J. Software Engineering & Applications, 2010, 3: 141-149
doi:10.4236/jsea.2010.32018 Published Online February 2010 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/jsea)
Copyright © 2010 SciRes JSEA
A Novel Spatial Clustering Algorithm Based on
Delaunay Triangulation
Xiankun Yang1,2, Weihong Cui1
1Institute of Remote Sensing Application, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; 2Graduate University of Chinese Academy
of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Email: xiankungis@163.com.
Received August 17th, 2009; revised September 16th, 2009; accepted November 13th, 2009.
Exploratory data analysis is increasingly more necessary as larger spatial data is managed in electro-magnetic media.
Spatial clustering is one of the very important spatial data mining techniques which is the discovery of interesting rela-
tionships and characteristics that may exist implicitly in spatial databases. So far, a lot of spatial clustering algorithms
have been proposed in many applications such as pattern recognition, data analysis, and image processing and so forth.
However most of the well-known clustering algorithms have some drawbacks which will be presented later when ap-
plied in large spatial databases. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we propose a robust spatial clustering
algorithm named NSCABDT (Novel Spatial Clustering Algorithm Based on Delaunay Triangulation). Delaunay dia-
gram is used for determining neighborhoods based on the neighborhood notion, spatial association rules and colloca-
tions being defined. NSCABDT demonstrates several important advantages over the previous works. Firstly, it even
discovers arbitrary shape of cluster distribution. Secondly, in order to execute NSCABDT, we do not need to know any
priori nature of distribution. Third, like DBSCAN, Experiments show that NSCABDT does not require so much CPU
processing time. Finally it handles efficiently outliers.
Keywords: Spatial Data Mining, Delaunay Triangulation, Spatial Clustering
1. Introduction
Data mining is a process to extract implicit, nontrivial,
previously unknown and potentially useful information
(such as knowledge rules, constraints, regularities) from
data in databases [1,2]. The explosive growth in data and
databases used in business managements, government
administration, and scientific data analysis has created a
need for tools that can automatically transform the proc-
essed data into useful information and knowledge [3].
Spatial data mining as a subfield of d ata mining refers to
the extraction from spatial databases of implicit knowl-
edge, spatial relations or significant features or patterns
that are not explicitly stored in spatial d atabases [4]. It is
concerned with the discovery of spatial relationships and
intrinsic relationships between spatial and non-spatial
data. With the large amount of spatial data obtained from
satellite images and geographic information systems
(GIS), it is an inevitable task for humans to explore spa-
tial data in detail. Spatial datasets and patterns are abun-
dant in many application domains related to the Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency, the National Institute of
standards and Technology, and the Department of
Transportation. Challenges in spatial data mining arise
from the following issues [3,5]. Firstly, classical data
mining is designed to process numbers and categories. In
contrast, spatial data is more complex and includes ex-
tended objects such as points, lines and polygons. Sec-
ondly, classical data mining works with explicit inputs,
whereas, spatial predicates and attributes are often im-
plicit. Finally, classical data mining treats each input
independently o f oth er inputs, while sp atial patterns of ten
exhibit continuity and high autocorrelation among nearby
Clustering is the process of grouping a set of objects
into classes or clusters so that objects within a cluster
have similarity in comparison to one another, but are
dissimilar to objects in other clusters. So far, many clus-
tering algorithms have been proposed. They differ in
their capabilities, applicability and computational re-
quirements. Based on a general definition, they can be
categorized into five broad categories, i.e., hierarchical,
partitional, density-based, grid-based and model-based
[4]. 1) Partitional clustering methods [6], for example,
A Novel Spatial Clustering Algorithm Based on Delaunay Triangulation
CLARANS. It classifies data into some groups, which
together satisfy the following requirements: firstly, each
group must contain at least one object; secondly, each
object must belong to exactly on group. It is noticed that
the second requirement can be relaxed in some fuzzy
partitioning techniques. 2) Hierarchical clustering me-
thods [7,8], such as DIANA [9] and BIRCH [8]. A hier-
archical method creates a hierarchical de comp o sition of a
given set of data objects. Hierarchical methods can be
classified as agglomerative (bottom-up) or divisive (top-
down), based on how the hierarchical decomposition is
formed. 3) Density-based clustering methods. Their gen-
eral idea is to continue growing a g iven cluster as long as
the density (the number of objects or data points) in the
“neighborhood” exceeds a threshold. Such a method is
able to filter out noises (outliers) an d discover clusters of
arbitrary shape. Examples of density-based clustering
methods include DBSCAN [10], OPTICS [11], GDB-
SCAN [12] and DBRS [13]. 4) Grid-based clustering
methods, such as STING [14] and WaveCluster [15].
Grid-based methods quantize the object space into a fi-
nite number of cells that form a grid structure. All of the
clustering operations are performed on the grid structure
(i.e., on the quantized space). The main advantage of this
approach is its fast processing time, which is typically
independent of the number of data objects and dependent
only on the number of cells in each dimension in the
quantized space. 5) Model-based clustering methods. For
example, COBWEB. It is clearly that no particular clus-
tering method has been shown to be superior to all its
competitors in all aspects. Typically, the problem is that
clusters identified with one meth od can no t be detected by
other methods [16]. This is because that many clustering
methods need user-specified arguments or prior knowl-
edge to produce their best results. Such information
needs are supplied as density threshold values, merge/
split conditions, number of parts, prior probabilities, as-
sumptions about the distribution of continuous attributes
within classes, and/or kern el size for intensity testing, for
example, grid size for raster-like clustering [17] and ra-
dius for vector-like clustering [18]. This parame-
ter-tuning is expensive and inefficient for huge data sets
because it demands several trial and error steps.
Clustering based on Delaunay triangulation is not a
new and has been described in some papers [16, 19, 20,
21]. Kang et al [14] proposed a clustering algorithm that
utilizes a Delaunay triangulation; however, there is a
need in the algorithm to provide a global argument as a
threshold to discriminate perimeter values or edges
lengths. As a result, the algorithm is not able to detect
local variations. The first non-parametric clustering algo-
rithm based on the Delaunay diagram, called AMOEBA,
has been proposed in Estivill-Castro and Lee [16]. It
overcomes some of the problems of the static approaches
that required a distance threshold to be specified, but still
fails to find relatively sparse clusters in certain situations.
An upgraded version of AMOEBA, called AUTO-
CLUST, has been proposed by the same authors in Estiv-
ill-Castro and Lee [21].
But these methods also have some drawbacks. For
example, if two clusters are mixed or connected by
bridges, this methods described above cannot detect all
the two clusters as shown in Figure 1. In this paper we
propose a robust spatial clustering algorithm named
NSCABDT (Novel Spatial Clustering Algorithm Based
on Delaunay Triangulation). NSCABDT uses the Delau-
nay triangulation as analysis source, because Delaunay
triangulation is a structure that is linear in the size of the
data set and implicitly contains vast amounts of prox-
imity information. That is to say, we can use the graph
information of Delaunay triangulation and metric infor-
mation to obtain remarkable robust clustering. In this
study, we first constru ct a graph, and record the informa-
tion of the graph as presented in Section 3. In the graph,
vertices represent data points and edges connect pairs of
points to model spatial proximity or interactions and all
clustering operations are performed on the graph infor-
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: In
Section 2, we will give an introduction to data preproc-
essing for NSCABDT. And Section 3 presents the
NSCABDT algorithm. Section 4 reports the experimental
evaluation. Finally, Section 5 concludes the paper.
2. Definitions and Notions
2.1 Spatial Clustering methods
Geographic data often show properties of spatial de-
pendency and spatial heterogeneity [22]. Spatial de-
pendency is a tendency of observations located close to
one another in the geographical space to show a higher
degree of similarity or dissimilarity (depending on the
phenomenon under study). Closeness can be defined very
generally—through distance, direction and/or topology.
Spatial heterogeneity or inconsistency of the process with
respect to its location is often visible, while many geograph ic
Figure 1. Three very dense clusters (C1, C2, C3), but most
of clustering methods cannot detect the cluster C2. Because
of the bridges between cluster C4 and cluster C5, the two
clusters often are incorrectly thought to be one cluster
Copyright © 2010 SciRes JSEA
A Novel Spatial Clustering Algorithm Based on Delaunay Triangulation143
processes have a local character. Spatial dependency and
heterogeneity can reflect the nature of the geographic
process. Central to spatial data mining is clustering,
which seeks to identify subsets o f the data having similar
characteristics. Two-Dimensional clustering is the non-
trivial process of grouping geographically closer points
into the cluster. Therefore, a model of spatial proximity
for a discrete point-data set must pro-
vide robust answers to which are the neighbors of a point
and how far the neighbors relative to the context of
the entire data set
},,{ 1n
. A cluster is a group of objects,
which are homogeneous among themselves. Clustering
has been identified as one of the fundamental problems
in the area of knowledge discovery and data mining, and
it is of particular importance for spatial data sets. A dis-
tinct characteristic of spatial clustering for data mining
applications is the huge size of the data files involved
[23]. As Tobler’s famous proposition [24] states: “Eve-
rything is related to everything else, but near things are
more related than distant things.” Thus proximity is
pretty critical to spatial analysis and in spatial settings;
clustering criteria almost invariably makes use of some
notions of proximity, usually based on the Euclidean
metric, as it captures the essence of spatial autocorrela-
tion and spatial asso ciation [14].
11 )()()(
d(Xj, Zj)is the Euclidean metric. And
and are twodimensions
data objects.
),,,(21 ipii xxx
),,,( 21 jpjj xxx (pp
We assume that is a set of
data items in the dimensional real space .
A cluster is a collection of that is similar to one an-
other within the same cluster and is dissimilar to the ob-
jects in other clusters. A cluster of data objects can be
treated collectively as one group. We assume that is
a cluster ofand is the collection
of , then:
},,,{ 1210
},,,{ 21 k
i)1( kCi
CØ( ) (3)
kj ,...,2,1
Ø ( ) (4)
ji CC jijji  ;,...,2,1,
If Zj is the clustering center of , then:
)1(kjC j
),( (5)
where J should be minimal.
2.2 Delaunay Triangulations
In mathematics, and computational geometry, a Delau-
nay triangulation for a set S of points in the plane is a
triangulation D(S) such that no point in S is inside the
circumcircle of any triangle in D(S). Delaunay triangula-
tions maximize the minimum angle of all the angles of
the triangles in the triangulation; they tend to avoid
skinny triangles. The triangu lation was invented by Boris
Delaunay [25]. Delaunay triangulations have been widely
used in a variety of applications in geographical informa-
tion systems (GIS). Using Delaunay triangulations, it is
simpler to tackle the problems associated with spatial
topology automated contouring, two-and-half dimen-
sional (2.5-D) visualization, surface characterization and
reconstructions, and site visibility analyses on terrain
Given the set of data points in
the plane, the Voronoi region of is the locus of
points (not necessarily data points) which haveas a
nearest neighbor; that is,{.
Taken together, the n Voronoi regions of S form the Vo-
ronoi diagram of S (also called the Dirichlet tessellation
or the proximity map). The regions are (possibly un-
bounded) convex polygons, and their interiors are dis-
joint [23]. Based on Delaunay’s definition [25], the cir-
cumcircle of a triangle formed by three points from the
original point set is empty if it does not contain vertices
other than the three that define it (other points are per-
mitted only on the very perimeter, not inside).
},,,{ 110
ji pxdpxdij  )}x
The Delaunay triangulation D(S) of S is a planar graph
embedding defined as follows: the nodes of D(S) consist
of the data points of S, and two nodes pi, pj are joined by
an edge if the boundaries of the corresponding Voronoi
regions share a line segment.
Delaunay triangulations capture in a very compact form
the proximity relationships among the points of. They
have many useful properties, the most relevant to our
application being the following:
1) If pj is the nearest neighbor of pj from among the
data points of S, thenis an edge in D(S). That
is to say, the 1-nearest-neighb or digraph is a subgraph of
the Delaunay triangulation.
 ji pp ,
2) The number of edges in D(S) is at most 3n -6.
3) The average number of neighbors of a site in
D(S) is less than six.
Copyright © 2010 SciRes JSEA
A Novel Spatial Clustering Algorithm Based on Delaunay Triangulation
Figure 2. A data set (n=15) and its Delaunay triangulation
4) The Delaunay triangulation is the most well propor-
tioned over all triangulations of S, in that the size of the
minimum angle over all its triangles is the maximum
5) If pi and pj form a triangle in D(S), th en the inter ior
of this triangle contains no other point of .
6) The triangulation D(S) can be robustly computed in
7) The minimum spanning tree is a subgraph of the
Delaunay triangulation, and, in fact, a single-linkage
clustering (or dendrogram) can be found in
time from D(S).
)log( nnO
Figure 2 shows a set of 15 data points and its corre-
sponding Delaunay triangulation. More information re-
garding Delaunay triangulations and Voronoi diagrams
can be found in other literature. From Figure 2, we can
conclude that, in a proximity graph like Delaunay trian-
gulation (Delaunay diagram); the points are connected by
edges, if and only if they seem to be close by some
proximity measure [26]. By applying to this rule, if two
points are connected by a small enough Delaunay edge,
the two points belong to the same cluster.
3. Initialization Using the Delaunay
3.1 Data Preprocessing
Given a set of data pointsin the
plane (as shown in Figure 2), .The triangula-
tions were computed by Bowyer-Watson algorithm in
time. In the creation process of Delaunay
triangulation, we recorded node, edge and surface infor-
mation of Delaunay triangulation for clustering later.
This nodes, edges and surfaces information was stored in
Oracle database. Oracle database includes numerous data
structures to improve the speed of SQL queries. Taking
advantage of the low cost of disk storage, Oracle in-
cludes many new indexing algorithms that dramatically
increase the speed with which Oracle queries are ser-
viced. And, Oracle database includes so many statistical
functions which include descriptive statistics, hypothesis
testing, and correlations analysis, for distribution fit and
so forth. The statistical functions in the database can be
used in a variety of ways, for example, we can call Ora-
cle’s DBMS_STAT_FUNCS functions to obtain basic
cont, mean, max, min and standard deviation information
of Delaunay triangulation edges. For Figure 2, we got
three tables as follows:
},,,{ 110
In the Table 1, the first column is the index of the
points in S, the second column is X coordinate and the
third column is Y coordinate respectively. The degree
denotes the number of Delaunay edges which incident to
a point. The “ClassType” column represents the category
number after clustering process, and after clustering
process if it is -1, we think the point is an outlier or noise.
In the Table 2, the second column is the index of the
edge’s starting point, and the third column is the index of
the edge’s end point. The length of edges is represented
by the fourth column. In our algorithm, every edge is
needed to be compute d o nly once.
The chart illustrates the table structure and relation-
ships of the three tables. The Delaunay triangulation
node table contains all the spatial objects (points); the
Table 1. Delaunay triangulation nodes table
IndexX Y Degree ClassType
1 3853964.924-803305.9261 6 -1
2 3853985.696-803331.6837 4 -1
3 3853998.714-803330.2989 6 -1
4 3853994.005-803335.8381 5 -1
5 3853992.066-803329.7449 4 -1
6 3854013.393-803354.3946 6 -1
7 3853989.297-803371.0124 6 -1
8 3853990.128-803377.6595 4 -1
9 3853996.221-803375.7208 5 -1
10 3854049.121-803327.2523 5 -1
11 3854045.52 -803337.4999 7 -1
12 3854058.538-803336.669 4 -1
13 3854051.337-803334.4533 3 -1
14 3854039.981-803371.8433 4 -1
15 3854047.459-803375.7208 4 -1
Copyright © 2010 SciRes JSEA
A Novel Spatial Clustering Algorithm Based on Delaunay Triangulation
Copyright © 2010 SciRes JSEA
Table 2. Delaunay triangulation edge table
Index Start End Length
1 1 8 76.03228669
2 8 7 6.69884313
3 7 1 69.50014083
4 1 7 69.50014083
5 7 2 39.49321264
6 2 1 33.08972562
7 1 2 33.08972562
8 2 5 6.65851675
9 5 1 36.11126413
10 1 5 36.11126413
…… …… …… ……
Table 3. Delaunay triangulation surface table
dex Node1 Node2 Node3 Edge1 Edge2 Edge3
1 1 8 7 1 2 3
2 1 7 2 4 5 6
…… …… …… …… …… …… ……
Figure 3. Table structure and relations in the database
Delaunay triangulation edge table includes all the Delaunay
edges and the relationships with the Delaunay triangula-
tion node table. And the Delaunay triangulation surface
table records all the Delaunay triangulation surfaces and
the relationships with Delaunay triang ulation nodes table
as well as Delaunay edge table.
3.2 Some Definitions and Notions in NSCABDT
Given a set of data pointsin the plane
(as shown in Figure 2), after data preprocessing, we got
the nodes, edges and surfaces information of the Delau-
nay triangulation. Given a set of edges,
for each edge
},,,{ 110
eE},, 11 n
is a record of Delaunay
triangulation edge table. For each edge ,
 jik ppe ,
nk i
is its starting point, and is its end
point. Both and belong to . And
denotes a set of edges which in cident to.
)( i
Definition 1 (Local_Mean): We denote by mean ()
the mean length of edges in .
i(_ MeanLocal
eLen (6)
where denotes the degree of in graph theory;
and denotes the length of the Delaunay edge
)( j
Definition 2 (Global_Mean): We denote by mean
the mean length of edges in
)(_ SMean
where is the number of edges in
Definition 3 (Global_Sta_Dev): We denote by global
standard deviation of the lengths of all edges. That is,
eS i
Definition 4 (Relative_Mean): We let
denote the ratio of andGlobal .
That is,
)(S_)_Re Meanplative i
(Mean_)( LocalpMean iGlobal
Definition 5 (Positive Edge): If the length of a Delau-
nay edge is less than the given criterion function ,
the edge is a positive edge. Positive edges and points
incident to them form a new proximity graph and the
newly created graph is subgraph of the Delaunay graph
(Delaunay Triangulation).
Definition 6 (Positive path): A path in current prox-
imity graph where every edge in the path is a positive
edge; and all the points connected by actives paths be-
long to a cluster.
Finally, this edge analysis is captured in a criterion
function . The cut-off value for edges incident in
is defined as follows:
(_)( i
A Novel Spatial Clustering Algorithm Based on Delaunay Triangulation
Figure 4. NSCABDT procedure
Definition 7 (Effective Region): For a point
in , we
},,|||{ 2
RxSpxpxp 
The effective region of point p with respect to radius
. As the union of the effective region of each point, we
define the effective region of a random point set.
For a point set S, we call
The effective region of point set with respect to
Definition 8 (γ – boundary): We define the boundary
set as
DmVVVVVV (13)
where γ>1 is a constant and is the set
of all points in the circle with the radius
 xxDm
. We call
the γ – boundary of the point set S.
Definition 9 (γ – curve): The principal boundary of a
random point set is the principal manifold of the point in
the γ – boundary of a point set.
We also call this principal manifold extracted from
point set S the γ – curve of.
If the edges which incident toare greater than or
equal to, the edges are eliminated and the edges
that are less than the criterion function survive. For each
definition above, it is not necessary to iteratively calcu-
late the results by programming; because we can get the
results by using oracle statistical functions. For example,
for Definition 1, a SQL statement can be created as fol-
lows: SELECT avg(length) FROM edgetable WHERE
start =, where “edgetable” is the table which restores
the edges information of Delaunay triangulation.
)( i
We now present the algorithm of NSCABDT:
Initialize the points of a data points setas being as-
signed to no cluster; Initialize an empty data set;
1) Create Delaunay triangulation and record the in-
formation of Delaunay triangulation in Oracle da-
2) For each nodei
pin Delaunay triangulation, extract
edges )( i
pN incident to nodei
pvia SQL queries
and calculate)( as well as)( i
pF .
3) For each edgeein )( i
pN , if)() , the edge
will be deleted.
4) After 3, if0)(
pd , the nodei
pwill be deleted,
otherwise, the nodei
pis added toC.
5) Using the same method, iteratively calculate all the
nodes which co nnect withi
6) Extract the boundary of the clusterCand eliminate
the bridges.
7) If all the points have been not processed, end the
process. Otherwise, initialize a new empty data
setC, go to next un -processed node.
Phase 1 of NSCABDT is th e construction o f Delaunay
triangulation. Then, recursively, all points in a connected
component are reported as a cluster. Thus every edge is
tested for the criterion function only once. After elimi-
nating no-interesting edges and noises, only positive
edges are remaining. According to the positive path, we
can iteratively find all the points connected by positive
paths and add the points to a cluster.
Obviously, it can be seen from the Figure 4 that it con-
sists of two phases; the first phase is building Delaunay
Triangulations from spatial objects. And on the second
phase, we eliminate all edges in the way which we in-
troduced above. And then, we got that point 1, point 6,
point 14 and point 15 are outliers.
In order to eliminate the bridges between two different
clusters, a detection of cluster boundary is executed; the
algorithm is according to [5 ]. The boundary of a poin t set
is extracted by the principal curve analysis. The principal
curve analysis is a generalization of principal axis analy-
sis, which is a standard method for data analysis in pat-
tern recognition. For a clus ter, if we can get two different
boundaries, we think there are two smaller clusters in the
point set, and bridges exist between the two smaller
clusters. If an edge is not in the boundaries, the edge
should be delete d.
The algorithm for eliminating the bridges between two
Copyright © 2010 SciRes JSEA
A Novel Spatial Clustering Algorithm Based on Delaunay Triangulation147
different clusters is as follows:
1) For the collection of all edges E, get the median
length via SQL queries. And set it as
2) Get the effective region of random point setV.
3) Get boundary
of random point setV.
4) Get curve
of random point setV.
Although, the construction of Delaunay triangulation
using all points in S is a time-consuming process for a
large number of points even if we use an optimal algo-
rithm, we can use the information stored in the database
instead of the construction of Delaunay triangulation
again and we also can get the median length via SQL
queries. Obviously, it is more efficient.
4. Experimental Results
We evaluate NSCABDT according the three major re-
quirements for clustering algorithms on large spatial da-
tabases as stated above. We compare NSCABDT with
the clustering algorithm DBSCAN in terms of effectivity
and efficiency. The evaluation is based on an implemen-
tation of NSCABDT in .NET 2005. All the experiments
were run on Windows Server 2003.
4.1 Discovery of Clusters with Arbitrary Shape
Clusters in spatial databases may be of arbitrary shape,
e.g. spherical, drawn-out, linear, elongated etc. Further-
more, the databases may contain noise [27]. We used
visualization to evaluate the quality of the clusterings
obtained by the NSCABDT. In order to create readable
visualizations without using color, in these experiments
we used small databases. Due to space limitation, we
only present the results from one typical database which
was generated as follows:
1) Draw three polygons of different shape (one of
them with a hole) for three clusters.
2) Generate 500, 200 and 200 uniformly distributed
points in each polygon respectively.
3) Insert 100 noise points into the database, which is
depicted in Figure 5.
For NSCABDT, we set 10% noise for the sample da-
tabase. NSCABDT discovers all clusters and detects the
noise points from the sample database. The clustering
result of NSCABDT on this database is shown in Figure
7. Different clusters are depicted using different symbols
and noise is represented by crosses. This result shows
that NSCABDT assigns nearly all points to the correct
4.1 Efficiency
It has been proved that DBSCAN has better performan-
cethan partitioning and hierarchical algorithms for spatial
data mining, so we only compare our algorithm with
DBSCAN [28]. In the following, we compare NSCA-
BDT with DBSCAN with respect to efficiency on syn-
Figure 5. A data set and its Delaunay triangulation (n=1000)
Figure 6. Extract the boundary of the cluste r and eliminate
the bridges
Figure 7. Clustering by NSCABDT. Finally we got 3 clus-
thetic databases. The run time and correct rate for NS-
CABDT, DBSCAN on these test databases are listed in
Table 4.
We generated some large synthetic test databases with
5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000 and 10000 points to test
the efficiency and scalability of DBSCAN and NSCA-
BDT. We can conclude that NSCABDT is significantly
slower than DBSCAN (see Figure 8), but the correct rate
of NSCABDT is higher than DBSCAN (see Figure 9).
Because our approach does not require any assump-
tions or declarations concerning the distribution of the
Copyright © 2010 SciRes JSEA
A Novel Spatial Clustering Algorithm Based on Delaunay Triangulation
Table 4. Run time in seconds
Number of
Points 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
rate Run
time Correct
rate Run
time Correct
rate Run
time Correct
rate Run
time Correct
rate Run
time Correct
rate Run
DBSCAN 97.8% 36.797.2% 52.8 97.4%72.697.9%93.7 97.5%121.5 97.8% 154.6
NSCABDT 99.7% 48.299.8% 71.4 99.8%93.899.7%117.999.7%151.3 99.7% 189.4
data, the parameters of DBSCAN is difficult to be fixed.
If the parameters are not inappropriate, the correct rate
will be very low. DBSCAN must continually ask for as-
sistance from the user. The reliance of DBSCAN on user
input can be eliminated using our approach.
5. Conclusions
The application of clustering algorithms to large spatial
databases raises the following requirements [27]: 1)
minimal number of input parameters, 2) discovery of
clusters with arbitrary shape and 3) efficiency on large
databases. The w ell-kn own clu ster ing algo rithms off er no
solution to the combination of these requirements.
In this paper, we introduce the new clustering algo-
rithm NSCABDT. Our notion of a cluster is based on the
distance of the points of a cluster to their neighbors. The
neighboring region formed in our algorithm reflects the
neighbor’s distribution. Experimental results demon-
strated that our clustering algorithm can provide signifi-
cant improvement of accuracy of the cluster detecting,
especially for objects with arbitrary and linear distribu-
Figure 8. Efficiency: SCABDT VS DBSCAN
Figure 9. Correct rate: SCABDT VS DBSCAN
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