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Wireless Sensor Network, 2010, 2, 62-66
doi:10.4236/wsn.2010.21009 anuary 2010 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/wsn/).
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Published Online J
Fault Diagnosis Based on Graph Theory and Linear
Discriminant Principle in Electric Power Network
Yagang ZHANG, Qian MA, Jinfang ZHANG, Jing MA, Zengping WANG
Key Laboratory of Power System Protection and Dynamic Security Monitoring and Control under Ministry of
Education, North China Electric Power University, Baoding, China
Received August 12, 2009; revised S eptember 15, 2009; accepted Septem b e r 17, 2009
In this paper, we adopt a novel topological approach to fault diagnosis. In our researches, global information
will be introduced into electric power network, we are using mainly BFS of graph theory algorithms and lin-
ear discriminant principle to resolve fast and exact analysis of faulty components and faulty sections, and
finally accomplish fault diagnosis. The results of BFS and linear discriminant are identical. The main tech-
nical contributions and innovations in this paper include, introducing global information into electric power
network, developing a novel topological analysis to fault diagnosis. Graph theory algorithms can be used to
model many different physical and abstract systems such as transportation and communication networks,
models for business administration, political science, and psychology and so on. And the linear discriminant
is a procedure used to classify an object into one of several a priori groupings dependent on the individual
characteristics of the object. In the study of fault diagnosis in electric power network, graph theory algo-
rithms and linear discriminant technology must also have a good prospect of application.
Keywords: Fault Diagnosis, Graph Theory, BFS, Linear Discriminant Principle, Electric Power Network
A fault is defined as a departure from an acceptable
range of an observed variable or calculated parameter
associated with equipments. In fact, a fault is a process
abnormality or symptom. In general, faults are deviations
from the normal behavior in the plant or its instrumenta-
tion. They may arise in the basic technological equip-
ment or in its measurement and control instruments, and
may represent performance deterioration, partial mal-
functions or total breakdowns. The analysis procedure
locates the process or unit malfunction that caused the
Many faults appear as unexpected changes in plant
variables, such as sensor bias, actuator sticking, or leaks;
these are best characterized as additive faults. Others
appear as changes in plant parameters, such as surface
fouling; these are best characterized as multiplicative
faults. The other unknown inputs are disturbances, which
are assumed to be deterministic, and noise, usually as-
sumed to be a zero-mean random process.
The goal of fault analysis is to ensure the success of
the planned operations by recognizing anomalies of sys-
tem behavior. As a result of proper process monitoring,
downtime is minimized, safety of plant operations is im-
proved, and manufacturing costs are reduced [2–6].
Electric power system is one of the most complex arti-
ficial systems in the world, which safe, steady, economi-
cal and reliable operation plays a very important part in
guaranteeing socioeconomic development, even in safe-
guarding social stability. In early 2008, the infrequent
disaster of snow and ice that occurred in the south of
China had confirmed it again. The complexity of electric
power system is determined by its characteristics about
constitution, configuration, operation, organization, etc.,
which has caused many disastrous accidents [7–9].
In our researches, global information will be intro-
duced into electric power network. After some accidents,
utilizing real-time measurements of phasor measurement
unit (PMU), and seeking after for characters of electrical
quantities’ marked changes [10,11]. Then we can carry
out detection and identification of fault components and
fault sections. Finally we can accomplish fast and exact
fault diagnosis. We have carried out large numbers of
basic researches in nonlinear dynamics systems [12–14].
In this paper, we are using mainly BFS of graph theory
algorithms and linear discriminant principle to resolve
fault diagnosis problem in electric power networks.
Y. G. ZHANG ET AL. 63
Figure 1. A simple electric circuit.
Figure 2. A graph based on the simple electric circuit.
2. Search Algorithms in Graph Theory
Many real world situations can conveniently be de-
scribed by means of a diagram consisting of a set of
points together with lines joining certain pairs of these
points. In mathematics and computer science, graph the-
ory is the study of graphs: mathematical structures used
to model conjugated relations between objects from a
certain collection. In electric circuit theory, the Kirch-
hoff’s current law and Kirchhoff’s voltage law are only
concerned with the structures and properties of the elec-
tric circuit. Then, any concrete electric circuit can be
abstracted as a Graph . Here, we give a simple elec-
tric circuit (See Figure 1), and its structure can be ex-
pressed as a graph (See Figure 2).
Graph theory can be used to model many different
physical and abstract systems such as transportation and
communication networks, models for business admini-
stration, political science, and psychology and so on.
Efficient storage and algorithm design techniques based
on the graph representation make it particularly useful
for utilizing computer. There are many algorithms that
can be applied to resolve different kinds of problems,
such as Breadth-first search, Depth-first search, Bellman-
Ford algorithm, Dijkstra's algorithm, Ford-Fulkerson alg-
orithm, Kruskal's algorithm, nearest neighbor algorithm,
Prim's algorithm, etc. Hereinto, Breadth-first search
(BFS) is a graph search algorithm that begins at the root
node and explores all the neighboring nodes. Then for
each of those nearest nodes, it explores their unexplored
neighbor nodes, and so on, until it finds the goal.
BFS is an uninformed search method that aims to ex-
pand and examine all nodes of a graph or combinations
of sequence by systematically searching through every
solution. In other words, it exhaustively searches the
entire graph or sequence without considering the goal
until it finds it. From the standpoint of the algorithm, all
child nodes obtained by expanding a node are added to a
FIFO queue. In typical implementations, nodes that have
not yet been examined for their neighbors are placed in
some container (such as a queue or linked list) called
“open” and then once examined are placed in the con-
tainer “closed” .
3. Fault Diagnosis Based on BFS
Now let us consider IEEE9-Bus system, Figure 3 is its
Figure 3. Electric diagram of IEEE 9-Bus system.
opyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Y. G. ZHANG ET AL.
Table 1. The adjacency matrix of IEEE9-Bus system.
Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 BusA BusB BusC Gen1 Gen2 Gen3
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Table 2. The node negative sequence voltages at ,
(Fault), , and five times.
Time T-1 T
0 (Fault) T1 T
Gen1 0 0.1330 0.1270 0.1247 0.1227
Gen2 0 0.0556 0.0530 0.0521 0.0512
Gen3 0 0.0742 0.0708 0.0696 0.0684
Bus1 0 0.3408 0.3252 0.3196 0.3142
Bus2 0 0.1058 0.1009 0.0992 0.0975
Bus3 0 0.1168 0.1115 0.1096 0.1077
BusA 0 0.1027 0.0980 0.0963 0.0947
BusB 0 0.2419 0.2309 0.2269 0.2231
BusC 0 0.2287 0.2182 0.2144 0.2108
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
electric diagram. In the structure of electric power sys-
tem, Bus-1 appears single-phase to ground fault. By BPA
programs, the vector-valued of corresponding variables
is only exported one times in each period. Using these
actual measurement data of corresponding variables, we
can carry through Fault diagnosis of fault component and
non-fault component (fault section and non-fault section).
The adjacency matrix of IEEE9-Bus system can be ex-
pressed in Table 1.
By BPA programs, we can get node negative sequence
voltages at , (Fault), , and five times,
see Table 2. 1
Figure 4 is the search process of IEEE9-Bus system.
In this diagram, Gen1 is one of the terminals of BFS, and
Bus1 is just the only node that connects with it. Com-
bined the information characters of electrical measure-
ments that have marked changes, the difference of Bus-1
and other Buses is distinct. At the beginning, the Bus-1
has just been set as single-phase to ground, which is a
typical bus-bar fault. In the final analysis, both of these
two aspects are consistent, and we can identify effec-
tively fault location based on BFS. This instance has
proven that the Fault diagnosis of fault component (fault
section) can be performed by analysis and calculation
based on graph theory algorithms.
Figure 4. BFS diagram of IEEE 9-Bus system.
4. Linear Discriminant Principle
The general expression of linear discriminant function is
is a constant, which is called threshold
is a -dimensional eigenvector, is a
weight vector, and they can be expressed as,
The linear classification of two kinds of problems can be
accomplished by the following decision rule.
, if ()0
, if ()0
or , if ()0
then the equation() 0gx
defines a decision boundary,
which will separate the points that belongs to 1
Y. G. ZHANG ET AL. 65
, when ()
x is a linear function, the decision
boundary is just a hyperplane.
Suppose both 12
x are on the decision plane
we can get:
It can also be expressed as,
And it indicates that w is the normal vector of
Generally, the hyperplane
divides feature space into
two half spaces, namely decision domain to
and decision domain to
. For if , then
, and the normal vector of decision domain
points to . So, it is usually called that all the
are on the positive side of
, and all the
are on the negative side of
The discriminant function ()
x can also be seemed
as algebra metrics of distance that some point
ture space to hyperplane,
can be expressed as,
is the project-vector of
the vertical distance of
w is unit vector of
direction. Moreover, we can get
is origin, then
and we can get the distance of the origin to hyperplane
, then origin is on positive side of
; else if
, then origin is on the negative side of
, then ()
x has homogenous form , which
indicate that hyperplane
is passing origin.
5. Fault Diagnosis Based on Discriminant
Discriminate analysis is designed to distinguish between
relevant and non-relevant groups based on the distribu-
tion of the elements within each group. The general clas-
sification problem can be described as follows: a popula-
tion consists of two or more groups, and there exists a
training sample for which the class of each element is
known and a test sample for which the class is unknown.
Our goal is to establish a classification rule which will
discriminate the class of the unknown elements. The
classification rule is generated from the training sample
based on a number of predictor variables that have been
measured for both the known and unknown observations.
Now let us continue to consider IEEE9-Bus system.
Using these actual measurement data of corresponding
node negative sequence voltages, we can carry through
discriminant analysis of fault component and non-fault
component (fault section and non-fault section). In Table
3, “Sort” is the actual classification about fault bus and
non-fault bus, “Sort by DA” is the discriminant classifi-
cation by discriminant analysis theory, and “N” repre-
sents Normal, “F” represents Fault.
The two populations’ Mahalanobis square distance that
reflects the degree of separation of these two populations
(,) 12.79518DGG (11)
And the linear discriminant functions for these two
To sum up the above discriminant classification results,
the misjudgment ratio is zero, namely, the results from
linear discriminant functions are entirely identical to the
actual real situation.
Table 3. The discriminant analysis based on node negative
sequence voltages at , (Fault), , and five
times [N-Normal; F-Fault].
Bus Sort T-1 T0 T
3 Sort (Fault)
Gen1 N00.13300.1270 0.1247 0.1227N
Gen2 N00.0556 0.0530 0.0521 0.0512N
Gen3 N00.0742 0.0708 0.0696 0.0684N
Bus1 F00.3408 0.3252 0.3196 0.3142F
Bus2 N00.1058 0.1009 0.0992 0.0975N
Bus3 N00.1168 0.1115 0.1096 0.1077N
BusA N00.1027 0.0980 0.0963 0.0947N
BusB N00.2419 0.2309 0.2269 0.2231N
BusC N00.2287 0.2182 0.2144 0.2108N
opyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Y. G. ZHANG ET AL.
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
So, the diagnosis of fault component (fault section)
can also be performed by linear discriminant analysis
6. Conclusions and Discussions
In the control of electric power networks, especially in
the wide area backup protection of electric power sys-
tems, the prerequisite of protection device’s accurate, fast
and reliable performance is its corresponding fault type
and fault location can be diagnosed quickly and defined
exactly. In our researches, global information has been
introduced into the backup protection system, basing on
graph theory algorithms and linear discriminant principle,
we have found out the data characteristics of electrical
quantities’ marked changes by analyzing and computing
real-time PMU measurements, thereby we carry out fast
and exact diagnosis of fault components and fault sec-
tions. The results of BFS and linear discriminant are
identical. The main technical contributions and innova-
tions in this paper include, introducing global informa-
tion into electric power network, developing a novel
topological analysis to fault diagnosis.
Graph theory algorithms can be used to model many
different physical and abstract systems such as transpor-
tation and communication networks, models for business
administration, political science, and psychology and so
on. In the study of fault diagnosis in electric power net-
works, graph theory algorithms must also have a good
prospect of application.
Linear discriminant is a procedure used to classify an
object into one of several a priori groupings dependent
on the individual characteristics of the object. After the
groups are established, data are collected for the objects
in the groups. Then the linear discriminant functions de-
rive a linear combination of these characteristics between
the groups. Linear discriminant analysis technique has
the advantage of considering an entire profile of charac-
teristics common to the relevant objects, as well as the
interaction of these properties.
This research was supported partly by Key Program of
National Natural Science Foundation of China (5083
7002) and the Science Foundation for the Doctors of
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