, N. Nahar, M. Mosihuzzaman
and M. I. R. Mamun, “Application of High Performance
Liquid Chromatography to the Analysis of Pesticide Re-
sidues in Eggplants,” Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 9,
No. 5, 2009, pp. 973-977. doi:10.3923/jas.2009.973.977
[42] D. R. Thevenot, K. Toth, R. A. Durst and G. S. Wilson,
“Electrochemical Biosensors: Recommended Definitions
and Classification,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol.
16, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 121-131.
[43] A. Hildebrandt, R. Bragos, S. Lacorte and J. L.Marty,
“Performance of a Portable Biosensor for the Analysis of
Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides in Water
and Food,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 133,
No. 1, 2008, pp. 195-201. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2008.02.017
[44] J. Tschmelak, G. Proll, J. Riedt, J. Kaiser, P. Kraemmer,
L. Barzaga, J. S. Wilkinson, P. Hua, J. P. Hole, R. Nudd,
M. Jackson, R. Abuknesha, D. Barcelo, S. Rodriguez-
Mozaz, M. J. Lopez de Alda, F. Sacher, J. Stien, J. Slo-
bodnik, P. Oswald, H. Kozmenko, E. Korenkova, L. To-
thova, Z. Krascsenits and G. Gauglitz, “Automated Water
Analyser Computer Supported System (AWACSS) Part
II: Intelligent, Remote-Controlled, Cost-Effective, On-line,
Water Monitoring Measurement System,” Biosensors and
Bioelectronics, Vol. 20, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1509-1519.
[45] H. Alain, R. Jordi, B. Ramon, T. Marius and L. Silvia,
“Development of a Portable Biosensor for Screening
Neurotoxic Agents in Water Samples,” Talanta, Vol. 75,
No. 5, pp. 1208-1213.
[46] B. B. Dzantiev, E. V. Yazynina, A. V. Zherdev, Y. V.
Plekhanova, A. N. Reshetilov, S. C. Chang and C. J.
McNeil, “Determination of the Herbicide Chlorsulfuron
by Amperometric Sensor Based on Separation-Free Bi-
enzyme Immunoassay,” Sensors and Actuators B: Che-
mical, Vol. 98, No. 2-3, 2004, pp. 254-261.
[47] I. Palchetti, A. Cagnini, M. Del Carlo, C. Coppi, M. Mas-
cini and A. P. F. Turner, “Determination of Acetylcholi-
nesterase Pesticides in Real Samples Using a Disposable
Biosensor,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 337, No. 3,
1997, pp. 315-321. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(96)00418-7
[48] T. T. Bachmann, B. Leca, F. Villatte, J. L. Marty, D.
Fournier and R. D. Schmid, “Improved Multianalyte De-
tection of Organophosphate and Carbamate with Dispos-
able Multielectrode Biosensors Using Recombinant Mu-
tants of Drosophila Acetylcholinesterase and Artificial
neutral Network,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 15,
No. 3-4, 2000, pp. 193-201.
[49] T. Montesinos, S. Perez-Munguia, F. Valdez and J. L.
Marty, “Disposable Cholinesterase Biosensor for the De-
tection of Pesticides in Water-Miscible Organic Sol-
vents,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 431, No. 2, 2001,
pp. 231-237. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(00)01235-6
[50] K. A. Joshi, J. Tang, R. Haddon, J. Wang, W. Chen and
A. Mulchaldani, “A Disposable Biosensors for Organo-
phosphorus Nerve Agents Based on Carbon Nanotubes
Modified Thick Film Strip Electrodes,” Electroanalysis,
Vol. 17, No. 1, 2005, pp. 54-58.
[51] B. Prieto-Simón, M. Campàs, S. Andreescu and J.-L.
Marty, “Trends in Flow-Based Biosensing Systems for
Pesticide Assessment,” Sensors, Vol. 6, No. 10, 2006, pp.
1161-1186. doi:10.3390/s6101161
[52] C. Tran-Minh, “Biosensors in Flow-Injection Systems for
Biomedical Analysis, Process and Environmental Moni-
toring,” Journal of Molecular Recognition, Vol. 9, No.
5-6, 1996, pp. 658-663.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
[53] M. P. Marco, S. Gee and B. D. Hammock, “Immuno-
chemical Techniques for Environmental Analysis I: Im-
munosensors,” TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol.
14, No. 7, 1995, pp. 341-350.
[54] B. Hock, A. Dankwardt, K. Kramer and A. Marx, “Im-
munochemical Techniques: Antibody Production for Pes-
ticide Analysis,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 311, No. 3,
1995, pp. 393-405. doi:10.1016/0003-2670(95)00148-S
[55] M. A. González-Martínez, J. Penalva, R. Puchades, A.
Maquieira, B. Ballesteros, M. P. Marco and D. Barceló,
“An Immunosensor for the Automatic Determination of
the Antifouling Agent Irgarol 1051 in Natural Waters,”
Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 32, No. 21,
1998, pp. 3442-3447. doi:10.1021/es980120v
[56] E. Mallat, C. Barzen, A. Klotz, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz
and D. Barceló, “River Analyzer for Chlorotriazines with
a Direct Optical Immunosensor,” Environmental Science
& Technology, Vol. 33, No. 6, 1999, pp. 965-971.
[57] M. A. González-Martínez, S. Morais, R. Puchades, A.
Maquieira, A. Abad and A. Montoya, “Monoclonal An-
tibody-Based Flow-Through Immunosensor for Analysis
of Carbaryl,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 69, No. 14, 1997,
pp. 2812-2818. doi:10.1021/ac961068t
[58] C. G. Bauer, A. V. Eremenko, E. Ehrentreich-Fŏrster, F.
F. Bier, A. Makower, H. B. Halsall, W. R. Heineman and
F. W. Scheller, “Zeptomole-Detecting Biosensor for Al-
kaline Phosphatase in an Electrochemical Immunoassay
for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid,” Analytical Chemi-
stry, Vol. 68, No. 15, 1996, pp. 2453-2458.
[59] R. T. Andres and R. Narayanaswamy, “Fibre-Optic Pesti-
cide Biosensor Based on Covalently Immobilized Ace-
tylcholinesterase and Thymol Blue,” Talanta, Vol. 44, No.
8, 1997, pp. 1335-1352.
[60] R.-A Doong, H.-M. Shih and S.-H. Lee, “Sol-Gel-De-
rived Array DNA Biosensor for the Detection of Poly-
cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Biological
Samples,” Sensors and Actuators B, Vol. 111-112, No.
110, 2005, pp. 323-330.
[61] H.-S. Lee, Y. A. Kim, Y. A. Cho and Y. T. Lee, “Oxida-
tion of Organophosphorus Pesticides for the Sensitive
Detection by a Cholinesterase-based Biosensor,” Chemo-
sphere, Vol. 46, No. 4, 2002, pp. 571-576.
[62] J. S. Van Dyk and B. Pletschke, “Review on the Use of
Enzymes for the Detection of Organochlorine, Organo-
phosphate and Carbamate Pesticides in the Environment,”
Vol. 82, No. 3, 2011, pp. 291-307.
[63] J. P. Sherry, “Environmental Chemistry: The Immunoas-
say Option,” Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry,
Vol. 23, No. 4, 1992, pp. 217-300.
[64] E. P. Meulenberg, W. H. Mulder and P. G. Stoks, “Im-
munoassays for Pesticides,” Environmental Science Tech-
nolology, Vol. 29, No. 3, 1995, pp. 553-561.
[65] O. A. Sadik and J. M. Van Emon, “Application of Elec-
trochemical Immunosensors to Environmental Monitor-
ing,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 11, No. 8, 1996,
pp. 1-11. doi:10.1016/0956-5663(96)85936-7
[66] A. Mulchandani, P. Mulchandani, S. Chauhan, I. Kaneva
and W. Chen, “A Potentiometric Microbial Biosensor for
Direct Determination of Organophosphate Nerve Agents,”
Electroanalysis, Vol. 10, No. 11, 1998, pp. 733-737.
[67] Y. Lei, P. Mulchandani, J. Wang, W. Chen, W. Chen and
A. Mulchandani, “Highly Sensitive and Selective Am-
perometric Microbial Biosensor for Direct Determination
of p-Nitrophenyl-Substituted Organophosphate Nerve
Agents,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39,
No. 22, 2005, pp. 8853-8857. doi:10.1021/es050720b
[68] M. Priti, C. Wilfred and M. Ashok, “Microbial Biosensor
for Direct Determination of Nitrophenyl-Substituted Or-
ganophosphate Nerve Agents Using Genetically Modified
Moraxella sp.,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 568, No.
1-2, 2006, pp. 217-221. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2005.11.063
[69] C. Chouteau, S. Dzyadevych, C. Durrieu and J. M. Cho-
velon, “A Bienzymatic Whole Cell Conductometric Bio-
sensor for Heavy Metal Ions and Pesticides Detection in
Water Samples,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 21,
No. 2, 2005, pp. 273-281. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2004.09.032
[70] A. L. Simonian, J. K. Grimsley, A. W. Flounders, J. S.
Schoeniger, T. C. Cheng, J. J. DeFrank and J. R. Wild,
“Enzyme-Based Biosensor for the Direct Detection of
Fluorine-Containing Organophosphates,” Analytica Chi-
mica Acta, Vol. 442, No. 1, 2001, pp. 15-23.
[71] P. Mulchandani, W. Chen and A. Mulchandani, “Flow-
Injection Amperometric Enzyme Biosensor for Direct
Determination of Organophosphate Nerve Agents,” En-
vironmental Science & Technology, Vol. 35, No. 12, 2001,
pp. 2562-2565. doi:10.1021/es001773q
[72] M. J. Schoening, R. Krause, K. Block, M. Musahmen, A.
Mulchandani and J. Wang, “A Dual Amperometric/Po-
tentiometric FIA-Based Biosensor for the Distinctive De-
tection of Organophosphorus Pesticides,” Sensors and Ac-
tuators B: Chemical, Vol. 95, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 291- 296.
[73] J. Wang, R. Krause, K. Block, M. Musameh, A. Mul-
chandani, P. Mulchandani, W. Chen and M. J. Schoening,
“Dual Amperometric Potentiometric Biosensor Detection
System for Monitoring Organophosphorus Neurotoxins,”
Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 469, No. 2, 2002, pp. 197-
203. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(02)00666-9
[74] K. Reybier, S. Zairi and N. Jaffrezic-Renault, “The Use
of Polyethylenimine for Fabrication of Potentiometric
Cholinesterase Biosensors,” Talanta, Vol. 56, No. 6, pp.
1015-1020. doi:10.1016/S0039-9140(01)00588-4
[75] D. Du, X. Huang, J. Cai and A.-D. Zhang, “Amperomet-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
ric Detection of Triazophos Pesticide Using Acetylcholi-
nesterase Biosensor Based on Multiwall Carbon Nano-
tube-Chitosan Matrix,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemi-
cal, Vol. 127, No. 2, pp. 531-535.
[76] E. V. Gogol, G. A. Evtugyn, J. L. Marty, H. C. Budnikov
and V. G. Winter, “Amperometric Biosensors Based on
Nafion-Coated Screenprinted Electrodes for the Deter-
mination of Cholinesterase Inhibitors,” Talanta, Vol. 53,
No. 2, pp. 379-389. doi:10.1016/S0039-9140(00)00507-5
[77] T. T. Bachmann, B. Leca, F. Villatte, J.-L.Marty, D.
Fournier and R. D. Schmid, “Improved Multianalyte De-
tection of Organophosphate and Carbamate with Dispos-
able Multielectrode Biosensors Using Recombinant Mu-
tants of Drosophila Acetylcholinesterase and Artificial
Neutral Network,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol.
15, No. 3-4, pp. 193-201.
[78] F. Mazzei, F. Botre and C. Botre, “Acid Phosphata-
se/Glucose Oxidase Based Biosensors for the Determina-
tion of Pesticide,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 336, No.
1-3, 1996, pp. 67-75.
[79] K. Rekha, M. D. Gouda, M. S. Thakur and N. G. Karanth,
“Ascorbate Oxidase Based Amperometric Biosensor for
Organophosphorus Pesticide Monitoring,” Biosensors and
Bioelectronics, Vol. 15, No. 9-10, 2000, pp. 499-502.
[80] Y. D. De Albuquerque and L. F. Ferreira, “Amperometric
Biosensing of Carbamate and Organophosphate Pesti-
cides Utilizing Screenprinted Tyrosinase-Modified Elec-
trodes,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 596, No. 2, 2007,
pp. 210-221. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2007.06.013
[81] M. T. Perez-Pita, A. J. Reviejo, F. J. Manuel-de-Villena
and J. M. Pingarron, “Amperometric Selective Biosens-
ing of Dimethyl- and Diethyldithiocarbamates Based on
Inhibition Processes in a Medium of Reversed Micelles,”
Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 340, No. 1-3, 1997, pp.
89-97. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(96)00552-1
[82] A. Seki, F. Ortega and J. L. Marty, “Enzyme Sensor for
the Detection of Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate Syn-
thase,” Analytical Letters, Vol. 29, No. 8, 1996, pp. 1259-
1271. doi:10.1080/00032719608001479
[83] T. Noguer and J. L. Marty, “High Sensitive Bienzymic
Sensor for the Detection of Dithiocarbamate Fungicides,”
Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 347, No. 1-2, 1997, pp. 63-
70. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(97)00127-X
[84] J. Halamek, M. Hepel and P. Skladal, “Investigation of
Highly Sensitive Piezoelectric Immunosensors for 2,4-Di-
chlorophenoxyacetic Acid,” Biosensors and Bioelectron-
ics, Vol. 16, No. 4-5, 2001, pp. 253-260.
[85] J. Pribyl, M. Hepel, J. Halámek and P. Skladal, “Devel-
opment of Piezoelectric Immunosensors for Competitive
and Direct Determination of Atrazine,” Sensors and Ac-
tuators B: Chemical, Vol. 91, No. 1-3, 2003, pp.333-341.
[86] J. Halamek, J. Pribyl, A. Makower, P. Skladal and F. W.
Scheller, “Sensitive Detection of Organophosphates in
River Water by Means of a Piezoelectric Biosensor,”
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 382, No. 8,
2005, pp.1904-1911. doi:10.1007/s00216-005-3260-y
[87] G. G. Guilbault, B. Hock and R. Schmid, “A Piezoelec-
tric Immunosensor for Atrazine in Drinking Water,” Bio-
sensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 7, No. 6, 1992, pp. 411-
419. doi:10.1016/0956-5663(92)85040-H
[88] D. Erickson, S. Mandal, H. Allen, J. Yang and B. Cor-
dovez, “Nanobiosensors: Optofluidic, Electrical and Me-
chanical Approaches to Biomolecular Detection at the
Nanoscale,” Microfluid Nanofluidics, Vol. 4, No. 1-2, 2008,
pp. 33-52. doi:10.1007/s10404-007-0198-8
[89] J. Wang, G. Rivas, E. Cai, P. Palecek, H. Nielsen, N.
Shiraishi, D. Dontha, C. Luo, M. Parrado, P. A. M. Chi-
carro, F. S. Farias, D. H. Valera, M. Grant, M. Ozsoz and
M. N. Flair, “DNA Electrochemical Biosensors for Envi-
ronmental Monitoring. A Review,” Analytica Chimica
Acta, Vol. 347, No. 1-2, 1997, pp.1-8.
[90] P. G. He, Y. Xu and Y. Z. Fang, “A Review: Electro-
chemical DNA Biosensors for Sequence Recognition,”
Analytical Letters, Vol. 38, No. 15, 2005, pp. 2597-2623.
[91] Krystyna Pyrzynska, “Carbon Nanotubes as Sorbents in
the Analysis of Pesticides,” Chemosphere, Vol. 83, No.
11, 2011, pp.1407-1413.
[92] S. Olga and R. K. Jon, “An Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme
Electrode Stabilized by an Electrodeposited Gold Nano-
particle Layer,” Electrochemistry Communications, Vol.
9, No. 5, 2007, pp. 935-940.
[93] M. Alvarez, A. Calle, J. Tamayo, J. L. M. Lechuga, A.
Abad and A. Montoya, “Development of Nanomechani-
cal Biosensors for Detection of the Pesticide DDT,” Bio-
sensor Bioelectronics, Vol. 18, No. 5-6, 2003, pp. 649-
653. doi:10.1016/S0956-5663(03)00035-6
[94] N. Gan, X. Yang, D. Xie, Y. Wu and W. Wen, “A Dis-
posable Organophosphorus Pesticides Enzyme Biosensor
Based on Magnetic Composite Nano-Particles Modified
Screen Printed Carbon Electrode,” Sensors, Vol. 10, No.
1, 2010, pp. 625-638. doi:10.3390/s100100625
[95] I. Palchetti, S. Laschi and M. Mascini, “Electrochemical
Biosensor Technology: Application to Pesticide Detec-
tion,” Electrochemical and Mechanical Detectors, lateral
Flow and Ligands for Biosensors, Human Press, Springer,
LLC, USA, 2009, p. 115.
[96] D. Du, S.-Z. Chen, J. Cai and A.-D. Zhang, “Electro-
chemical Pesticide Sensitivity Test Using Acetylcholi-
nesterase Biosensor Based on Colloidal Gold Nanoparti-
cle Modified Sol-Gel Interface,” Talanta, Vol. 74, No. 4,
2008, pp. 766-772.
[97] D. Du, J.-W. Ding, Y. Tao and X. Chen, “Application of
Chemisorption/Desorption Process of Thiocholine for Pe-
sticide Detection Based on Acetylcholinesterase Biosen-
sor,” Sensors and Actuators B: Che m ic a l, Vol. 134, No. 2,
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJAC
2008, pp. 908-912.
[98] A. Parikh, K. Patel, C. Patel and B. N. Patel, “Flow Injec-
tion: A New Approach in Analysis,” Journal of Chemi-
cal and Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2010,
pp. 118-125.
[99] S. Suwansa-ard, P. Kanatharana, P. Asawatreratanakul, C.
Limsakul, B. Wongkittisuksa and P. Thavarungkul, “Semi
Disposable Reactor Biosensors for Detecting Carbamate
Pesticides in Water,” 2005.
[100] D. P. Nikolelis, M. G. Simantiraki, C. G. Siontorou and K.
Toth, “Flow Injection Analysis of Carbofuran in Foods
Using Air Stable Lipid Film Based Acetylcholinesterase
Biosensor,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 537, No. 1-2,
2005, pp. 169-177.
[101] Y.-Y. Wei, Y. Li, Y.-H. Qu, F. Xiao, G.-Y. Shi and L.-T.
Jin, “A Novel Biosensor Based on Photoelectro-Syner-
gistic Catalysis for Flow-Injection Analysis System/Am-
perometric Detection of Organophosphorous Pesticides,”
Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 643, No. 1-2, 2009, pp.
13-18. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2009.03.045
[102] M. P. Xavier, B. Vallejo, M. D. Marazuela, M. C. Mo-
reno-Bondi, F. Baldini and A. Falai, “Fiber Optic Moni-
toring of Carbamate Pesticides Using Porous Glass with
Covalently Bound Chlorophenolred,” Biosensors and Bio-
electronics, Vol. 14, No. 12, 2000, pp. 895-905.
[103] M. Franko, M. Sarakha, A. Cibej, A. Boskin, M. Bavcon
and P. Trebse, “Photodegradation of Pesticides and Ap-
plication of Bioanalytical Methods for Their Detection,”
Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 77, No. 10, 2005, pp.
1727-1736. doi:10.1351/pac200577101727
[104] R. S. Chouhan, K. V. Rana, C. R. Suri, R. K. Thampi and
M. S. Thakur, “Trace-Level Detection of Atrazine Using
Immuno-Chemiluminescence: Dipstick and Automated
Flow Injection Analyses Formats,” Journal of AOAC In-
ternational, Vol. 93, No. 1, 2010, pp. 28-35.
[105] A. Waseem, M. Yaqoob and A. Nabi, “Photodegradation
and Flow-Injection Determination of Dithiocarbamate
Fungicides in Natural Water with Chemiluminescence
Detection,” Analytical Sciences, Vol. 25, No, 3, 2009, pp.
395-400. doi:10.2116/analsci.25.395
[106] H.-Y. Hu, X.-Y. Liu, F. Jiang, X. Yao and X.-C. Cui, “A
Novel Chemiluminescence Assay of Organophosphorous
Pesticide Quinalphos Residue in Vegetable with Luminol
Detection,” Chemistry Central Journal, Vol. 4, No. 13,
2010, p. 13.
[107] L. Pogacknic and M. Franko, “Photothermal Bioanalyti-
cal Methods for Pesticide Toxicity Testing,” Arhiv Za
Higijenu Rada I Toksikologiju, Vol. 54, No. 3, 2003, pp.
[108] J.-J. Aaron, M. Mbaye and M. D. G. Seye, “Determina-
tion of A-Cypermethrin Insecticide Residues in Senegal
Waters by a Flow Injection Analysis-Photochemically
Induced Fluorescence (FIA-PIF) Method,” 2011.
[109] T. Pérez-Ruiz, C. Martínez-Lozano, V. Tomás and J.
Martín, “Chemiluminescence Determination of Carbofuran
and Promecarb by Flow Injection Analysis Using Two
Photochemical Reactions,” Analyst, Vol. 127, No. 11,
2002, pp. 1526-1530. doi:10.1039/b207460p
[110] A. Waseem, M. Yaqoob and A. Nabi, “Photodegradation
and Flow-Injection Determination of Simetryn Herbicide
by Luminol Chemiluminescence Detection,” Analytical
Sciences, Vol. 24, No. 8, 2008, pp. 979-983.
[111] D. J. Beale, N. A. Porter and F. A. Roddick, “A Fast
Screening Method for the Presence of Atrazine and Other
Triazines in Water Using Flow Injection with Chemilu-
minescent Detection,” Talanta, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2009, pp.
[112] S. C. Nanita, A. M. Pentz and F. Q. Bramble, “High-
Throughput Pesticide Residue Quantitative Analysis Achi-
eved by Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Automated
Flow Injection,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 81, No. 8,
2009, pp. 3134-3142. doi:10.1021/ac900226w
[113] X.-Q. Li, A. Ng, R. King and D. G. Durnford, “A Rapid
and Simple Bioassay Method for Herbicide Detection,”
Biomarker Insights, Vol. 3, 2008, pp. 287-291.
[114] M. Amutha, J. G. Banu, T. Surulivelu and N. Gopala-
krishnan, “Effect of Commonly Used Insecticides on the
Growth of White Muscardine Fungus, Beauveria bassi-
ana under Laboratory Conditions,” Journal of Biopesti-
cides, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010, pp. 143-146.
[115] A. W. Garrison, J. K. Avants and R. D. Miller, “Loss of
Propiconazole and Its Four Stereoisomers from the Water
Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capil-
lary Electrophoresis,” 2011.
[116] Z. L. Xu, D. P. Zeng, J. Y. Yang, Y. D. Shen, R. C. Beier,
H. T. Lei, H. Wang and Y. M. Sun, “Monoclonal Anti-
body-Based Broad-Specificity Immunoassay for Moni-
toring Organophosphorus Pesticides in Environmental
Water Samples,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring,
Vol. 13, No. 11, 2011, pp. 3040-3048.