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Int. J. Communications, Network and System Sciences, 2010, 3, 369-379 doi:10.4236/ijcns.2010.34047 blished Online April 2010 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/ijcns/) Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS Pu A Novel Approach towards Cost Effective Region-Based Group Key Agreement Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography Krishnan Kumar1, J. Nafeesa Begum1, V. Sumathy2 1Government College of Engineering, Bargur, India 2Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, India Email: pkk_kumar@yahoo.com, nafeesa_jeddy@yahoo.com, sumi_gct2001@yahoo.co.in Received January 12, 2010; revised February 19, 2010; accepted March 20, 2010 Abstract This paper addresses an interesting security problem in wireless ad hoc networks: the dynamic group key agreement key establishment. For secure group communication in an ad hoc network, a group key shared by all group members is required. This group key should be updated when there are membership changes (when the new member joins or current member leaves) in the group. In this paper, we propose a novel, secure, scalable and efficient region-based group key agreement protocol for ad hoc networks. This is implemented by a two-level structure and a new scheme of group key update. The idea is to divide the group into sub- groups, each maintaining its subgroup keys using group elliptic curve diffie-hellman (GECDH) Protocol and links with other subgroups in a tree structure using tree-based group elliptic curve diffie-hellman (TGECDH) protocol. By introducing region-based approach, messages and key updates will be limited within subgroup and outer group; hence computation load is distributed to many hosts. Both theoretical analysis and experi- mental results show that this Region-based key agreement protocol performs well for the key establishment problem in ad hoc network in terms of memory cost, computation cost and communication cost. Keywords: Ad Hoc Network, Region-Based Group Key Agreement Protocol, Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman, Tree-Based Group Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman 1. Introduction Wireless networks are growing rapidly in recent years. Wireless technology is gaining more and more attention from both academia and industry. Mostly wireless net- works are used today e.g. the cell phone networks and the 802.11 wireless LAN, are based on the wireless net- work model with pre-existing wired network infrastruc- tures. Packets from source wireless hosts are received by near-by base stations, then injected into the underlying network infrastructure and then finally transferred to destination hosts. Another wireless network model, which is in active research, is the ad-hoc network. This network is formed only by mobile hosts and requires no pre-existing net- work infrastructure. Hosts with wireless capability form an ad-hoc network, some mobile hosts work as routers to relay packets from source to destination. It is very easy and economic to form an ad-hoc network in real time. Ad-hoc network is ideal in situations like battlefield or rescuer area where fixed network infrastructure is very hard to deploy. A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of autono- mous nodes that communicate with each other. Mobile nodes come together to form an ad hoc group for secure communication purpose. A key distribution system re- quires a trusted third party that acts as a mediator between nodes of the network. Ad-hoc networks characteristically do not have a trusted authority. Group key agreement means that multiple parties want to create a common se- cret key to be used to exchange information securely. Furthermore, group key agreement also needs to address the security issue related to membership changes due to node mobility. The membership change requires frequent changes of group key. This can be done either periodi- cally or updating every membership changes. The changed group key ensures backward and forward se- crecy. With frequent changes in group memberships, the K. KUMAR ET AL. 370 recent researches began to pay more attention on the ef- ficiency of group key update. Recently, collaborative and group–oriented applicative situations like battlefield, conference room or rescuer area in mobile ad hoc net- works have been a current research area. Group key agreement is a building block in secure group communi- cation in ad hoc networks. However, group key agree- ment for large and dynamic groups in ad hoc networks is a difficult problem because of the requirements of scal- ability and security under constraints of node available resources and node mobility. We propose a communication and computation effi- cient group key agreement protocol in ad-hoc network. In large and high mobility ad hoc networks, it is not pos- sible to use a single group key for the entire network because of the enormous cost of computation and com- munication in rekeying. So, we divide the group into several subgroups; let each subgroup has its subgroup key shared by all members of the subgroup. Each group has sub group controller node and gateway node, in which the sub group controller node is controller of sub- group and gateway node is controller among subgroups. Let each gateway member contributes a partial key to agree with a common outer group key among the sub- groups. The contribution of this work includes 1) In this paper, we propose a new efficient method for solving the group key management problem in ad- hoc network. This protocol provides efficient, scalable and reliable key agreement service and is well adaptive to the mobile environment of ad-hoc network. 2) We introduce the idea of subgroup and subgroup key and we uniquely link all the subgroups into a tree structure to form an outer group and outer group key. This design eliminates the centralized key server. Instead, all hosts work in a peer-to-peer fashion to agree on a group key. We use region-based group key agreement (RBGKA) as the name of our protocol. Here we propose a region based group key agreement protocol for ad hoc networks using elliptic curve cryptography called re- gion-based GECDH and TGECDH protocol. 3) We design and implement region-based group key agreement protocol using Java and conduct extensive experiments and theoretical analysis to evaluate the per- formance like memory cost, communication cost and computation cost of our protocol for Ad-Hoc network. The rest of the paper is as follows, Section 2 presents the elliptic curve cryptography schemes. Section 3 pre- sents the proposed schemes. Section 4 describes the per- formance analysis and finally Section 5 concludes the paper. 2. Elliptic Curve Cryptography ECC [1-3] has become the cryptographic choice for ad hoc networks and communication devices due to its size and efficiency benefits. Elliptic curve cipher uses very small keys and is computationally very efficient, which makes it ideal for the smaller, less powerful devices be- ing used today by majority of individuals to access net- work services. The elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECCS) is a crypto-algorithm method of utilizing a discrete loga- rithm problem (DLP) over the points on an elliptic curve. An elliptic curve is usually defined over two finite fields: the prime finite field Fp containing p elements and the characteristic finite field containing 2m elements. This paper focuses on the prime finite field. Let Fp be a prime finite field, p is an odd prime number, and a,b ε Fp satis- fy 4a3 + 27b2 ≠ 0(mod p), then an elliptic curve E(Fp) over Fp defined by the parameters a,b ε Fp consists of the set of solutions or points P = (x, y) for x, y ε F p to the equation: y2 = x3 + ax + b(mod p) (1) The equation y2=x3+ax+b (mod p) is called the defin- ing equation of E(Fp). For a given point P = (xP , yP ), xP is called the x-coordinate of P, and yP is called the y-coordinate of P. Cryptographic schemes based on ECC rely on scalar multiplication of elliptic curve points. Given an integer k and a point P ε E(Fp), scalar multiplication is the process of adding P to itself k times. The result of this scalar multiplication is denoted k * P or kP. Scalar multiplica- tion of elliptic curve points can be computed efficiently using the addition rule together with the double-and-add algorithm or one of its variants. 2.1. Two Parties Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Protocol Similar to DLP-based Diffie-Hellman key exchange agr- eement, a key exchange between users A and B using elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) [2,3] can be ac- complished as follows: 1) A selects an integer nA less than p, this is A’s private key. A then generates a public key PA = nA * G; the pub- lic key is a point in Ep(a, b). 2) B similarly selects a private key nB and computes a public key PB = nB * G. 3) A and B generates the secret key K = nA*PB, K = nB *PA respectively. The two calculations in step 3 produce the same result because nA*PB = nA* (nB * G) = nB * (nA * G) = nB * PA. The secret key K is a point in the elliptic curve. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS K. KUMAR ET AL. 371 3. Proposed Scheme 3.1. Motivation There has been a growing demand in the past few years for security in collaborative environments deployed for emergency services where our approach can be carried out very efficiently are shown in Figure 1. Confidential- ity becomes one of the top concerns to protect group communication data against passive and active adversar- ies. To satisfy this requirement, a common and efficient solution is to deploy a group key shared by all group application participants. Whenever a member leaves or joins the group, or whenever a node failure or restoration occurs, the group key should be updated to provide for- ward and backward secrecy. Therefore, a key manage- ment protocol that computes the group key and forwards the rekeying messages to all legitimate group members is central to the security of the group application. In many secure group applications [4,5], a Region bas- ed contributory GKA schemes may be required. In such cases, the group key management should be both effi- cient and fault-tolerant. In this paper, we describe a mili- tary scenario (Figure 2). A collection of wireless mobile devices are carried by soldiers or battlefield tanks. These mobile devices cooperate in relaying packets to dynami- cally establish routes among themselves to and processing Figure 1. Secure group applications. Figure 2. Battlefield scenario. form their own network “on the fly”. However, all nodes except the one with the tank, have limited battery power capacities. For the sake of power-consumption and com- putational efficiency, the tank can work as the Gateway member while a contributed group key management scheme is deployed. 3.2. System Model 3.2.1. Overview of Region-Based Group Key Agreement Protocol The goal of this paper is to propose a communication and computation efficient group key establishment protocol in ad-hoc network. The idea is to divide the multicast group into several subgroups, let each subgroup has its subgroup key shared by all members of the subgroup. Each Subgroup has subgroup controller node and a gateway node, in which Subgroup controller node is the controller of subgroup and a Gateway node is controller of subgroups controller. For example, in Figure 3, all member nodes are di- vided into number of subgroups and all subgroups are linked in a tree structure as shown in Figure 4. One of the members in the subgroup is subgroup con- troller. The last member joining the group acts as a sub- group controller. Each outer group is headed by the outer group controller. In each group, the member with high processing power, memory, and Battery power acts as a Figure 3. Members of group are divided into subgroups. Figure 4. Subgroups link in a tree structure. C opyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS K. KUMAR ET AL. 372 gateway member. Outer group messages are broadcast through the outer group and secured by the outer group key while subgroup messages are broadcast within the subgroup and secured by subgroup key. Let N be the total number of group members, and M be the number of the subgroups in each subgroup, then there will be N/M subgroups, assuming that each sub- group has the same number of members. There are two shared keys in the Region-Based Group Key Agreement Scheme: 1) Outer Group Key (KG) is used to encrypt and de- crypt the messages broadcast among the subgroup con- trollers. 2) The Subgroup Key (KR) is used to encrypt and de- crypt the Sub Group level messages broadcast to all sub group members. In our Region-Based Key Agreement protocol shown in Figure 5. a Subgroup Controller communicates with the member in the same region using a Regional key (i.e. Subgroup key ) KR. The Outer Group key KG is derived from the Outer Group Controller. The Outer Group Key KG is used for secure data communication among sub- group members. These two keys are rekeyed for secure group communications depending on events that occur in the system. The layout of the network is as shown in below Figure 5. Assume that there are total N members in Secure Group Communication. After sub grouping process (al- gorithm 1), there are S subgroups M1, M2… Ms with n1, n2 …ns members. Figure 5. Region based group key agreement. A Regional key KR is used for communication be- tween a subgroup controller and the members in the same region. The Regional key KR is rekeyed whenever there is a membership change event and subgroup joins/ leaves and member failure. The Outer Group key KG is rekeyed whenever there is a join/leave subgroup control- lers and member failure to preserve secrecy. The members within a subgroup use Group Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (GECDH) Contributory Key Agreement. Each member within a subgroup contributes his share in arriving at the subgroup key. Whenever membership changes occur, the subgroup controller or previous member initiates the rekeying operation. The gateway member initiates communication with the neighboring member belonging to another subgroup and mutually agree on a key using Tree-Based Group Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (TGECDH) Contributory Key Agreement protocol to be used for inter subgroup communication between the two subgroups. Any mem- ber belonging to one subgroup can communicate with any other member in another subgroup through this member as the intermediary. In this way adjacent sub- groups agree on outer group key. Whenever membership changes occur, the outer group controller or previous group controller initiates the rekeying operation. Algorithm 1. Region-Based Key Agreement Protocol 1) The Subgroup Formation The number of members in each subgroup is N / S < 100. where, N – is the group size. and S – is the number of subgroups. Assuming that each subgroup has the same number of members. 2) The Contributory Key Agreement protocol is implemented among the group members. It consists of three stages. a. To find the Subgroup Controller for each subgroups. b. GECDH protocol is used to generate one common key for each subgroup headed by the subgroup controller. c. Each subgroup gateway member con- tributes partial keys to generate a one common backbone key (i.e. Outer group Key (KG)) headed by the Outer Group Controller using TGECDH protocol. 3) Each Group Controller (sub /Outer) distrib- utes the computed public key to all its members. Here, we prefer the subgroup key to be different from the key for backbone. This difference adds more freedom of managing the dynamic group membership. In addition by using this approach can potentially save the commu- nication and computational cost. 3.3. Network Dynamics The network is dynamic in nature. Many members may join or leave the group. In such case, a group key man- agement system should ensure that backward and for- ward secrecy is preserved. 3.3.1. Member Join When a new member joins, it initiates communication with the subgroup controller. After initialization, the sub- group controller changes its contribution and sends pub- lic key to this new member. The new member receives the public key and acts as a group controller by initiating the rekeying operations for generating a new key for the subgroup. The rekeying operation is as follows. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS K. KUMAR ET AL. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS 373 Join request N ew node ubgroup ControllerS change its contribution and send public key to ubgroup ControllerNew Node S Acts as N ew Node New Subgroup Controller puts its contribution to all the public key value & Multicast this public key value to New Subgroup Controllerthe entire member in the subgroup put is contribution to the public value & Compute Each Member New Subgroup Key 3.3.2. Member Leave 3.3.2.1. When a Subgroup member Leaves When a member leaves the Subgroup Key of the sub- group to which it belongs must be changed to preserve the forward secrecy. The leaving member informs the subgroup controller. The subgroup controller changes its private key value, computes the public value and broad- casts the public value to all the remaining members. Each member performs rekeying by putting its contribu- tion to public value and computes the new Subgroup Key. The rekeying operation is as follows. Leaving Message Leaving Node Subgroup Controller changes its private key value, compute the public key value and Multicast the public key value to Subgroup Controller All the remaining Member Performs Rekeying and Compute Each Member New Subgroup Key previous subgroup controller now acts as a Subgroup controller. This Subgroup controller changes its private contribution value and computes all the public key val- ues and broadcasts to all the remaining members of the group. All subgroup members perform the rekeying op- eration and compute the new subgroup key. The rekeying operation is as follows. 3.3.2.2. When Subgroup Controller Leaves When the Subgroup Controller leaves, the Subgroup key used for communication among the subgroup controller needs to be changed. This Subgroup Controller informs the previous Subgroup Controller about its desire to leave the subgroup which initiates the rekeying procedure. The Leaving Message Leaving Subgroup Controller Old Subgrou p Controller change its private value,compute the all public key value and Multicast Old Subgroup Controller Remaining Member in the group Perform Rekeying and Compute Subgroup Member New Subgroup Key 3.3.2.3. When Outer Group Controller Leaves When the Outer group Controller leaves, the Outer group key used for communication among the Outer group need to be changed. This Outer group Controller informs the previous Outer group Controller about its desire to leave the Outer group which initiates the rekeying pro- cedure. The previous Outer Group controller now be- comes the New Outer group controller. This Outer group controller changes its private contribution value and computes the public key value and broadcast to the entire remaining member in the group. All Outer group mem- bers perform the rekeying operation and compute the new Outer group key. The rekeying operation is as fol- lows. Leaving Message Leaving Outer group Controller Old Outer group Controller change its private value,compute the all public key value and Multicast Old Outer group Controller Remaing Member in the Outer group K. KUMAR ET AL. 374 Perform Rekeying and Compute Outer group Member New Outer group Key 3.3.2.4. When Gateway Member Leaves When a gateway member leaves the subgroup, it dele- gates the role of the gateway to the adjacent member having high processing power, memory, and Battery power and acts as a new gateway member. Whenever the gateway member leaves, all the two keys should be changed. These are i. Outer group key among the subgroup. ii. Subgroup key within the subgroup. In this case, the subgroup controller and outer group controller perform the rekeying operation. Both the Con- troller leaves the member and a new gateway member is selected in the subgroup, performs rekeying in the sub- group. After that, it joins in the outer group. The proce- dure is same as joining the member in the outer group. 3.4. Communication Protocol The members within the subgroup have communication using subgroup key. The communication among the sub- group members takes place through the gateway mem- ber. 3.4.1. Communication within the Subgroup The sender member encrypts the message with the sub- group key (KR) and multicasts it to all member in the subgroup. The subgroup members receive the encrypted message, perform the decryption using the subgroup key (KR) and get the original message. The communication operation is as follows. KR E[Message] & Multicast Source Member Destination Member KR KR DE [Message] Destination Member Original Message 3.4.2. Communication among the Subgroup The sender member encrypts the message with the sub- group key (KR) and multicasts it to all members in the subgroup. One of the members in the subgroup acts as a gate way member. This gateway member decrypts the message with subgroup key and encrypts with the outer group key (KG) and multicast to the entire gateway member among the subgroup. The destination gateway member first decrypts the message with outer group key. Then encrypts with subgroup key and multicast it to all members in the subgroup. Each member in the subgroup receives the encrypted message and performs the decryp- tion using subgroup key and gets the original message. In this way the region-based group key agreement protocol performs the communication. The communication opera- tion is as follows. KR E[Message] & Multicast Source Member Gateway Member KR KR DE [Message] Gateway Member Original Message KG E[Message] & Multicast Gateway Member Gateway Member [ Among Subgroup] KG KG DE [Message] Gateway Member Original Message KR E[Message] & Multicast Gateway Member Destination Member KR KR DE [Message] Destination Member Original Message 3.5. Applying Elliptic Curve Based Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange 3.5.1. Member Join User A and user B are going to exchange their keys (Fig- ure 6): Take p = 211, Ep = (0,-4), which is equivalent to the curve y2 = x3 – 4 and G = (2,2). A’s private key is nA = 47568, so A’s public key PA = 47568(2,2) = (206, 121), Figure 6. User-A and User –B join the group. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS K. KUMAR ET AL. 375 B’s private key is nB = 13525,so B’s public key PB = 13525(2,2) = (29,139). The group key is computed (Fig- ure 6) as User A sends its public key (206,121) to user B, then user B computes their Subgroup key as nB (A’s Public key) = 13525(206,121) = (155,1 15). User B sends its public key (29,139) to User A, then User A compute their Subgroup key as nA (B’s Public key) = 47568(29,139) = (12 0,180) When User C is going to join in the group, C’s private key becomes nC = 82910. Now, User C becomes a Sub- group Controller. Then, the key updating process will begin as follows: The previous Subgroup Controller User B sends the intermediate key as (B’s Public key $ A’s Public Key $ Group key of A&B) = ((29,139) $ (206,121) $ (155,115)) User C separates the intermediate key as B’s Public key, A’s Public Key and Group key of A&B = (29,139), (206,121) and (155,115). Then, User C gen- erates the new Subgroup key as nC (Subgroup key of A&B) = 82910(155,115) = (12 0,31). Then, User C broadcasts the intermediate key to User A and User B. That intermediate key is ((Public key of B & C) $ (Public key of A & C)) = ((131,84) $ (147, 97)). Now, User B extracts the value of public key of A & C from the value sent by User C. Then User B compute the new Subgroup key as follows: nB (Public key of A&C) = 13525 (147,97) = (120, 31). Similarly, User A extracts the value of pub- lic key of B & C from intermediate key, sent by User C. Then User A compute the new Subgroup key as follows: nA (public key of B&C) = 47568(131,84) = (120,31). Therefore, New Subgroup Key of A, B and C = (120, 31) as shown in the Figure 7. The same procedure is followed when User D joins as shown in the Figure 8. 3.5.2. Member Leave When a user leaves (Figure 9) from the Subgroup, then the Subgroup controller changes its private key. After that, it broadcasts its new public key value to all users in the Subgroup. Then, new Subgroup key will be gener- ated. Let us consider, User B is going to leave, then the Subgroup Controller D changes its private key nD’ = 43297, so public key of User A & User C = (198,139) $(136,11). Then the new Subgroup Key generated is = 43297(198,139) = (207,115). Then, User A & User C Figure 7. User - C joins in the group. Figure 8. User-D joins in the group. Figure 9. User –B leaves from the group. computes the new Subgroup Key by using new public key. Therefore, the new Subgroup Key is (207,115). 3.5.3. Group Controller Leave When a Subgroup controller leaves (Figure 10) from the group, then the previous Subgroup controller changes its private key. After that, it broadcasts its new public key value to all users in the group. Then, new Subgroup key will be generated. Let us consider, Subgroup Controller User D going to leave, then the previous Subgroup con- troller User C act as Subgroup Controller and changes its private key nC’ = 52898, and computes the public key of B&C $ A&C = (16,111)$(181,2). Then the new Sub- group Key generated is = 52898(21,103) = (198,139). Then, User A & User B compute the new Subgroup Key by using new public key. Therefore, the new Subgroup Key is (198,139). Figure 10. Group controller leaves from the group. C opyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS K. KUMAR ET AL. 376 3.6. Tree-Based Group Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Protocol The proposed protocol (Figure 11), Tree-based group Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (TGECDH), is a variant of TGDH based on ECDLP. In TGECDH, a binary tree is used to organize group members. The nodes are denoted as <l, v>, where 0 <= v <= 2l. – 1 since each level l hosts at most 2l. nodes. Each node <l, v> is associated with the key K<l,v> and the blinded key BK<l,v> = F(K<l,v>) where the function F() is scalar multiplication of elliptic curve points in prime field. Assuming a leaf node <l, v> hosts the member Mi, the node <l, v> has Mi’s session random key K<l,v>. Furthermore, the member Mi at node <l. v> knows every key in the key-path from <l, v> to <0, 0>. Every key K<l,v> is computed recursively as follows: ,1,21,21 mod lvl vl v K KBK p 1,2 11,2mod lv lv K BK p 1,21,2 1mod lv lv K KG p 1,21,2 1 () lv lv FK K It is not necessary for the blind key BK<l,v> of each node to be reversible. Thus, simply use the x-coordinate of K<l,v> as the blind key. The group session key can be derived from K<0,0>. Each time when there is member join/leave, the outer group controller node calculates the group session key first and then broadcasts the new blind keys to the entire group and finally the remaining group members can generate the group session key. Figure 11. Key tree. Figure 12. User M1 and M2 join the group. 3.6.1. When Node M1&M2 Join the Group User M1 and User M2 are going to exchange their keys: Take p = 751, Ep = (1,188), which is equivalent to the curve y2 = x3 + x + 188 and G = (0,376). User M1’s pri- vate key is 1772, so M1’s public key is (290,638). User M2’s private key is 1949, so M2’s public key is (504,163). The Outer Group key is computed (Figure 12) as User M1 sends its public key (290,638) to user M2, the User M2 computes their group key as PV(0,0) = Xco (PV(1,0) *PB(1,1)) and PB(0,0) = PV(0,0)*G = (540, 111). Simi- larly, User M2 sends its public key (504,163) to user M1, and then the user M1 computes their group key as (540,111). Here, Outer Group controller is User M2. 3.6.2. When 3rd Node Join When User M3 joins the group, the old Outer group con- troller M2 changes its private key value from 1949 to 2835 and passes the public key value and tree to User M3. Now, M3 becomes new Outer group controller. Then, M3 generates the public key (623, 52) from its private key as 14755 and computes the Outer group key as (664,736) shown in Figure 13. M3 sends Tree and public key to all users. Now, user M1 and M2 compute their group key. The same procedure is followed by joining the User M4 as shown in Figure 14. Figure 13. User M3 joins the group. Figure 14. User M4 joins the group. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS K. KUMAR ET AL. 377 3.6.3. Leave Protocol There are two types of leave, 1) Gateway Member Leave and 2) Outer Group Controller Leave. 3.6.3.1. Gateway Member Leave When user M3 leaves (Figure 15) the Outer group, then the Group controller changes its private key 48569 to 98418 and outer group key is recalculated as (428,686). After that, it broadcasts its Tree and public key value to all users in the Outer group. Then, the new Outer group key will be generated by the remaining users. 3.6.3.2. When an Outer Group Controller Leaves When an Outer Group Controller Leaves (Figure 16) from the group, then its sibling act as a New Outer Group Controller and changes its private key value 8751 to 19478 and recalculates the group key as (681,475). After that, it broadcast its Tree and public key value to all users in the Outer group. Then, the new Outer group key will be generated by the remaining users. 4. Performance Analysis The performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed in terms of the storage overhead, communication overhead and the computation overhead. The storage overhead Figure 15. User M3 leaves from the group. Figure 16. Outer group controller leaves from the group. represents the storage capacity needed for storing the key information. The communication overhead corresponds to the rekeying messages that are transmitted for group communication. The computation overhead is the com- putation involved in maintaining membership changes. 4.1. Storage Overhead Storage overhead can be considered as the memory ca- pacity required for maintaining the keys, which is di- rectly proportional to the number of members if the key size are same. In this section, the storage cost is formu- lated, both at gateway member and at each member. Thus our approach consumes very less memory when compared to TGDH and GDH. TGDH and GDH occupy large memory when members go on increasing. But our Region-based Approach takes very less memory even when the members get increased. Consider (Table 1 and Figure 17) there are 1024 members in a group our Regi- on-based approach consumes 10% of memory when com- pared to GDH and 5% when compared to TGDH. The ratio of memory occupied is very less in our approach. Table 1. Memory cost. Protocol Keys Public GDH Concretely 2 N+1 Per(L,V) L+1 2N-2 TGDH Averagely [log2N]+1 2N-2 Member/Subgroup Controller 2 X+1 Region Based Protocol (GECDH &TGECDH) Gateway Member/Outer group Controller 2+M X+2Y-1 Figure 17. Memory cost. C opyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS K. KUMAR ET AL. 378 4.2. Communication Overhead GDH is the most expensive protocol. TGDH consumes more bandwidth. The communication and computation of TGDH depends on trees height, balance of key tree, location of joining tree, and leaving nodes. Hence GDH has more communication efficiency than TGDH protocol. But our approach depends on the number of members in the subgroup, number of Group Controllers, and height of tree. So the amount spent on communication is very much less when compared to GDH and TGDH. Consider (Table 2 & Figures 18 & 19) there are 512 members in a group our approach consumes only 10% of Bandwidth when compared to GDH and TGDH. So our approach consumes low Bandwidth. Table 2. Communication cost. Communication Cost Protocol Suite Protocol Rounds Unicast Size Broadcast Size Join 2 N+1 N+1 GDH Leave 1 0 N-1 Join 2 0 2N+2 TGDH Leave 1 0 2N-4 Join 2 X+1 X+1 Member/ Subgroup controller Leave 1 0 X-1 Join 2 X+1 X+2Y+3 Region Based Protool (GECDH＆TGECDH) Gateway Member/ Outer Group Controller Leave 1 0 X+2Y-5 Figure 18. Communication cost – join. Figure 19. Communication cost – leave. 4.3. Computation Overhead The Figure 20 shows that GECDH and TGECDH schemes have lower computation time than Group Dif- fie-Hellman (GDH) schemes for member join operations. The computation time of GDH is 2.2 times that of GECDH and TGDH is 1.7 times that of TGE-CDH on average for member join operations. The computation time for member leave operations of TGE-CDH schemes are far better than group Diffie-Hellman schemes for member leave operations as shown in the Figure 21. Performance wise our approach leads the GDH & TGDH methods, even for the very large groups. The performance of GECDH & TGECDH over wire- less ad hoc Networks can be summarized as follows: 1) It uses smaller keys. 2) It uses less computation time than the DLP-based scheme for the same security level. Figure 20. Computation time for member join. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS K. KUMAR ET AL. Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS 379 gion-based scheme can be efficiently distributed for mul- tiple secure groups. Therefore, the number of rekeying messages, computation and memory can be dramatically reduced. Compared with other schemes, the new pro- posed region-based scheme can significantly reduce the storage and communication overheads in the rekeying process, with acceptable computational overhead. It is expected that the proposed scheme can be the practical solution for secure group applications, especially for battlefield scenario. 6. References [1] Kefa Rabah, “Theory and Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography,” Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2005, pp. 604-633. Figure 21. Computation time for member leave. 3) Smaller packets are used to handle high bit error rate Wireless links. [2] W. Stallings, “Cryptography and Network Security Prin- ciples and Practices,” 3rd Edition, Pearson Education. [3] Y. Wang, B. Ramamurthy and X. K. Zou, “The Perform- ance of Elliptic Curve Based Group Diffie-Hellman Pro- tocols for Secure Group Communication over Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE International Conference on Commu- nication, Vol. 5, 2006, pp. 2243-2248. 5. Conclusions In this paper, a region-based key agreement scheme has been proposed and implemented, which can enhance the secure group communication performance by using mul- tiple group keys. In contrast to other existing schemes using only single key, the new proposed scheme exploits asymmetric key, i.e. an outer group key and multiple Subgroup keys, which are generated from the proposed region-based key agreement algorithm. By using a set comprising an outer group key and subgroup keys a re- [4] Y. Amir, Y. Kim, C. Nita-Rotaru and G. Tsudik, “On the Performance of Group Key-Agreement Protocols,” Pro- ceedings of the 22nd IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, Viena, Austria, 2002. [5] M. Steiner, G. Tsudik and M. Waidner, “Key Agreement in Dynamic Peer Groups,” IEEE Transaction on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 11, No. 8, 2000, pp. 769- 780. |