Figure 7. Dependence between B. ovata light emission duration and environment temperature.

point of view. Indeed, the most intensive M. leidyi luminescence is observed under the temperature of 26˚C ± 1˚C, and B. ovata—under 22˚C ± 1˚C, which are the most favorable for their functional state. Thus, according to the data of B. E. Anninsky with co-authors, M. leidyi [8] breeding peak is observed under the temperature of 24˚C - 26˚C in August, and ctenophore B. ovata [9,14] autumn quantity growth under the temperature 20˚C - 22˚C. With this, organisms are actively breeding and their metabolism level is considerably higher, than under lower temperatures.

Ctenophore M. leidyi and B. ovata bioluminescence amplitude decrease for several orders of magnitude under the temperature decrease down to 10˚C can be explained by the fact, that ctenophore endures the fall of temperature badly and their populations abundance reduces in the late-autumn and in the winter period sharply [7,9].

Together with that, temperature rise up to 30˚C, affects the ctenophore state unfavorably. There are many literature materials, which testify to the fact, that ctenophore feels worse under the temperature rise: its motion activity gets broken, metabolism level reduces etc. [8,14].

It is known that maximal activity of the enzyme-substrate complex, basic for the bioluminescence as a phenomena was registered under the temperature of 30˚C in vivo [15,16]. Bioluminescence intensity maximum was registered in our laboratory experiments under other temperatures: under 26˚C for M. leidyi and under 22˚C for B. ovata, that underlines the circumstance, than amplitude, energy and temporal characteristics of any bioluminescent light emission, including the Black Sea ctenophores-aliens, depend on total environment conditions, determining physiological state of the organism as well as on luciferine-luciferase complexes reaction velocity.


Environment temperature affects considerably the amplitude-temporal characteristics of the Black Sea alienctenophore light emission. It was revealed, that bioluminescence reaction optimum for M. leidyi is achieved under the temperature of 26˚C ± 1˚C, and for B. ovata— under the temperature of 22˚C ± 1˚C, while its minimum for both ctenophore species was registered under the temperature of 10˚C ± 1˚C. It was shown, that variability of the alien-ctenophore bioluminescence parameters is stipulated by dependence between luciferine-luciferase complexes reaction velocity and environment temperature as well as by changes of the ctenophore functional state (metabolism and motion activity) under different environment temperature conditions.


The authors express the gratitude for the valuable advices during the given work conduction to G. A. Finenko, G. I. Abolmasova and Z. A. Romanova, the scientists of the IBSS of NAS of Ukraine; to V. I. Vasilenko and M. I. Silakov, leading engineers of IBSS of NAS of Ukraine, for the help in work with laboratory equipment and making the program of its verification; to D. A. Altukhov, leading engineer for help in sampling the experimental material.


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