Int. J. Communications, Network and System Sciences, 2010, 3, 311-320
doi:10.4236/ijcns.2010.33040 blished Online March 2010 (
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
Scheduling Mobile Data Services in a Bluetooth
Based Platform
Xiaoyu Liu, Kin Choong Yow
School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Tec h no logical Universit y, Singapore City, Singapore
Received November 4, 2009; revised December 10, 2009; accepted January 8, 2010
Public buses play an important role in public transportation in most parts of the world and it is still the
dominant public transportation mode in some regions. Nowadays, as people switch to a mobile lifestyle, they
spend significant amount of time on the traveling to work, back and forth. However, not much research has
been done on how to provide some on-board service for those commuters in the public bus. This paper pre-
sents a Bluetooth-based system which is inexpensive, yet flexible, and scalable to serve commuters in a per-
sonalized manner using Bluetooth enabled mobile phones. However, from the Bluetooth specification, one
Bluetooth dongle can connect to at most seven other Bluetooth devices. As we expect more than 7 users to
use the services provided in the Bluetooth-based system (a full double-deck bus can carry around 100 pas-
sengers), we need to work out an effective scheduler to schedule all the private services on the Bluetooth
servers in the bus. This paper also describes a scheduling algorithm that exploits the park mode feature of the
Bluetooth specification to allow more users to have access to the Bluetooth services on the bus.
Keywords: Mobile Device, Bluetooth, Public Bus, Data Service
1. Introduction
We have transited into the Information era, and most
people are eager to get various kinds of information in
convenient ways. However, due to the increasingly mo-
bile and busy lifestyle, people are having lesser time for
some daily activities e.g. reading the newspaper, check-
ing online news, enriching themselves by casual chat or
relax themselves with games. Moreover, due to the large
distances and the increasing of mobile lifestyle, people
are using public transportation very frequently. After an
observation on the public bus or MRT in Singapore, we
found that many passengers are killing time by playing
some casual game or reading some text content with their
cell phones or PDAs during the journey. Quite few peo-
ple will use GPRS to browse news, download some au-
dio or video clips or go for onlin e chattin g du e to the cost
consideration. We can see that the on-board information
and entertainment system in the public transportation
system is required.
Several proposed systems exist in providing integ rated
support for commuters in using a public transportation
system, such as e-ticketing and navigating through the
complex metro system through mobile phones in Japan
[1], and bus routes and schedules information display in
bus stations in Mexico (EMI system [2]). Some others
extend the public transportation routes and scheduling
information to be included on a travel planner applica-
tion on mobile phones, such as TramMate [3] in Austra-
lia and Buster [4] in Denmark. These systems, although
helpful for commuters, do not address the ‘idle-ty’ of
commuters while on the ride.
Some other systems address this issue by providing
infotainment experience on-board the public transporta-
tion, such as the system proposed by Lin and Chang [5],
ALSTOM [6], and the system deployed on French TGV
trains [7]. These systems include a LAN on-board the
public transportation. This LAN is connected to the out-
side world through either cellular networks or satellite
connection. Although these systems are able to provide
data live from the Internet while on the move, the re-
quirement of direct connection to the cellular networks
(3G/3.5G) or satellite network is still considered expen-
sive nowa da y s .
This paper presents the BlueBus System, a system
which is inexpensive, yet flexible, and scalable to serve
commuters in a personalized manner using Bluetooth
enabled mobile phones. However, from the Bluetooth
specification, one Bluetooth dongle can connect to seven
other Bluetooth devices at most. In order to serve more
than 7 users simultaneously, as a full double-deck bus
can carry around 100 passeng ers, we need to work ou t an
effective scheduler to schedule all the private services on
the BlueBox side. This paper also proposes a scheduling
algorithm that exploits the park mode feature of the
Bluetooth specification to allow more users to have ac-
cess to the BlueBus services.
2. System Design
2.1. Overview
We aim to design an inexpensive and flexible system to
serve the passenger at a personalized level in the bus, so
we would like to develop the client system on the Blue-
tooth enabled mobile phone. The project is named as
“BlueBus” which indicate the bus is Bluetooth signal
covered, passengers can use their Bluetooth enabled mo-
bile phone as the interface to get the kinds of information.
Beside the client side, BlueBus consists the other two
parts that are base station on the bus and the administra-
tion server at the bus terminal. The overall system archi-
tecture is shown in Figure 1. The Mac mini will be in-
stalled on the bus as the base station, which should be
able to support multiple users on the BlueBus platform.
The Mac mini will communicate with mobile phone
through Bluetooth while it will communicat e with server
via Wi-Fi.
Administration server is connected to the base sta-
tion, BlueBox, through the Wireless LAN connection.
BlueBus end user, mobile phones are connected to
BlueBox via Bluetooth connection.
Function of the Administration server is to manage all
BlueBox in the public buses parked in its located bus
terminal. It is able to push updates and content synchro-
nization to all BlueBox through Wi-Fi. Administration
server located in the bus terminal office must have a sta-
ble broadband Internet connection, in order to function
Figure 1. Overall system architecture.
BlueBox serves as the bridge in the overall system. It
retrieves all contents from the Administration server and
stores all contents in its local storage waiting for Blue-
Bus commuters to browse or download. It also has to
handheld all service requ ests from client applicatio n. Th e
BlueBox must communicate with the Administration
server periodically to ensure that it always carries the
most recent content and services. In the scenario of the
bus, the synchronization takes place when the bus arrives
at the bus interchange terminal. The BlueBox will detect
the availability of Administration server network and
automatically start the serv ice or content synchron ization
with Administration server.
Client application is a Java application installed in
commuters’ mobile phones or PDAs. Users in the bus
will use this application to choose and enjoy th e services
in the system.
Figure 2 is the flow-chart on how to distribute the
content to every single end user.
2.2. Hardware Selection
2.2.1. Adm inistra tion Server
For Administration server, it must able to create a wire-
less network or join the wireless network in the bus ter-
minal in order to synchronize the content and do some
administrative control to all BlueBox. It also needs a
broadband Internet connection to download new contents
Figure 2. Flow chat of overall system.
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
Table 1. Recommended specifications for administration
and synchronize end user’s upload content with all Ad-
ministration servers in different bus terminals. It must be
preinstalled Windows OS because Server side is devel-
oped using SyncML under Windows platform, Windows
XP would be preferred. Any hard disk which capacity is
larger than 20GB should cater for this system.
Specifications for a Administration Server
Processor 1.5 GHz
Memory 512 MB
Hard Disk 20 GB(min)
Local Area Network 802.11b/g (11 Mb ps/ 54 Mbps)
2.2.2. BlueBox
The BlueBox serves as the access point to this BlueBus
system. The domain of each of these BlueBox is the
range of Bluetooth i.e. a circle radius 10100 meters,
depending on the power of Bluetooth dongle. So the
BlueBox should have little processing power, certain
storage capacity and both Bluetooth and wireless LAN
capability, certainly, small physical size will be a bonus
point. Based on a preliminary analysis, we chose Mac
mini as the BlueBox whose specifications are shown in
Table 2 below.
Table 2. Recommended specifications for BlueBox.
Specifications for BlueBox
Processor Core Solo 1.5 GHz
Memory 512 MB
Hard Disk 60 GB
Personal Area Network Bluetooth v2.0+EDR
Wireless LAN Network 802.11g (54 Mbps)
Battery life 1 hour (min)
Physical dimensions 6.5” × 6.5” × 2” (L*W*H)
The Mac mini has a built in Mac OS X which provides
a stable Bluetooth framework for system implementation.
Figure 3 shows the Bluetooth profiles available in Mac
OS X [8]. We will use OBEX and RFCOMM for system
Figure 3. Mac OS X Bluetooth profiles.
2.2.3. J2ME Client Application
The J2ME client application can run on any handheld
built in JSR82 Blue-
bile phone models satisfied the hardware re-
ction, BlueBus serves as
e platform for mobile data services that can be deliv-
lication with Bluetooth enabled
tive interface for users to connect to the sys-
to add new content to
the system administrator to add new
ing the services provided.
nal as
vices on all connected
Apple Mac OS X platform. The
rogramming language we used is Cocoa which is a fa-
Table 3. Recommended spec i fications for handheld device.
When the server started, it will register a new Blue-
tooth service provided to Bluetooth stack and start ac-
ceptin. The sytically
create the in and outp
, the function
d the reply to client.
d in groups called
iconet [9]. The Piconet consists of a master and up to
le slave use poi-
t-to-point communication; if there are multiple slaves,
cifications we know that one
luetooth dongle can connect to seven other Bluetooth
ct more users can use
e services provided in BlueBus because a full double-
device which is Java enabled and
tooth API.
According to our study in the market, there are more
than 90 mo
irement that indicates that we really got a large poten-
tial user base.
2.3. System Require
As described in the previous se
ered to users over Bluetooth. The requirements of the
system are as follows:
The system must be able to detect new users who are
running the client app
The BlueBus client application must provide a frie-
ndly, interac
tem and use the services provided.
The Administration server must provide an effec-
tive interface for content providers
existing services.
The system must be scalable and must provide an
easy method for
BlueBox to the system.
The BlueBox must be able to simultaneously sup-
port several users access
The BlueBox must be easily deployable in static as
well as mobile application scenarios, with occasio
well as continuous conn ectivity.
The Administration server must ensure automatic
synchronization of content and ser
BlueBox. If a BlueBox is temporarily disconnected, it
must be updated as soon as connectivity restored.
2.4. BlueBox Design
BlueBox is developed in
mous programming language in Mac OS. Because we
expect an automatic working style of BlueBox (no user
interference involved) it is implemented using IOBlue-
tooth framework in Cocoa.
Specifications for Handheld Device
Display Resolution xels 176*208 pi
Free Device Mein)
JAVA M or 2.0
mory 2 MB (m
hone External Storage16 MB
Personal Area Ne twork etooth v1.1(m
g a new connectionstem will automa
put streamut stream when there is a
w client wants to connect to the service.
Communication is mostly bu ilt in request-reply model
where client send the request to server first then server
response to the client accordingly.
When server receives a request message
sociated with that service is called. Each service would
have separate function to handle data from client. After
some processing, BlueBox will sen
3. Bluebus Scheduling Design
.1. Bluetooth Network Topology 3
Bluetooth enabled devices are organize
seven active slaves. A master and a sing
point-to-multipoint communication is used. The master
unit is the device that initiates the communication. A
device in one Piconet can communicate to another device
in another Piconet, forming a scatternet, as depicted in
Figure 4. Notice that a master in one Piconet maybe a
slave in another Piconet:
3.2. Constraints on Bluetooth
From the Bluetooth spe
devices at most. However, we expe
deck bus can carry around 100 passengers. We consider
add more Bluetooth dongles on the Mac mini, but after
Figure 4. Scatternet comprising three piconets.
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
trying, we found that the seven slaves limitation canno
be solved by simply adding USB powered Bluet
dongles. This is because the Bluetooth stack currently
does not support multiple Bluetooth dongle connection
Although multiple Blueto oth dongle connection is po
ble in theory, so far, there is no Bluetooth stack in
other platform that support this feature.
3.3. Scheduling Algorithm Design
We want to create the Piconet which can serve all the
Bluetooth end users. However, the Bluetooth master only
can support seven active channels simultaneously which
means only seven passengers can enjoy the services we
provided in the BlueBus system. The additioof the
Bluete as
articipates in the
ceiving packets.
de with very little
to participate
s. The length of AM_ADDR is 3 bits
while the length of PM_ADDR is 8 bits. So th eoretically
d listen to the broad-
cheduling (the
one Bluetooth master can support 23-1 = 7 active Blue-
tooth devices and 28=256 parked devices.
Before a Bluetooth device entering Park mode, the
master will give the device a PM_ADDR. Then this
Bluetooth slave will give up the active member address,
AM_ADDR if it already got one an
ooth dongle will not help in solving this issu
previous se ction disc us sed.
In order to serve more users simultaneously, we need
to work out an effective scheduler to schedule all the
private services on the BlueBox side.
3.3.1. Power Mode of Bluetooth Device
Every Bluetooth device has four different power modes
10] shown below: [
Active Mode: The slave actively p
iconet by listening, transmitting and reP
The master periodically transmits to the slaves to main-
tain synchronization.
Sniff Mode: The slave listens on specified slots for
its messages. It can operate in a reduced-power status the
rest of the time. The master designates a reduced number
of time slots for transmitting to a specific slave.
Hold Mode: The device can participate only in
SCO packet exchanging and runs in reduced-power
status. While it is not active, the device can participate in
another Piconet.
Park Mode: It is a low power mo
activity. Used when a slave does not need
in a Piconet, but still is retain as part of it. The device is
changing Active Mode Address (AM_ADDR) to Park
Meod Address (PM_ADDR). With this mode, a Piconet
may have more than seven slaves.
As we see from the properties of the four different
power modes, we need to switch the slaves between Ac-
tivme ode and Park mode, in order to achieve our goal
supporting more than seven devices simultaneously.
3.3.2. How to Switch between Active Mode and Park
The Bluetooth enabled device has an Active Mode Ad-
dress (AM_ADDR) when it is in active status while it
has a Park Mode Address (PM_ADDR) when it is in
park/inactive statu
st traffic in regular intervals. The park mode timing
parameters should be negotiated with the master using
Link Manager Protocol (LMP). Master also can send
message to parked device to wake up the parked the de-
ice and reassign the AM_ADDR to it [11]. v(In present devices on the market, the master will do
the mode switching automatically instead of user con
trolling. So we don’t know how to control the mode
switching in the API level or Stack Level. If we can do
that, the following will be the scheduling algorithm.)
3.3.3. Sch eduling Algorithm – First Versi o n
Define Service Priority
The Schedule Algorithm design is divided into two
parts, one is the active Bluetooth devices s
number of Bluetooth devices is less than or equal to 7)
and the other part is overall scheduling (the number of
Bluetooth devices is greater than 7).
Active Devices only Scheduling Algorithm
We had done a Bluetooth data transmitting speed test.
First, connect individual Bluetooth enabled cell phone to
Mac mini which served as the Bluetooth master in the
Piconet and trying to download a 3.3MB size file from
ac mini. Second, connect 6 cell phones to Mac mini
and try to download the same 3.3MB size file from Mac
mini simultaneously. We took the records of the data
transmitting speed and consolidate into the table shown
From the table, we can easily see that the data tra
mitting speed drop a lot when there are multiple co
tions existing. Generally speaking, the data transmission
rate in single connection is two to th ree times of the rate
in multiple connections in the cell phone.
Table 4. Bluetooth data transmission rate of different mo-
bile phones.
Cell Phone Single connection 6 conn
Model (4-5m) (4-5m)
Nokia N-Gage QD 5 Kbps 5 Kbps
Nokia 6280 104 Kbps 20-30 Kbps
Nokia 3230 41 Kbps 15-18 Kbps
O2 Xphone-IIm 16 Kbps 10 Kbps
SonyErricson K750i40 Kbps 15 Kbps
SonyErricson P910i20 Kbps 10 Kbps
Motorola L7 3-10 Kbps N/A
(always disconnect)
opyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
1) Bus Stop Alert
4) Enterta
size file which requires fast data transmitting speed. In
thischeddownloads into
serialof par becasave
the tosmitting
A3 Service
s Stop Alert Service
lert Service A4
ce order is:
In the BlueBus, we provide four basic services which
are listed based on the priority, 1) indicates the highest
2) Blue Bubble Chatting
3) RSS Neinment Do
ly ntewnload
ment download the E ina lavolve
s case, we will ule the proces
order instead rallel ordeuse it can
tal data tran time.
ctive Queue
A0 Chatting Serv
A1 Chatting Serv
A2 RSS News Ser
A4 Bus Stop Alert Service
A5 Download Service 2
A6 Bu
After the Scheduling
A0 Bus Stop A
A1 Bus Stop Alert Service
A2 Chatting Service A0
A3 Chatting Service A1
A4 RSS News Service A2
A5 Download Service A3
A6 Download Service2
The actual servi
A0 Bus Stop Alert Service
ce Been
A1 Bus Stop Alert Servi
A2 Chatting Service
A3 Chatting Service
A4 RSS News S er vic e
A5 Download Service
A6 Download Service 2
eredownload services
orice d, all the rest ser-
viimue to the low
requHowevr, if there are more
th the Active queu e, consid-
ering them as d1 and d2, we will get the files’ size of
each download service and current data transmitting rate
of each channel. We can calculate the consuming time
left to download the specific file. The less the download-
ding time the higher the processing priority. We assume
d1 got the higher priority, so d2 will start once the d1
finished the downloading. During d1 is in downloading
status, d2 is in waiting status, it is possible that d2 will be
swap into Park queue if there is another device parked
with higher priority. We will talk about it in later section.
Active and Parked Devices Scheduling
There is a case which more than seven Bluetooth en-
abled devices are willing to connect to the Bluetooth
master. We will put the first seven devices into the Ac-
tive queue, the eighth device and followings will be put
in Park queue, PM_ADDR of them will be set.
we are
ab wake
by -
structure of a chat service
use to send message
whiler buffer is used to receive message from
We l for the Chat service,
each send the message to chat
serversit message to the server,
In the Ac tive queue, if th are no
only one download servbe foun
ces will being processed sultaneo usly d
irement of the data rate. e
an two download services in
3.4. Improved Version of Scheduling A Reserve Channel for a Certain Service
Bus Stop Alert service is not a time consuming service,
we just need to record the user’s registration and save the
destination in the BlueBox database. After that,
le to put it into the Park queue. We only need to
p this user one stop before the customized desti
There is an alternative way to implement the Chat ser
sending an alert messa
e. The design is shown
Figure 5 shows the data
r. It got two buffers which is used
the othe
t server.
reserve one active channe
time only one sender can
(BlueBox), after it depo
begin to broadcast this new message to ever
cted user who are online by swapping them one by
Figure 5. Send and receive buffer of C1.
sort Active queue 0-6 based on the priority level
Priority high low
sort Park queue 0-n (n<256) based on the priority level
Priority high low
compare (AQ [6], PQ [0])
if priority of AQ [6] >= PQ [0]
else if priority of AQ [6] < PQ [0]
//swap (AQ [6], PQ [0]);
set AQ [6] PM_ADDR;
set PQ [0] AM_ADDR;
add AQ [6] to Park queue, resort the Park queue;
add PQ [0] to Active queue, resort the Active queue;
compare( AQ[6], PQ [0]);
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
send a message to others. T take the active channel
and communicate with server in a serial manner. C1 de-
posits the message to server, then the server will broad-
cast the message to C2 and C3 when they are taking the
channel. C3 will not send its own message to server in
this server swap broadcasting roun So after 3), every-
one got be dis-
one from Park queue to Active Queue. After that, the
second sender will deposit its composed message to chat
server, then server will do the same thing to broadcast
this new message to all online users. Certainly, th e serv er
is also able to send the message to the specific recipient.
We will limit the message length to 160 English charac-
ters which is as the same as the normal SMS length. As-
sume the average Bluetooth data transmitting rate is
5Kbps, then the average time to transmit one message
will cost: 160bytes / 5Kbps = 0.03s
If there are 20 users using the Chat service, the server
can finish the “swap broadcasting” in around 0.6s, within
one second which should be acceptable for the users.
We take an example of three users are using the public
chat service. We use C1, C2 and C3 to indicate the three
From Figure 6, we can see that C1 and C3 want to
the message from C1. Message 1 will
played on every user s’ screens , and the mes sage one will
be cleared from receive buffer.
Then it goes to next message deposit round, it is same
as round 1. Chat server will keep all the messages. Chat
Figure 6. Swap-broadcast message from C1.
server will broadcast the message based on the time
stamp of message itself which will ensure the accuracy
of the message received by users.
As for the RSS News service, we also can use the
similar mechanism, reserve one channel for RSS News
service use only. We can do a calculation that, normally
the size of one RSS News thread should be within 2KB
which equal to 300 to 400 English words. It will cost the
user less than 2 minutes to finish the reading on 176*208
sized cell phone screen, one minute is needed at least.
Within 1 minute the server can send at 60 RSS News
threads to users that mean it can su pport up to 60 us ers to
read RSS News with one channel used (Figure 7).
Download service must be processed one by one
unless the download file size is small.
With the above statement, we can reserve the 7 active
channels for different services. Download and Bus Stop
Alert services only reserve one channel for each while
both Chatting and RSS News service can reserve 2 cha-
nnels for each, because they are more timing issue is
more critical for them. Random channel allocation and Sub Queue
We also can split the Park Queue to several Park queues
based on how many services we provided. In current
stage, ws Stop
e can reform 4 Park queues, which are Bu
Figure 7. Swap-broadcast message from C3.
opyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
Alert Queue, Chat Queue, RSS News Queue and Down-
load Queue, listed based on the priority from high to low.
Once there is an active channel is free, we will process
the service queue based on its priority level. If there are
more active channels are free, more service queues will
be processed by serve r.
Because there are 7 active channels while there are
only 4 services currently, some service park queue, such
as Chat service and RSS News service, can split its park
queue equally into 2 sub-park queues. Each sub-park que-
ue will take a channel for processing which may reduce
the time consuming for one round “swap broadcasting”.
4. System Evaluation
For the system evaluation, eight Bluetooth 2.0 Class 1 +
EDR dongles are used. The experiments were conducted
to measure the transmission rate and interference that
may affect the transmission rate due to co-existing pi-
conets and the effect of obstacles in-between the Blue-
tooth devices to the transmission rate. Therefore, three
test sets were conducted as follows: 1. Single piconet
Test, 2. Multiple piconets test, and 3. Obstacle test. For
every test, the experiment is conducted five times and the
average is taken and plotted to a graph.
the Bluetooth Specification [12], this drop is du e to the
4.1. Si
This test was conducted to measure the effect of increas-
ing number of slaves on a Bluetooth master to its trans-
mission rate.
Figure 8 shows the test result. For the transmission to
ngle Piconet Test
ly one slave on a master dongle, it achieved the data
rate of 1.6 Mbps, which is fairly close to the theoretical
transmission rate of Bluetooth, i.e., 2.0 Mbps. However,
as the number of slave increases, the total data rate drops
quite significantly. With only one additional slave, the
total data rate drops by 400 kbps to 1.2 Mbps. According
Figure 8. Effect of the number of slave dongles on the data
rate in one piconet.
ct that when there is only one slave, the master is able
ionLess User) logical link rather than
o only 600 kbps (from 1.6 Mbps when there is only one
lave) a very significant reduction. However, on subse-
quent addition of slaves, the total data rate varies only
slightly from the two-slave case, where the total data rate
decreases as the number of slaves increases. Although
there is a dro p in th e to tal dat a rate, each slav e sti ll get s an
equal share of bandwidth. At the limit of 7 slaves, each
slave achieves a data rate of around 100 Kbps which is
considered acceptable for the BlueBus services.
4.2. Multiple Piconets Test
The Bluetooth Class 1 device could reach the range o
essentially the
to transport L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adapta-
tion Protocol) broadcasts over the ACLU (Asynchro-
nous Connect
er the ASBU (Active Slave Broadcast User) or
PSBU (Parked Slave Broadcast User) logical links.
This allows the transmission to be more efficient in terms
of bandwidth (if the physical channel quality is not too
degraded) for the case of only one slave.
Also, as only one device is allowed to transmit/receive
in each 625 sec time slot of a Bluetooth transmission, the
data rate of one of the slaves (in the two-slave case) drops
100 m, and this is the Bluetooth device planned to be
used on the Blu eBus. Since the in terior area of th e bus is
less than 100 m, having four server dongles (the dis-
patcher is not involved in the experiments) may intro-
duce interference problem. Therefore, this test is in-
tended to see the effect of the increasing number of
co-existing piconets on the transmission rate.
Figure 9 shows the data rates achiev ed when multiple
piconets co-exist. Here, ‘m’ denotes the master dongle
and ‘s’ denotes the slave dongle. In the base experiment
of one server and one client (which is
me as the case of only one slave in Figure 8), it can
achieve a data rate of 1.6 Mbps. However, if multiple
Figure 9. Effect of the number of master dongles on the
data rate.
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. IJCNS
arry. Therefore, this test is used to find out th e influence
various typical objects in between the Bluetooth
transmission path on the Bluetooth’s transmission rate.
In this test, the master and the slave dongle are separated
1.5 meters apart. The separation is based on the deriva-
tion from Figure 7. All the obstacles are placed within
close proximity to the receiving dongle (around 10 cm).
If a user uses his mobile device on a bus, it will be close
to the objects that he is currently holding (books, news-
papers, etc) or the seat in front of him. In this test, only
one master and one slave are used.
Figure 10 shows the result of putting different obsta-
cles in the Bluetooth transmission path. The obstacles
used are representative of the objects that are typically in
ious, since the bus will be packed
k, the Bluetooth will perform
r books or printed media. The bo t-
e of water represents any liquid that a person may carry.
masters exist (i.e. multiple piconets), the performance
drops. It can be seen from Figure 9 that the drop is not
very significant, and it is concluded that the multiple
piconets interference does not affect the data rate much.
4.3. Obstacle Test
Bluetooth is a wireless technology, and as such, its
transmission rate may be subjected to the objects that
hinder its transmission path. Inside a bus, the obstacles
can be the seats or the metal poles, including the people
packed inside the bus with the various objects they may
the bus or the objects that people may carry. The obstacle
of human body is obv
by passengers inside. The 3.5 cm thick book used in this
test represent any types of printed media of pages bound
together such as text books, newspapers, magazines, etc.
A thick book is used, since if the transmission rate is
good on the thick boo
equally well on thinn e
The plastic glass represents materials made up of plastic
such as the plastic bottles, and finally the glass represents
the windows of the bus.
As Figure 10 shows, different obstacles of different
materials affect the data rate to different extents. How-
Figure 10. Influence of different obstacles on the data rate.
ever, the figure still shows acceptable performance on all
the obstacles tested. Nevertheless, to minimize the im-
pact of obstacles inside the bus, the master dongles s ho u ld
be mounted along the ceiling of the bus and connected to
the BlueBox by USB cables. As the distance limit of a
USB cable is 5 m, additional USB hubs can be used to
extend this distance limit.
5. Conclusions and Future Development
We had designed and developed the BlueBus system
which is able to provide variety information and enter-
tainment services to passengers in a personalized level
and give them a good user experience. We have shown
that, based on the test on real Bluetooth dongles that
even when a Bluetooth device is full with active connec-
tions, it can still maintain relatively good data rate for
each slave on 100 Kbps. The experiments conducted also
shows that the interference of co-existing Bluetooth pi-
conets does not affect the data rate much. This is also
true for the obstacle experiment where the Bluetooth data
rate does not vary widely when it is presented with dif-
ferent materials.
We are planning to provide more interesting services
such as send birthday or greeting cards, share personal
Mobile Log (similar with Blog) etc. Apart from this, we
system for public transport us-
ing mobile terminals,” Proceedings of the 2003 ACM
nt of
also aim to find a way in the Bluetooth stack level or
scheduling algorithm to improve the multiple user sup-
port feature.
6. References
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[3] J. Kjeldskov, S. Howard, J. Murphy, J. Carrol, F. Vetere,
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[4] J. Kjeldskov, E. Andersen, and L. Hedegaard, “Designing
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[5] K. D. Lin and J. F. Chang, “Communications and enter-
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ie, “Implementing passenger information, enter-
, and security systems in light rail transit,
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[6] V. Scinte
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[8] “Bluetooth device access guide in Mac OS X.” http:
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[11] “Simple differences between Sniff mode and Park mode.”
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