Advances in Applied Sociology
2011. Vol.1, No.1, 64-69
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. DOI:10.4236/aasoci.2011.11006
Legal Education for Women—A Comparison of Practice in
China and Turkey
Onur Sabri Durak1,2, Yen-Chiang Chang3, Nannan Wang4, Yue Zhao5
1Istanbul Technical University Maritime Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey;
2Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, China;
3School of Law, Shandong University, Jinan, China;
4School of Management, Shandong University, Jinan, China;
5School of Law, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
Received November 10th, 2011; revised December 12th, 2011; accepted December 22nd, 2011.
The concept of human rights has been altering and expanding since the 20th century. The current development
as regards human rights is that it covers the “right of education”. Since steps are being taken to improve
women’s fundamental rights, the “right of education”, is one of the leading matters to be considered in order to
avoid any kind of discrimination against women in the modern world. Unfortunately, as opposed to the theoreti-
cal equality of women with men in legal texts, the broader sense of women’s rights has been altering and ex-
panding more slowly than in legal texts and the reality differs from the theoretical ideal. This is proven by the
fact that there are 960 million adult illiterate all over the world, and among which 2/3 are female. In 2004, there
are 121 million children out of school around the world and among which 65 million are girls. The purpose of
this article is to indicate and evaluate the legal basis of education in general and legal education in universities
and institutions in China and in Turkey, with special attention being paid to Taiwan region, from a historical and
comparative perspective. Women, as lawmakers and a part of law enforcement, together with their rights, in par-
ticular, the “right of education” and briefly, legal education for women, are all discussed. International Cove-
nants and national legislation which provide fundamental rights on education for women are addressed and ob-
stacles to women’s legal education are also addressed .
Keywords: Right of Educa t i on, Legal Education, Women’s Rights
The right to an education has been designated as a funda-
mental right under international human rights documents. His-
torically, human rights solely referred to the right to life, liberty
and not being subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or de-
grading treatment. Since the Second World War, the concept of
human rights has altered and expanded. The right of educa-
tion has now become a fundamental right in the context of
hu man rights. Designation of “the right of education” under inter-
national human rights documents has particular two aims:
To avoid illiteracy;
To promote education for everyone, without any discrimina-
tion and to achieve elementary education for everyone.
In this context, the United Nations (UN) promulgated inter-
national human rights documents covering, the right of educa-
tion and promotes education for everyone. One of the signify-
cant issues which the international human rights documents touch
upon is the education o f wome n and womens educati on ri ght”.
At the present, there are 960 million adult illiterate all over the
world, and among which 2/3 are female. In 2004, there are 121
million children out of school around the world and among
which 65 million are girls (Huang, 2006). With regard to these
considerations, the UN has promulgated conventions and while
some of these conventions solely related to women’s rights,
some other rights related to women’s rights are prescribed in
general terms under the international human rights documents,
such as:
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), Arti-
cle 11 and Article 262;
1UDHR Article 1: “All human being s are born free and equal in dignity an d
rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act to-
wards one another in a sp irit of brotherhood”.
2UDHR Article 26: “1) everyon e has the ri ght to education. Ed ucation sh all
be free, at l east in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary edu-
cation shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made
generall y availab le and high er edu cation s hall b e equal ly access ibl e to all on
the basis of me rit; 2) education shall be dire cted to the full deve lopment of the
human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friend-
ship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the acti-
vities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace; 3) parents have a
prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children”.
3On 17th October 1999, China notified the Director-General of UNESCOthat
the Convention will continue to apply to the Macao Special Administrative
Region of the People’s Republic of China, with effect from 20thDecember
1999; Turke y has not yet sig ned the Convention.
Convention against Discrimination in Education (CDE)3,
Article 14 and consecutive articles therein;
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
4CDE Article 1: “1. For the purpose of this Convention, the term “discri-
mination” includes any distinction, exclusion, limitation or preference which,
being based on race, colo r, sex, language, r eligion, po litical or other opinion,
national or social origin, economic condition or birth, has the purpose or effect
of nullifying or impairing equality of treatment in education and in particula
1) of d eprivi ng any pers on or group of p erson s of access t o edu catio n of any
type or at any level; 2) of limiting any person or group of persons to educa-
tion of an inferior standard; 3) subject to the provisions of Article 2 of this
Convention, of establishing or maintaining separate educational systems o
institutions for persons or groups of persons; or 4) of inflicting on any per-
son or group of persons conditions which are incom
atible with the dignity
of man”.
Rights (CESCR)5, Article 136;
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimina-
tion against Women (CEDAW)7, Article 18, Article 39 and
Article 1010.
Afore cited international human rights documents generally
aim to achieve equal rights for everyone around the world, wit h-
out any discrimination and specifically aim to achieve funda-
mental education for all people. Parties to those conventions
undertake the responsibility of establishing and maintaining ap-
propriate educational systems for every citizen in their countries.
For this study, we particularly focus on the legal basis of
education in mainland China, Taiwan region and Turkey. The
main reason for selecting China and Turkey as the object of
comparison is that both States share the similar legal system,
same legal problems regarding women’s legal education might
occur within both States. On the other hand, China has experi-
enced rapid growth in terms of economic and legal develop-
ment. Turkey, as a developing country, has a lot in common in
comparison with China. It is, therefore, noteworthy to compare
the issues of women’s legal education based on similar eco-
nomic and legal background. The current development in Tai-
wan region, however, will provide a broad picture as to how
China and Turkey will look like in the future. We then try to
address legal education and the place of women in legal educa-
tion, in mainland China, Taiwan region and Turkey. While we
try to achieve a comparative study, we acknowledge some dif-
ficulties experienced during the research and also some differ-
ences between the subjected States and Special Administration
Region. Such difficulties as indicated above include:
Membership status of States to international human rights
documents is different. In this respect, national legislation is
also different for the legal basis of education and right to
Population differences between subject matter States11 or
Cultural, social and economic background12;
Differences between educational systems, university entrance
systems and in particular, differences in admission to the
legal system after higher education13;
Available statistics on education are significantly dated and
inadequate for both States and the Special Administration
Region. Secondly, the statistics do not provide sufficient
information on legal education and beside this, existing sta-
tistics are not available for comparison purposes.
Beside the differences specific to the subject matter among
States and Special Administration Region, there are several ge-
neral similarities, such as:
5China signed the Covenant on 27th October 1997 and ratified on 27th
March 2001; Turkey signed the Covenant on 15th August 2000 and ratified
on 23rd September 2003.
6ICESCR Article 13: “1) The States Parties to the present Covenant reco-
gnize th e right of everyo ne to educati on. They agree th at education s hall be
directed to the full development of the human personality and the sense o
its dignity, and shall strengthen the respect for human rights and funda-
mental freedoms. Th ey further agree that educati on shall enable al l persons
to participate effectively in a free society, promote understanding, tolerance
and friendship among all nations and all racial, ethnic or religious groups,
and further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
2) The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize that, with a view to
achieving the full realization of this right: a) primary education shall be
compulsory and available free to all; b) secondary education in its different
forms, including technical and vocational secondary education, shall be
made generally available and accessible to all by every appropriate means,
and in particular by the progressive introduction of free education; c) highe
education shall be made equally accessible to all, on th e basis of capacity , by
every appr opr iat e means, and in p articu lar b y th e prog r essive i nt rodu cti on o
free education; d) fundamental education shall be encouraged or intensified
as far as po ssible for thos e persons who have no t received or comp leted the
whole period of their primary education; e) the development of a system o
schools at all levels shall be actively pursued, an adequate fellowship system
shall be established, and the material conditions of teaching staff shall be
continuously improved. 3) The States Parties to the present Covenant under-
take to have respect for the liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal
guardians to choose for their children schools, other than those established
by the public authorities, which conform to such minimum educational standards
as may be laid d o wn or ap pr oved by the Stat e and to ensu re t h e r el i g ious and
moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.
4) No part of this article shall be construed so as to interfere with the liberty
of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions,
subject always to the observance of the principles set forth in paragraph I o
this article and to the requirement that the education given in such institutions
shall conform to such minimum standards as may be laid down by the State”.
7China signed the Convention on 17th July 1980 and ratified it on 4th No-
vember 1 980; Turkey accessed the Convention on 20th De cember 1985.
8CEDAW Article 1: “For the purposes of the present Convention, the term
‘discrimination against women’ shall mean any distinction, exclusion or
restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of im-
pairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irre-
spective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, o
human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social,
cultural, civil or any other field”.
9CEDAW Article 3: “States Parties shall take in all fields, in particular in the
political, social, economic and cultural fields, all appropriate measures, in-
cluding legislation, to ensure the full development and advancement of women
for the p urpose of guaranteeing them th e exercise and enj oyment of human
rights and fundamenta l fr eedoms on a basis of eq u ality with men”.
The significant role of both States and region in education
policy and governance;
The significant percentage of State schools, compared to
private schools and institutions;
Problems existing, particularly for elementary school and
for further steps of education.
10CEDAW Article 10: “States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to
eliminate discrimination against women in order to ensure to them equal
rights with men in the field of education and in particular to ensure, on
basis of equality of men and women: 1) the same conditions for career and
vocational guidance, for access to studies and for the achievement of diplomas
in educational establishments of all categories in rural as well as in urban areas;
this equality shall be ensured in pre-school, general, technical, professional
and higher technical education, as well as in all types of vocational training;
2) access to the same curricula, the same examinations, teaching staff with
qualifications of the same standard and school premises and equipment of the
same quality; 3) the elimination of any stereotyped concept of the roles of men
and women at all levels and in all forms of education by encouraging coe-
ducation and other types of education which will help to achieve this aim
and, in particular, by the revision of textbooks and school programmes and
the adaptation of teaching methods; 4) the same opportunities to benefit fro
scholarships and other study grants; 5) the same opportunities for access to
programmes of continuing education, including adult and functional literacy
programmes, particulary th ose ai med at red u cing , at t he ear lies t po ssib le ti me
any gap in education existing between men and women; 6) the reduction o
female student drop-out rates and the organization of programmes for girls
and women who have left school prematurely; 7) the same Opportunities to
participate actively in sports and physical education; 8) access to specific
educational information to help to ensure the health and well-being of fami-
lies, including information and advice on family pla nn i ng ”.
11Population of PRC, 1.345.751.000; Population of Taiwan region, 23.046.177;
Population of Turkey, 71.517.100. Population differences and populatio
dynamics between those States and Special Administration Re gion do not allow
the making of comparative analysis on population and conclude a research
based on this.
12Both States and Special Administration are affected by different history,
cultural background, religion, beliefs, political history and recent status. Fur-
thermore, the economic status of China, Taiwan and Turkey exhibit signifi-
cant differences.
13Whereas in Turkey, it is compulsory to obtain a Bachelor’s degree in la
to apply for the Bar Associations, in China, to apply for legal evaluation ex a m
having a ba chelor degree is enough.
In addition, there are some similarities existing in relation to
legal education, examples being:
Bot h St ates ar e foll owers of a “Continental Legal System”;
Neither State has a completely genuine and unique legal
Both States operate under the effects of international le-
gislative documents;
Both States aim to achieve a unified legal system.
Taking into account of all these considerations, it should be
noted that although there are many difficulties and differences
which may inhibit the conducting of a comprehensive and com-
parative study among those States, these difficulties and differ-
ences do not preclude briefly introducing the legal basis of
education, right to education and legal education, for each State.
Secondly, even though statistics are somewhat limited, such
statistics as do exist provide the basis of an introduction to the
current status of legal education in each State. The fundamental
issue to be considered is that education of women is far more
significant to the development of women than other rights. And
having female legal professions indicates a fact to protect the
rights of women in the rule of law society, in particular the
equal rights.
People’s Republic of China
Mainland China
An Overview of the Education System in Mainland China
At present, the majority of females in mainland China re-
ceived at least primary school or junior high school education.
Only 14% of females are considered as being illiterate and most
of these are over 60 years of age. In addition, only small pro-
portion of females received senior high school or college edu-
cation, their numbers representing some 17%. It is, therefore,
fair to say that the majority of females receiving education in
mainland China are only educated at primary and secondary
school levels.
Observing this situation from the viewpoint of historical de-
velopment, between 1931-1945, there were only approximately
780 million females who received primary school education,
only 0.46% of females received higher education14 and in ex-
cess of 90% of females were illiterate during that period of time.
Due to the policy of promoting, “common primary and sec-
ondary education”, after 1949, the proportion of illiteracy was
gradually reduced. In the 1980s, the policy of “nine-year com-
pulsory education” was introduced and implemented, through-
out mainland China. As a result, most of the younger genera-
tions received at least a junior high school education.
Since the rapid development of the higher education system
in the 1990s, females have had more opportunity to receive
higher education. For example, 23.6% of females received highe r
education in the 1980s and the situation improved to 35.4% in
1995 and further improved to 45.7%, in 2004. It was also ob-
served that, in 2004, 44.2% of Masters’ students in mainland
China were female and they represented 31.4% of Ph. D students.
The aforesaid situation was a great improvement in comparison
to the situation in 1995 (Gao, 2004).
The Compulsory Education Act was implemented in 1986
and it provided reasonable legal protection for young children
(both males and females) to receive at least “nine-year” free
education. This policy also helped to partially ease the financial
pressure on some families, in particular, those in the country-
side. The aforesaid was deemed to be the “double legal protect-
tion” which had secured the situation whereby young girls would
receive an education. The “Nine-year compulsory education”
policy has been implemented throughout most of mainland China
and almost all young girls will have the opportunity to receive
primary school education. It is, therefore, fair to state that at the
elementary school stage, females are receiving the same educa-
tion opportunity as males. It is, however, a fact that the propor-
tion of male students in senior high school was still far greater
than for females.
There was an exception in that female students were much
more highly represented than males at the “technical high school”15,
in particular in the rural areas. This was a result of the demand s
of the job market in rural areas. It was also note worthy that
there were a number of female students (about 2% - 3%), who
did not finish their degrees, as has been shown by recent re-
search (Tan, 2011). The most recent development is that there
are a significant amount of females participating in higher or
adult higher education diploma training courses. The aforesaid
training courses focus on nursing, secretarial, public relations,
financial sectors, as well as tourism and IT sectors, all of which
reflect the current market needs.
In summary, the current development of the modern educa-
tion system in mainland China has brought better opportunities
for females, in terms of receiving better higher education. The
“technical high school” and “job training diploma courses” also
offered training opportunities, which reflecting the job market
needs, in particular, those opportunities for females. Subse-
quently, these circumstances provide basic preconditions for
females; to be able to participate in social and economics ac-
tivities, which will in turn, raise the social status of females.
An Overview of Legal Education in Mainland China
Here, we briefly summarise the legal education and statistics
as regards the employment position of women in the legal field
in mainland China:
1) Recently, there numbered 609 Law Colleges or Law De-
partments under the authority of other Colleges around main-
land China16;
2) 628 Undergraduate students, with 241 male and 387 fe-
male students, at Shanghai Maritime University;
3) 447 Postgraduate students, with 163 male, 284 female
students, at Shanghai Maritime University;
4) 200,000 Judges, with 44,502 of them being females, in
mainland China;
5) 214,900 Prosecutors, with a little more than 30,000 being
6) 143,000 Lawyers, with 23,753 of them being female.
Taiwan Regi on
An Overview of the Education System in Taiwan Region
The principle of the “equality of males and female s” was ex-
plicitly stipulated in the Constitution Law of Taiwan17. Even so,
it remains a fact that this principle cannot be applied entirely
throughout all the laws in Taiwan. For example, Article 1059 I
of the Civil Act states that “children should be named after their
father’s surname”. Another typical example is that if the couple
operates a “joint financial management system”, the husband
will have the final say in any dispute18.
14Here, “higher education” means education at college or postgraduate levels.
15These types of school provide professional training that reflects the needs
of the job market, examples being, IT skills and accountancy.
16Due to the lack of information about total numbers of law colleges and
students of law colleges in China, we prefer to analyze only one Law Col-
lege in this s t udy.
17Article 7 of the Constitution Law of Taiwan.
18Article 1018 I of the Civil Act. In accordance with a recent survey published by the Internal
Department, Taiwan region, 33.85% of the entire population is
in receipt college or postgraduate education. 33.21% of people
have received senior high school or technical high school train-
ing whereas, 15.69% of the population only received primary
school education. It was also observed that the proportion of
people receiving college or postgraduate education has increased
by 17.86% in the past 10 years. The literacy rate for over 15
year olds was 97.6%, which means that, in 100 people, there
are still 2.4 people who are illiterate. The female literacy rate
was 3.5% lower than for males, which was due to the fact that
male literacy rate was 22.6% higher among people over 65
years of age but the rate figure was virtually equal among those
under the age of 40.
Analyzing the population structure, 6.4 million people receive
college or even higher education. Among these, 3.38 million
(52.75%) are males and 3.02 million (47.25%) are females. It
was noteworthy that a higher percentage of the female popula-
tion received higher education as opposed to males, among the
under 35 age group. Those over 35, however, displayed the
opposite situation to that of the females. This is due to the fact
that in the early stages of educational development, females’
education rights were significantly ignored. The gap was enor-
mous, in particular, for those over the age of 50.
An Overview of Legal Education in Taiwan Region
Here, we briefly indicate the legal education and relevant
statistics on the employment positions of women in the legal
field in Taiwan region:
7) Currently, there are 45 Law Colleges providing law edu-
cation, among the 145 Universities in Taiwan region;
8) Judges in Taiwan region; in total, there are 1713 Judges,
1028 of them being male and 685 of them, females (Judicial
Yuan, 2009);
9) Prosecutors in Taiwan region; There are 1225 Prosecutors,
with 824 of them being male and 401 of them, female (Ministry
of Justice, 2009).
In relation to Taiwan region, unfortunately we have been
unable to establish the details a regards lawyers and their sex
ratio, however, fortunately we have been able to identify un-
dernoted data relating to the gender ratio of law college stu-
dents, this being as undern o te d .
In accordance with the statistic as has been shown in Table 1,
we may conclude that, in recent years, the differences in gender
ratio in colleges of Taiwan region have reduced and nowadays,
the difference in the gender ratio in law colleges is remarkably
low. The statistics indicates that, for example, in 2008, the ratio
had almost reached parity.
The current development in Taiwan region is that female le-
gal scholars19 who received higher education abroad and now
gradually have impact on the society, in particular at the politi-
cal sector. This tendency will in turn encourage more female
students to persuade their postgraduate study abroad. The over-
all outcome of this tendency is, however, subject to further ob-
An Overview of the Education System in Turkey
Article 10 of the Constitution of the Turkish Republic ex-
plicitly prescribes the equality of males and females. In the
context of Article 10, males and females have equal rights and
Table 1.
The gender ratio of law college students in Taiwan (Ministry of Edu-
cation, 2009).
Sex Ratio
Year Male Female
1998 56.86% 43.14%
1999 57.15% 42.85%
2000 55.57% 44.43%
2001 55.22% 44.78%
2002 54.12% 45.88%
2003 53.41% 46.59%
2004 52.50% 47.50%
2005 51.81% 48.19%
2006 51.40% 48.60%
2007 51.00% 49.00%
2008 50.53% 49.47%
the State undertakes the responsibility of achieving this equality.
With regard to second part of the Constitution, according to the
Fundamental Rights, Article 27, everyone has the right to learn,
teach and to introduce and research science and art. Consistent
with the Articles 10 and 27, 42 stipulates that none can be di-
vested of the education right.
In accordance with Article 42, primary education is compul-
sory for both males and females and is free of charge in the
State schools. The State undertakes the responsibility to provide
scholarships and other kinds of appropriate measures to assist
students from financially disadvantaged backgrounds. In addi-
tion to the framework prescribed in the Constitution, the Na-
tional Education Code, the Turkish Civil Code, the Population
Service Code, the Turkish Criminal Code, the Criminal Pro-
ceeding Code, the Code on Unification of Education, the Code
on Protection of Family and the Labour Code, all stipulate Ar-
ticles relating to right to education and the principle of equality
between males and females.
The compulsory elementary education in Turkey provides for
8 years of education for every citizen and is free of charge in
the State schools, under the terms of the National Education Code
and the Code on the Unification of Education. The Constitution
and relevant Codes prescribe that States undertake the respon-
sibility to provide all proper measures to achieve elementary
education, this being without charge in the State schools. These
regulations and State policy help to partly ease the financial pres-
sures on some families, in particular those in rural areas and par-
ticularly those in the eastern and south-eastern parts of Turkey.
In accordance with a recent survey published by the Turkish
Statistics Organization, the literacy rate for those over 15 years
old age is 91.760%. The illiteracy rate of males above 15 years
of age is, however, 3.687% (among all males over 15 years of
age), the illiteracy rate for females in the same age group is
14.749% (Ministry of Education, 2009). 7.275% of people who
exceed 15 years of age receive college or other higher edu-
cation; 18.943% of these receive high school or technical high
school education; 16.103% receive mid-school education and
34.352% receive only primary school education (Ministry of
Education, 2009). Analyzing the population structure and sta-
tistics, the literacy rate in Turkey is significantly lower than in
mainland China and Taiwan region. The statistics for Turkey
indicate that the literacy rate of females has increased rapidly
since the foundation of Turkish Republic in 1923 but the rate of
19For example, Ex-Vice Taiwan Region leader Miss Lu and the current re-
gional leader candidate Miss Tsai.
literacy for females still does not reach the same rates as in the
developed countries and still needs further development, in
order to achieve 100% literacy in the State.
An Overview of Legal Education in Turkey
Here, we briefly indicate the legal education and statistics as
regards the employment positions of women in the legal field in
the Turkish Republic.
Currently, there are 48 Law College (22 of them are State
owned and 26 of them are Private University Law Colleges)
providing legal education, among the 139 Universities (The
Council of Higher Education, 20 09) (94 of them are State owned
and 45 of them are Private Universities) in the country. Educa-
tion in Law Colleges in Turkey is based on classical the lectur-
ing methodology and in particular, follows German education
methods. The legal education system is based on one way pre-
sentations, meaning that Professors deliver presentations on theat-
rical issues and Research Assistants deliver presentations on
practical issues. Students’ interactive participation in classes is
limited, with the practical issues being delivered by Research
Assistants. Unfortunately, we are unable to elicit any statistics
as regards numbers of Law College students in Turkey and the
gender ratio thereof. Even although males and females have
apparent equality and the same opportunity to enter law colleges,
the gender ratio of those working as legal professionals in Tur-
key indicates that males still playing the dominant role.
With regard to Table 2 (Turkish Statistical Institute, 2009),
whereas the percentage of female judges from the total in Tur-
key was 29.334% in 1997, the percentage in 2007 was 28.200%,
being and slightly less than in 1997.
With regard to Table 3 (Turkish Statistical Institute, 2009),
the percentage of female public prosecutors in the Turkish Re-
public in 1997 was 3.62%, whereas, by 2007 the figure had ri sen
to 5.625%. The gender ratio of female prosecutors in Turkey is
thus, significantly less than in mainland China or Taiwan region.
With regard to Table 4 (Turkish Statistical Institute, 2009),
the percentage of female lawyers in Turkey, as at 31st December
2008, was 36.832% of the total. This statistic indicates that
female legal professionals prefer to participate as a lawyer,
rather than as a judge or public prosecutor in Turkey20.
Discussions and Recommendations
Even although this study does not aim to focus on statistical
analysis, when considering the tables above, it may be concluded
that Taiwan region has the highest literacy rate and highest rate
for college or above college level graduation. Compared to
mainland China and Taiwan region, the literacy rate in Turkey
is significantly lower and needs to take further steps and meas-
ures to improve the country’s literacy and education situation.
The gender ratio for primary school education in mainland
China, Taiwan region and Turkey, is almost the same. Despite
the gender ratio of females being similar for primary education,
the ratio of females in higher education is markedly lower than
for males in both States.
In addition to the general problems of higher e ducation oppor -
tunities for females, legal education and the legal professional
field have its own unique difficulties, such as:
Table 2.
The gender ratio of Judges in the Turkish Republic.
Years Female Male Total
1999 1554 3745 5299
2000 2599 3973 6572
2001 1674 4225 5899
2002 1725 4388 6113
2003 1744 4473 6217
2004 1687 4288 5975
2005 1692 4284 5976
2006 1722 4461 6183
2007 1995 5081 7076
Table 3.
The gender ratio of Prosecutors in the Turkish Republic.
Year Female Male Total
1999 100 2676 2776
2000 100 2776 2876
2001 111 2938 3049
2002 122 3114 3236
2003 130 3169 3299
2004 139 3088 3227
2005 130 3039 3169
2006 172 3297 3469
2007 215 3607 3822
Table 4.
The gender ratio of Lawyers with relating to the five largest Bar Asso-
ciations and the total number in Turkey.
Place of Bar Female Male Total
Adana 502 952 1454
Ankara 3551 5403 8954
Antalya 694 1358 2052
Bursa 508 1111 1619
Istanbul 9210 14,674 238,884
Izmir 2076 3415 5491
Total in Turkey23,378 40,109 63,487
Enforced education period;
Negative public opinion as regards legal professionals;
Enforced and stressful working conditions;
Physical and mental harassments of female legal profess-
Taking into account these considerations, we would recom-
mend the undernoted aims and objectives for both States and
Taiwan region:
Aim to achieve 100% literacy in 15 - 20 years and to take
all appropriate measures to secure this;
Positively encourage female students to enter the university
20Unfortunately we are unable to reach the sex ratio of female public nota-
ries and female law college professors and lecturers in Turkey and in orde
to this we are unable to count those i ssues in this stu dy. Create a better law education and legal professional field
for everyone;
Avoid all types of harassments against female legal profes-
Based on the above discussion, we cannot reach a conclusion
that more female legal professions will enhance the protection
of women’s rights. What we can conclude is that there is a ge-
neral intention in both States and region to provide equal edu-
cation opportunity for female. Female students are more likely
to choose “law” as a subject of their higher education, however,
the current figures indicate that male is still dominating legal pro-
fessions. What is important is that equal opportunity should be
guaranteed no matter education or latter get into the job market.
The field work for this research was supported by the “Inde-
pendent Innovati on Foundation of Shandong University”. Grant-
ing number: IFW10053.
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