** Open Journal of Applied Sciences ** Vol. 3 No. 2 (2013) , Article ID: 33396 , 16 pages DOI:10.4236/ojapps.2013.32032

Existence and Uniqueness of Positive (Almost) Periodic Solutions for a Neutral Multi-Species Logarithmic Population Model with Multiple Delays and Impulses^{*}

^{1}Department of Mathematics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China

^{2}Department of Mathematics, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang, China

^{3}School of Mathematical Sciences and Statistics, Central South University, Changsha, China

Email: ^{#}luozhenguo0701@yahoo.com.cn

Copyright © 2013 Zhenguo Luo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received January 28, 2013; revised March 2, 2013; accepted March 10, 2013

**Keywords:** Contraction Mapping Principle; Impulses; Lyapunov Functional; Global Attractivity; Uniqueness; Positive Periodic Solution; Almost Periodic Solution

ABSTRACT

In this paper, by using the contraction mapping principle and constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional, we established a set of easily applicable criteria for the existence, uniqueness and global attractivity of positive periodic solution and positive almost periodic solution of a neutral multi-species Logarithmic population model with multiple delays and impulses. The results improve and generalize the known ones in [1], as an application, we also give an example to illustrate the feasibility of our main results.

1. Introduction

Recently, there are more works on the periodic solution of neutral type Logistic models or Lotka-Volterra models (see [2-7] for details). Only a little scholars considered the neutral Logarithmic model (see [1,8-10]). In [8], Li had studied the following single species neutral Logarithmic model:

(1.1)

He had established a set of easily applicable criteria for the existence of positive periodic solution of system (1.1) by applying the continuation theorem of the coincidence degree theory which proposed in [11] by Mawhin. In [9], Lu and Ge employed an abstract continuous theorem of k-set contractive operator to investigate the following equation:

(1.2)

They established some criteria to guarantee the existence of positive periodic solutions of system (1.2). In [10], Chen studied the following neutral multi-species Logarithmic population model:

(1.3)

By using the method of fixed point theory and constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional, a set of easily applicable criteria are established for the existence, uniqueness and global attractivity of positive periodic solution (positive almost periodic solution) for system (1.3).

In [1], Wang et al. had investigated the existence, uniqueness of the positive periodic solution of the following neutral multi-species Logarithmic population model:

(1.4)

By using an abstract continuous theorem of k-set contractive operator, the criteria is established for the existence, global attractivity of positive periodic solutions for model (1.4).

On the other hand, there are some other perturbations in the real world such as fires and floods that are not suitable to be considered continually. These perturbations bring sudden changes to the system. Systems with such sudden perturbations involving impulsive differential equations have attracted the interest of many researchers in the past twenty years [12-20], since they provide a natural description of several real processes subject to certain perturbations whose duration is negligible in comparison with the duration of the process. Such processes are often investigated in various fields of science and technology such as physics, population dynamics, ecology, biological systems, optimal control, etc. For details, see [21,22]. Recently, the corresponding theory for impulsive functional differential equations has been studied by many authors [23-25]. However there are few published papers discussing the impulsive neutral multispecies Logarithmic population model. Our method is different from that in [1,9].

In this paper, we investigate the existence, uniqueness of the positive periodic solution of the following neutral multi-species Logarithmic population system with multiple delays and impulses

(1.5)

where are all continuous functions with, ,. And, ,. We consider (1.5) together with the initial conditions

(1.6)

For the ecological justification of (1.5) and the similar types refer to [1,8-10].

Throughout this paper, we make the following notations:

Let be a constant and

with the norm defined by;

with the norm defined by.

Then are Banach spaces.

For the sake of generality and convenience, we always make the following fundamental assumptions:

(H_{1}), , , , , are all positive periodic continuous functions with period, and are positive continuously differentiable -periodic functions. Furthermore, , are positive - periodic continuous functions such that, , and exists;

(H_{2}) are fixed impulsive points with;

(H_{3}) is a real sequence such that, is an -periodic function;

(H_{4}), , , , , are all almost periodic continuous functions with period on R, and are positive continuously differentiable almost periodic functions such that

where

(H_{5}), are positive continuously differentiable almost periodic functions such that, , and exists, are fixed impulsive points with;

(H_{6}) is a real sequence such that, is an almost periodic continuous function.

The outline of the paper is as follows. In the following section, some definitions and some useful lemmas are listed. In the third section, we first introduce a transformation, where some adjustable real parameters 0 are introduced. After that, by using contraction mapping principle, we derive some sufficient conditions which ensure the existence and uniqueness of positive periodic solution (positive almost periodic solution) of system (1.5) and (1.6). In the fourth section, we derive a set of easily verifiable criteria for the global attractivity of the positive periodic solution (almost periodic solution) of (1.5) and (1.6) by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional. Finally, we give an example to show our results. Here, We must point out, the idea of introducing parameters is stimulated by the recent works of [1,26, 27]. However, to the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first time such a technique is applied to the impulsive neutral delays ecosystem.

2. Preliminaries

In order to obtain the existence and uniqueness of a periodic solution for system (1.1) and (1.2), we first give some definitions and lemmas:

Definition 2.1 ([21]) A function is said to be a positive solution of (1.5) and (1.6), if the following conditions are satisfied:

1) is absolutely continuous on each

2) for each and exist and

3) satisfies the first equation of (1.1) and (1.2) for almost everywhere (for short a.e.) in and satisfies for, .

Definition 2.2 Let be a strictly positive periodic solution (almost periodic solution) of (1.5) and (1.6). We say is globally attractive if any other solution of (1.5) and (1.6) has the property:

We can easily get the following Lemma 2.1.

Lemma 2.1 The region

is the positive invariable region of the system (1.5).

Proof. In view of biological population,we obtain By the system (1.5), we have

and

Then the solution of (1.5) is positive.

Under the above hypotheses (H_{1})-(H_{3}), I consider the neutral non-impulsive system

(2.1)

with initial conditions:

(2.2)

where

(2.3)

By a solution of (2.1) and (2.2), it means an absolutely continuous function, , defined on that satisfies (2.1) a.e., for t ≥ 0, and, on.

The following lemmas will be used in the proofs of our results, The proof of the first lemma is similar to that of Theorem 1 in [20].

Lemma 2.2 Suppose that (H_{1})-(H_{3}) hold. Then 1) if is a solution of (2.1) and (2.2) on, then

is a solution of (1.5) and (1.6) on.

2) if is a solution of (1.5) and (1.6) on, then

is a solution of (2.1) and (2.2) on.

Proof. Its proof is similar to that of Theorem 1 in [20], here we omit it.

Lemma 2.3 ([28]) Suppose and,. Then the function has a unique inverse satisfying with

Proof. Its proof is similar to that of Lemma 2.4 in [29], here we omit it.

Lemma 2.4 (Barbalat’s Lemma [30]) Let be a nonnegative function defined on such that is integrable and uniformly continuous on, then.

Lemma 2.5 Assume that, are all continuously differentiable -periodic functions, , are both nonnegative continuous -periodic functions such that, then

where

Proof. As

(2.4)

Denote, then from,

it follows m < 1. Also, when t ≥ s without loss of generality, we may assume , thus

Therefore

and so, from (2.9) it follows:

The proof is complete.

Lemma 2.6 Assume that are all continuously differentiable almost periodic functions, are both nonnegative continuous almost periodic functions such that, is positive number, then

where

Proof. Similar to the proof of Lemma 2.5, we omit it here.

3. Main Theorem

Here, we take the transformation, then (2.1) can be rewritten in the following form

(3.1)

Obviously, the existence, uniqueness and global attractivity of positive periodic solution (almost periodic solution) of system (1.5) is equivalent to the existence, uniqueness and global attractivity of periodic solution (almost periodic solution) of system (3.1).

For, let us consider the equation

(3.2)

Since, , it follows that the linear system of system (3.2)

(3.3)

admits exponential dichotomies on R, and so, system (3.3) has a unique continuous periodic solution, which can be expressed as

(3.4)

where

(3.5)

Now, by using Lemma 2.5, can also be expressed as

(3.6)

where

(3.7)

Our main result on the global existence of a positive periodic solution of (1.5) and (1.6) is stated as follows.

Theorem 3.1 In addition to (H_{1})-(H_{3}), assume further that there exist positive constants, such that

(H_{7})

Then (1.5) has a unique positive -periodic solution with strictly positive components, say

where

and

Proof. For, from (3.6), we know that

(3.8)

where are defined by (3.7), is a continuous - periodic function, and so

. Now define the mapping as follows:

(3.9)

Following we will prove the mapping is a contraction mapping. In fact, for any

and

from (3.8), (3.9) and the conditions of Theorem 3.1 it follows:

(3.10)

where

That is

(3.11)

This shows that is a contraction mapping. Hence, there exists a unique fixed point such that, that is

(3.12)

Following, we prove is the periodic solution of system (3.1). Noticing that (3.12) is equivalent to

(3.13)

From the right-hand sides of (3.13), we know that

is differentiable. And so, from (3.13) it follows that

here using the equality (3.13) again. That is

(3.14)

This shows that is continuously differentiable -periodic function and satisfies Equation (3.1). Therefore, is the unique continuously differentiable -periodic solution of system (3.1), and so,

is the unique positive -periodic solution of system (2.1), from Lemma 2.2,

is the unique positive -periodic solution of system (1.5). The proof is complete.

As a direct corollary of Theorem 3.1, one has Corollary 3.1 In addition to (H_{1})-(H_{3}), assume further that there exist positive constants, such that

Then (1.5) has a unique positive -periodic solution with strictly positive components.

Our next theorem concerned with the existence of unique positive almost periodic solution of systems (1.5) and (1.6).

Let be any continuously differentiable almost periodic function, and consider equation,

(3.15)

Since, it follows that the linear system of system (3.15)

(3.16)

admits exponential dichotomies on R, and so, system (3.16) has a unique continuous almost periodic solution, which can be expressed as

(3.17)

where

(3.18)

Now, by using Lemma 2.5, can also be expressed as

(3.19)

where

(3.20)

Then, we have Theorem 3.2 In addition to (H_{4})-(H_{6}), assume further that there exist positive constants, such that

(H_{8})

Then (1.5) has a unique positive almost periodic solution with strictly positive components, say

where

and

Proof. Set

with the norm, obviously, C is a Banach space. For any continuously almost periodic function we know that defined by (3.19) is also a continuously almost periodic function. Now define the mapping as follows:

(3.21)

Then similarly to the prove of Theorem 3.1, we could prove that under the assumptions of Theorem 3.2, the mapping is a contract mapping, and so system (3.19) has a unique fixed point. and so,

is the unique positive almost periodic solution of system (2.1), from Lemma 2.2,

is the unique positive almost periodic solution of system (1.5). The proof is complete.

As a direct corollary of Theorem 3.2, one has Corollary 3.2 In addition to (H_{4})-(H_{6}), assume further that there exist positive constants, such that

Then (1.5) has a unique positive almost periodic solution with strictly positive components.

Consider the following equation:

(3.22)

which is a special case of system (1.5) and (1.6) without impulse. Similarly, we can get the following results.

Theorem 3.3 In addition to (H_{1}), assume further that there exist positive constants, such that

(H_{9})

Then (1.5) has a unique positive -periodic solution with strictly positive components, say

.

where

and

Proof. Similar to the proof of Theorem 3.1, we omit it here.

As a direct corollary of Theorem 3.3, one has Corollary 3.3 In addition to (H_{1}), assume further that there exist positive constants, such that

Then (1.5) has a unique positive -periodic solution with strictly positive components.

Theorem 3.4 In addition to (H_{4}), assume further that there exist positive constants, such that

(H_{10})

Then (1.5) has a unique positive almost periodic solution with strictly positive components, say

.

where

and

As a direct corollary of Theorem 3.4, one has Corollary 3.4 In addition to (H_{4}), assume further that there exist positive constants, such that

Then (1.5) has a unique positive almost periodic solution with strictly positive components.

4. Global Asymptotic Stability

In this section, we devote ourselves to the study of the global attractivity of periodic solutions (almost periodic solutions) of system (1.5), (1.6) and (3.22) (which is a special case of system (1.5) and (1.6) without impulse). Now, we state our main results of this section as follows:

Theorem 4.1. Assume that the conditions in Theorem 3.1 hold. Suppose further the following conditions hold:

(H_{11}) There is a positive constant M such that

(H_{12})

Then system (1.5) and (1.6) has a unique periodic solution which is globally attractive.

Proof. Let be the unique positive periodic solution of system (1.5) and (1.6)whose existence and uniqueness are guarantee by Theorem 2.1, and be any other solution of system (1.5) and (1.6). Let

then, similar to Equation (3.1), we have

(4.1)

and,

(4.2)

Then, from (4.1) and (4.2), we have

(4.3)

Let, then

(4.4)

Multiply both sides of (4.4) with and then integrate from 0 to to obtain

(4.5)

then

(4.6)

thus

(4.7)

Let, by Lemma 2.3, we obtain

(4.8)

where

Thus,

(4.9)

then

(4.10)

That is

(4.11)

From (H_{3}), we have

(4.12)

From (H_{4}), we have

(4.13)

thus, that is the positive -periodic solution of (3.1) is globally attractive,

by Definition 2.2, the positive -periodic solution of (1.5) is globally attractive. The proof is completed.

Theorem 4.2. Assume that the conditions in Theorem 3.2 hold. Suppose further the following conditions hold:

(H_{13}) There is a positive constant m such that

(H_{14})

Then system (1.5) and (1.6) has a unique almost periodic solution which is globally attractive.

Proof. Similar to the proof of Theorem 4.1, we omit it here.

Theorem 4.3. Assume that the conditions in Theorem 3.3 (or Theorem 3.4) hold. Suppose further the following conditions hold:

(H_{15}) There is a positive constant such that

(H_{16})

Then system (3.22) has a unique periodic solution (almost periodic solution) which is globally attractive, where

Proof. Similar to the proof of Theorem 4.1, we omit it here.

5. An Example

Now, we give an example to demonstrate our result. Let us consider the following equation:

(5.1)

Compare with (3.22), we get, ,

So, and

(5.2)

According to Corollary 3.3, we see that system (5.1) has at least one positive -periodic solution.

6. Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the construct program of the key discipline in Hunan province.

REFERENCES

- Q. Wang, Y. Wang and B. X. Dai, “Existence and Uniqueness of Positive Periodic Solutions for a Neutral Logarithmic Population Model,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 213, No. 1, 2009, pp. 137-147. doi:10.1016/j.amc.2009.03.028
- L. Berezansky and E. Braverman, “Explicit Conditions of Exponential Stability for a Linear Impulsive Delay Differential Equation,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, Vol. 214, No. 2, 1997, pp. 439-458. doi:10.1006/jmaa.1997.5578
- H. Fang, “Positive Periodic Solutions of N-Species Neutral Delay Systems,” Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2003, pp. 561-570. doi:10.1023/B:CMAJ.0000024503.03321.b1
- F. D. Chen, “On a Nonlinear Nonautonomous Predator— Prey Model with Diffusion and Distributed Delay,” Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 180, No. 1, 2005, pp. 33-49. doi:10.1016/j.cam.2004.10.001
- H. Fang and J. B. Li, “On the Existence of Periodic Solutions of a Neutral Delay Model of Single-Species Population Growth,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, Vol. 259, No. 1, 2001, pp. 8-17. doi:10.1006/jmaa.2000.7340
- F. D. Chen, “Periodic Solutions and Almost Periodic Solutions for a Delay Multispecies Logarithmic Population Model,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 171, No. 2, 2005, pp. 760-770. doi:10.1016/j.amc.2005.01.085
- Z. H. Yang and J. D. Cao, “Positive Periodic Solutions of Neutral Lotka-Volterra System with Periodic Delays,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 149, No. 3, 2004, pp. 661-687. doi:10.1016/S0096-3003(03)00170-X
- Y. K. Li, “On a Periodic Neutral Delay Logarithmic Population Model,” Journal of Systems Science and Complexity, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1999, pp. 34-38. (in Chinese)
- S. P. Lu and W. G. Ge, “Existence of Positive Periodic Solutions for Neutral Logarithmic Population Model with Multiple Delays,” Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 166, No. 2, 2004, pp. 371-383. doi:10.1016/j.cam.2003.08.033
- F. D. Chen, “Periodic Solutions and Almost Periodic Solutions of a Neutral Multispecies Logarithmic Population Model,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 176, No. 2, 2006, pp. 431-441. doi:10.1016/j.amc.2005.09.032
- R. E. Gaines and J. L. Mawkin, “Coincidence Degree and Nonlinear Differential Equations,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977.
- X. Z. Liu and G. Ballinger, “Existence and Continuability of Solutions for Differential Equations with Delay and State-Dependent Impulses,” Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, Vol. 51, No. 4, 2002, pp. 633- 647. doi:10.1016/S0362-546X(01)00847-1
- B. G. Zhang and Y. J. Liu, “Global Attractivity for Certain Impulsive Delay Differential Equations,” Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2003, pp. 725-736. doi:10.1016/S0362-546X(02)00129-3
- Y. J. Zhang, B. Liu and L. S. Chen, “Extinction and Permanence of a Two-Prey One-Predator System with Impulsive Effect,” Mathematical Medicine and Biology, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2003, pp. 309-325. doi:10.1093/imammb/20.4.309
- J. R. Yan, “Existence of Positive Periodic Solutions of Impulsive Functional Differential Equations with Two Parameters,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, Vol. 327, No. 2, 2007, pp. 854-868. doi:10.1016/j.jmaa.2006.04.018
- W. M. Wang, H. L. Wang and Z. Q. Li, “Chaotic Behavior of a Three-Species Beddington-Type System with Impulsive Peturbations,” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2008, pp. 438-443. doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2006.09.013
- J. S. Yu, “Explicit Conditions for Stability of Nonlinear Scalar Delay Differential Equations with Impulses,” Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2001, pp. 53-67. doi:10.1016/S0362-546X(99)00445-9
- X. N. Liu and L. S. Chen, “Complex Dynamics of Holling Type II Lotka—Volterra Predator—Prey System with Impulsive Perturbations on the Predator,” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2003, pp. 311-320. doi:10.1016/S0960-0779(02)00408-3
- Y. J. Liu and W. G. Ge, “Stability Theorems and Existence Results for Periodic Solutions of Nonlinear Impulsive Delay Differential Equations with Variable Coefficients,” Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, Vol. 57, No. 3, 2004, pp. 363-399. doi:10.1016/j.na.2004.02.020
- J. R. Yan and A. M. Zhao, “Oscillation and Stability of Linear Impulsive Delay Differential Equations,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, Vol. 227, No. 1, 1998, pp. 187-194. doi:10.1006/jmaa.1998.6093
- V. Lakshmikantham, D. Bainov and P. Simeonov, “Theory of Impulsive Differential Equations,” World Scientific Publisher, Singapore City, 1989.
- A. M. Samoikleno and N. A. Perestyuk, “Impulsive Differential Equations,” World Scientific, Singapore City, 1995.
- J. J. Nieto and R. Rodriguez-Lopez, “Periodic Boundary Value Problem for Non-Lipschitzian Impulsive Functional Differential Equations,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, Vol. 318, No. 2, 2006, pp. 593-610. doi:10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.06.014
- H. F. Huo, “Existence of Positive Periodic Solutions of a Neutral Delay Lotka-Volterra Systems with Impulses,” Computers & Mathematics with Applications, Vol. 48, No. 12, 2004, pp. 1833-1846. doi:10.1016/j.camwa.2004.07.009
- A. Ouahab, “Existence and Uniqueness Results for Impulsive Functional Differential Equations with Scalar Multiple Delay and Infinite Delay,” Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, Vol. 67, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1027-1041. doi:10.1016/j.na.2006.06.033
- F. D. Chen, “On the Existence and Uniqueness of Periodic Solutions of a Kind of Integro-Differential Equations,” Acta Mathematica Sinica, Vol. 47, 2004, pp. 973- 985. (in Chinese)
- H. Q. Xie and Q. Y. Wang, “Exponential Stability and Periodic Solution for Cellular Neural Networks with Time Delay,” Journal of Huaqiao University, Vol. 25, 2004, pp. 22-26. (in Chinese)
- S. P. Lu and W. G. Ge, “Existence of Positive Periodic Solutions for Neutral Population Model with Multiple Delays,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 153, No. 3, 2004, pp. 885-892. doi:10.1016/S0096-3003(03)00685-4
- Y. H. Xia, “Positive Periodic Solutions for a Neutral Impulsive Delayed Lotka-Volterra Competition Systems with the Effect of Toxic Substance,” Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2007, pp. 204-221. doi:10.1016/j.nonrwa.2005.07.002
- L. Barbalat, “Systemes d’Equations Differentielles d’Oscillations Nonlineaires,” Revue Roumaine de Mathématique Pures et Appliquées, Vol. 4, 1959, pp. 267-270.

NOTES

^{*}Supported by NSF of China (No. 10971229, 11161015), PSF of China (2012M512162) and NSF of Hunan Province (No. 11JJ9002, 13JJ4098).

^{#}Corresponding author.