Creative Education
Vol.07 No.17(2016), Article ID:72288,11 pages

Relationship between Using Translated English Books into Persian Language with Learning Quality at University of Guilan

Nader Ofoghi1, Abbas Sadeghi2, Maryam Babaei2

1Department of Social Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

2Department of Educational Sciences and Counselling, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

Copyright © 2016 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0).

Received: October 5, 2016; Accepted: November 25, 2016; Published: November 28, 2016


The basic purpose of this paper is to survey the relationships between using translated English books in Persian with learning quality at University of Guilan, Humanities Faculty. The population was included all students of the Faculty and nearly 5% (150 students) were selected through a classical sampling method. Also, 35 of academic staff members (nearly 10%) cooperated in the interview. One researcher making questionnaire had been used with proper Cronbach Alpha (76%) and its validity was achieved through using ideas of some academic staffs at faculty and descriptive- analytical method was used. The findings showed that in all cases, hypotheses of research (that are, the relations between translation of voluminous books, translation of educated translator in foreign countries, translation of translator in language major, translation of illustrated books, group translation with learning quality) with 95% of confidence were confirmed. Also with regard to gender, there is a significant relationship between translated Persian books and learning quality and also, learning quality will be increased in male about 80%.


Translation, Learning, Quality

1. Introduction

Selecting the proper materials and course references in the form of translation or compilation has a great relation with partial quality of students learning. This question has always been posed that what kind of course materials has more effect on partial quality of learning. In fact, for the existence of human factors (teacher and learners) as the most important factor in the process of teaching and learning and then attention to process of teaching and learning that engages mental and thinking elements and also the existence of interaction context which is prerequisite for the process of teaching and learning, regarding to mental factors has a special importance in the process of learning. In partial quality, in the process of teaching and learning, different factors take role that one of the most important of them is knowing the suitable and effective educational materials and context. Achieving to course references is in the form of compilation and translation that itself has a lot of problems. One of these problems can be researched from the course schedules view. Course purposes in the way that is expressed in Iran course schedule, cannot be suitable patterns in selecting learning experiences and teaching guidance, for example, sometimes the schedule is focused on something that professor should do it, that is, expressing the purpose in the case of professor activity. By this way, it makes clear the activities which professor should do, but it does not make clear the activities that student should do to learn it. It seems that the main intention of an effective teaching is not that professors do a series of actions on the basis of criterion goals or sometimes absolute criterion goals that are in the content of course. Of course the purpose should be important and desirable changes in the pattern of behavior, the way of behaving, thinking and profound thinking in learner. So, first the expression of course purpose should show the intended changes in learners and then different activities of professor for achieving the purposes should be selected and explained. Such an expression somehow can make clear the extent of course context which learners deal with it, but it cannot be accounted as a satisfactory course purpose, because it does not determine that what we do expect from learners. Should she/he memorize the content of course or apply it in mentioned-items? There are other uses of these cases that researchers consider it as a main pilot, that is, if professors give attention to quality of course materials especially translation in the process of learning, learners will have a good and desirable condition in their process of learning.

2. Evaluation of Translation

Always regarding to quality such as discussion related to translation aspects has considerable importance in all academies. In evaluating the translations of texts in Persian, two noted: adequacy, acceptability. This two criteria necessary conditions to provide sufficient and appropriate translation and semantic components and adapt well in terms of grammatical elements, in both source and target languages and raise the accuracy of the translator in conveying the desired message, both to be ready to recognize and provide the text in the target (language Persian) and the target text readers (Manafi Anari, 2004) . In his approach, factors such as language, text type and target translation are important and decisive as criteria in determining the appropriate amount of text to account, In fact, translators, experts who according to the type and the role and purpose of the original decides what role the translated.

According to Robinson, those translators as well as with a network of cognitive and mental approach to translate familiar text to achieve a more effective translation and interpretation (Robinson, 2007) .

3. Learning Quality

According to Joyce et al. (2005) the quality of learning can be defined as a change in activities and pervasive interactions and as a result involving with a learning experience will be considered. Gibbs (1992) defines the quality in a format of phrases such as growth of mental and intellectual capabilities, growth in judgment strength, consolidating the case solving skills, the ability of considering matter’s inner relations and understanding subjects in a vast prospect. These objectives must help to improve research morality, developing creative methods, logical judgment, criticizing point of view and self-consciousness in learners so by considering these instances a comparative level of assurance about realizing them is resulted. Of course, only considering the definition of quality doesn’t assure learning since despite the definition of quality was proposed as an ambiguous problem in analyzing and reviewing in educational institutes, but practically this factor isn’t that determinant.

It is necessary to have a clear definition for learning quality, regarding to improvement of quality in learning, Gibbs (1992) has defined the quality in form of phrases such as abilities of intelligence and mental, development of judging, reinforcement of problem-solving skills, ability of attention to inner relation of materials and understanding of subjects in a broad perspective. These purposes should cause the reinforcement of research morale, creation of creative methods, reasonable judgments, morale, critical, and self-information in learners, that with regard to these cases we can be confident about their accomplishment.

In general, the quality of academic learning can make all the difference in the students’ academic and professional growth. In this regard, two things should be noted: First enrich learning experiences and how to create learning opportunities and appropriate content, and the second considered active learning that emphasizes mental activity students learn to deal with challenges caused by the position refers (Kong, 2008) . It should be noted that these types of experiences through active learning, to learn how to learn and enthusiasm in their students to be lifelong learning (Ocuaman, 2010( . Marton and Saljo (1976) classify these two behaviors with the process of learning as superficial and profound method of learning.

Superficial method of learning may be usual in smaller educational institutes and weaker learners or newcomers, but in many of educational systems especially higher education and fairly in all sections and levels it is posed as a fundamental matter and somehow it is caused to deviate from their purposes. Entwistle and Tait (1990) believe that attention to superficial and profound methods of learning has caused different views in students about good teaching. So that, student with superficial views of learning, consider the closed and non-interaction teaching as a good teaching and students with profound views of learning intend more to open, interaction, discussion and cooperative teaching. Biggs (1989) gives attention more to four key elements, motivation of learners, activities of learners, interaction between learners and organized content for the effect of these elements in superficial and profound methods of learning; we survey each of these elements very briefly.

Research in the area of student learning experiences, the more the relationship between the quality of learning experience by reducing stress, improving student achievement, enhance self-esteem, increase the effectiveness of educational, scientific and social development and academic achievement and decrease burnout, and check have (Namy, 2010) .

According to the findings of Chang and Chang (2012) , learning effectiveness and satisfaction appears strongly correlated with learning motivation, emphasizing the importance that teachers must place on the educational efforts that are aiming to meet the specific needs of learners. The recent approaches to student satisfaction relate to research on teamwork, team performance and collaborative learning (Ku, Tseng, & Akarasriworn, 2013) .

Authors who have researched learning effectiveness (Khiat, 2013) agree on the complex nature and multifaceted aspect of it, mentioning a number of factors that pertain to the construct. Although the number of factors involved in the measurement may vary, researchers focus on elements pertaining to the educational environment, services, providers, outcomes, facilities and individual variables. In a study conducted on the subject (Topal & Tomozi, 2014) .

4. The Concept of Teaching

It seems that misunderstanding of some learners from the concepts of learning and teaching, prevent them to do learning tasks in a profound and certainly effective method. Some of the learners assume that teacher should do all the tasks, make decision for everything select the topic of course, present the course with complete control of class, teacher should pose the exam questions and lead the learners about how and what activities they should do. That is, everything is taught and everything which is called learning results, should be done completely by teacher. This is a closed concept of teaching that within it, teacher is everything and learners do not have active and effective role in the process of teaching. Some other learners think that although teacher has responsibilities for controlling the process of learning, preparing the course materials, unavailability for supporting the students and etc. There are other tasks such as policy and thinking in learning activities, judging about the results of learning, being satisfactory or not, cooperation in the process of teaching is more related to learners. This is an open concept of teaching which divides duties between teachers and learners and finally leads the teaching in a way that is done through interaction. So, the closed teaching is fairly done individually by teacher and is more in agreement with the concept of learning in use of realities and methods, conceptualization and understanding the realities.

In a study by Lagrosen and colleagues as “aspects of quality in higher education” was performed 11 quality components were identified: collective cooperation, information and accountability, subjects offered, facilities for University activities related to teaching, assessment of internal, external assessments, computer facilities, partnerships and compared factors after reading, and library resources. Results showed that 7 of the 11 components component quality, higher than 5 on a scale of 7 degrees (Lagrosen et al., 2004) .

5. Methodology

Instruments the method of the research is descriptive-analytical and statistics population of the research was consisted of all students of humanities faculty that were selected through classified sampling method. 5% (150 student and among 150 distributed questionnaires in different majors, 150 numbers of questionnaire were filled and returned. Also, 35 of academic staff members (about 10%) cooperated in this research through the interview.

A researcher-made questionnaire was used that had 20 questions which through doing pilot study, its permanent coefficient (CRONBACH ALPHA = 76%) for validity and reliability was achieved through applying the ideas of some academic staff members.

6. Findings

These research findings are presented in two different parts which are included:

6.1. Description of Data

This study was done on the basis of data related to 125 responders of Faculty of Humanities at University of Guilan that among all of them 58.3 were female and 41.7 were male. The range of age changes in the study population was between lower than 20 years and upper 35 years. From age frequency view, the most percentage with 76.2% is related to age group of 20 - 25 years and the least with 0.6% is related to age group to upper 35 years. In the other words, diagram of population distribution of sample indicates the most observation was between ages 22 - 33.

6.2. Learning Quality

Frequency distribution of students learning is evaluated by two items of Yes/No and is presented in Table 1.

The above table shows that most of the students (61%) considered the course classes with low quality and (39%) with high quality.

Descriptive results of questionnaire shows that average of total scores of dialects of Likert spectrum which is related to questions of questionnaire is inclined to upper

Table 1. Frequency distribution of respondents in terms of Yes/No for learning quality.

average, that is (3) and it is more near to agreed response and from distribution view, the degree of deviation in all questions has negative deviation that somehow confirm the average of total scores of questions, that is, scores are inclined to agreed and completely agreed response.

6.3. Analysis of Data

The hypotheses of research are analyzed and with regard to two dimensions of table, for, the two dimensions x2 test is used. Afterwards, the research questions were analyzed with regard to three dimensions of table for analysis of data, x2 test is used. Also, for evaluating the cohesion intensity among research variants Kremer’s V index is used for rectangle tables.

With regard to Table 2, shows that in all cases, H0 hypothesis are rejected and research hypotheses are confirmed. In the other words, the results show that research hypotheses such as translation of voluminous books, translation of educated translators in foreign countries, translation of translators in language discipline, translation of illustrated books and group translation with 95% of confidence have relationship with learning quality. So, generally the results show that use of translated books with above condition is effective in increasing the learning quality

6.4. Analysis of Research Questions

According to Table 3, there is a significant relation between translated book and learning quality with regard to gender. In the other words, about 72.3% of females and 80% of males were agreed that learning quality increase with translated books. Also, coefficient of Kramer’s V shows that cohesion intensity between above variants in female is about 0.2 and in male is about 0.31.

Table 4 shows that there is a relationship between translated books and learning quality, with regard to age group. In the other words in a fewer than 20 years, 75% between 20 - 25 years 76.5%, in 26 - 30 years 66.7% and in 30 years 50% of students were agreed that learning quality increased with translated books. Also, coefficient of Kramer’s V shows that cohesion intensity between the variants in fewer than 20 years is 32% and 20 - 25 years is 37%.

7. Discussion and Conclusions

This research is done with the purpose of survey the relation of translated English books with learning quality of students in humanities Faculty at university of Guilan, in which translation of voluminous books, translation of educated translators in foreign countries, translation of translators in language discipline, translation of illustrated books and group translation were posed as effective factors on learning quality. Also, they were compared from gender and age.

The analysis of all hypotheses shows that in all cases, H0 hypothesis were rejected and research hypotheses were confirmed and generally the results indicate that translation of books are effective in increasing the learning quality. Also, the results of research

Table 2. Analysis of research hypotheses.

Table 3. First research question: relationship between translated English books and learning quality with regard to gender.

questions test show that first of all, translation of books in increasing the learning quality between male and female students is different.

Also, the comparison of hypothesis results show that in number 1 hypothesis (in relation to voluminous books translation with learning quality) is agree with Berton and Wing (2001) viewpoints which emphasize an interference of group in use of extended and expanded context.

In case of (in relation to translated of translators in language major with learning quality) confirms Tiler approach which emphasizes on recognition aspects of behavior in learners and also giving attention to recommends and support the experts viewpoint in course content. Also, the Arjil approach somehow confirms the pre-mentioned hypothesis which is about written behaviors for transferring the excitement and controlling the mutual reactions of teachers in presenting the course content that also has supportive aspects. The result of number 4 test (in relation to illustrated books with learning quality) somehow confirms the Bloom (Translation of Seif, 1985) approach which emphasizes on the degree of leaner mastery on prerequisites of related learning, that is doing the identical and personified duties. The result of number 5 test (in relation to group translation with learning quality) emphasizes on Hilgard and Bower (Translation of Mohammad Naghi Barahani and colleagues, 1996) approach, Arjil (Translation of KhosroJahandari, 1956) , Kalahan (1989) and Dolar and Miller (Translation of Seif, 1989) that insist on democratic discipline in class with group activities. Also, the compare of results with research background shows that research result somehow is in harmony with research results

Table 4. Second question: relationship between translated English books and learning quality with regard to age group.

of Hojat Ansari (1995) .

Therefore, it is offered to academic staffs that give attention to translated books. In introducing their course references, translated book with high quality, have an annual exhibition for showing new and academic foreign books and have a more positive view to books of translation.

8. Limitation and Suggestions for Research

Among the study, limitations include the lack of resources―Persian translation of foreign resources. In the end, it is recommended the role of factors, such as narrative intelligence in translation and a variety of topics associated with it. More research is done. Exhibition for showing new and academic foreign books has a more positive view to books of translation.

Cite this paper

Ofoghi, N., Sadeghi, A., & Babaei, M. (2016). Relationship between Using Translated English Books into Persian Language with Learning Quality at University of Guilan. Creative Education, 7, 2710-2720.


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