Open Journal of Statistics
Vol.1 No.2(2011), Article ID:6551,11 pages DOI:10.4236/ojs.2011.12015

Fibonacci Congruences and Applications

René Blacher

Laboratory LJK, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France


Received May 24, 2011; revised June 14, 2011; accepted June 20, 2011

Keywords: Fibonacci Sequence, Linear Congruence, Random Numbers, Dependence, Correct Models


When we study a congruence T(x) ≡ ax modulo m as pseudo random number generator, there are several means of ensuring the independence of two successive numbers. In this report, we show that the dependence depends on the continued fraction expansion of m/a. We deduce that the congruences such that m and a are two successive elements of Fibonacci sequences are those having the weakest dependence. We will use this result to obtain truly random number sequences xn. For that purpose, we will use non-deterministic sequences yn. They are transformed using Fibonacci congruences and we will get by this way sequences xn. These sequences xn admit the IID model for correct model.

1. Introduction

In this paper, we present a new method using Fibonacci sequences to obtain real IID sequences of random numbers1. To have random number two methods exists : 1) use of pseudo-random generators (for example the linear congruence), 2) use of random noise (for example Rap music).

But, up to now no completely reliable solution had been proposed ([1]-[3]). To set straight this situation, Marsaglia has created a Cd-Rom of random numbers by using sequences of numbers provided by Rap music. But, he has not proved that the sequence obtained is really random.

However, by using Fibonacci congruence, there exists simple means of obtaining random sequences whose the quality is sure (cf [4]): one uses the same method as Marsaglia, but one transforms the obtained sequence by Fibonacci congruences. Then, one obtains sequence of real xnsuch that the IID model is a correct model of xn.

1.1. Fibonacci Congruence

Linear congruences mod (m) are often used as pseudo-random generators. In this case, we try to choose a and m so that successive pseudorandom numbers behave as independent. Of course, we can only ensure that it is the case of p successive numbers p where. To choice a and m, one can use the spectral test or the results of Dieter (cf [5]) which allow to choose the best “a”.

Unfortunately, the conditions which ensure the independence of three successive numbers are not those which ensure the best independence of two successive numbers,for example.

Indeed, in this paper, we will study the conditions which ensure the independence of only two successive numbers and we will see with astonishment that this is the Fibonacci congruence which provides the best empirical independence.

We shall study the set

when modulo m and if. We will understand that this dependence depends on the continued fractioni.e. it depends on sequences and defined in the following way.

Notations 1.1 Let,. One denotes by the sequence defined by the Euclidean division of by when. Moreover, one denotes by d the smallest integer such as. One sets.

One sets, and if.

Then, dependence depends on the’s: more they are small, more the dependence is weak.

Theorem 1 Let. Let and let, be the rectangle modulo m. Then If n is even,. Moreover the points are lined up modulo m.

If n is odd,


Moreover, the points are lined up modulo m.

Of course, in general, it is only on the border that, the rectangle modulo m, satisfies. If not, is a normal rectangle.

For example if, this theorem means that the rectangle does not contain points of if n is even:. If is large, that will mean that an important rectangle of is empty of points of: that will mark a breakdown of independence.

As, the congruence which defines the best independence of will satisfy and. In this case we call it congruence of Fibonacci. Indeed, there exists such that and where is the sequence of Fibonnacci:,. As a matter of fact the sequence is the sequence of Fibonacci except for the last terms (i.e. except for). It is also the case for sequence.

Remark 1.1 In fact, when we use sequence, we use Euclidean Algorithm. Now, Dieter has also used this algorithm to compute the dependence of when. But he has not understood the part of the’s in this dependence.

1.2. Application: Building of Random Sequence

Unfortunately, congruences of Fibonacci cannot be used in order to directly generate good pseudo random sequences because where is the identity (cf page 141 of [6]). Indeed in this case, the pseudo random sequence checks. However, one can use congruence of Fibonacci in order to build IID sequences by transforming some random noise.

Definition 1.2  Let. Let T be the congruence of Fibonacci modulo m. We define the function of Fibonacci by where


2) when is the binary writing of z.

We choose, n = 1, 2, ,N. Then, admits for correct model a sequence of random variables defined on a probability space. Then, we will impose to that the conditional probabilities of admit densities with Lipschitz coefficient bounded by not too large.

In fact, since has discrete value, we can always assume that has a continuous density.

Notations 1.3 We denote by be the uniform measure defined on by for all.

For all permutation of, for all, we denote by the conditional density with respect to of given.

Since is discrete, we can also assume that has a finite Lipschitz coefficient.

Notations 1.4  We denote by a constant such that, for all permutation of, for all,. In order to simplify the proofs we suppose.

Now, we shall prove easily that the conditional probabilities of check

Then we shall choose m and q such that is small enough. We shall deduce that, for all Borel set,

where L is the measure corresponding to the Borel measure in the case of discrete space :.

Then cannot be differentiated from an IID sequence. Indeed, it is wellknown that, for a sample, there is many models correct : in particular, if is extracted of an IID sequence, models such that are correct if is small enough with respect to N. Reciprocally, if the sequence of random variables checks, the model IID is also a correct model for the sequence.

Thus one will be able to admit that the IID model is a correct model for the sequences. As a matter of fact, one will be even able to admit that there exists another correct model of such that is exactly the IID sequence.

Now there exists noises such that is not too large. For example these sequences can be built by using texts. In this case we can prove the result : in order that is IID, it suffices that admits a correct model such that is not too large. However, it is a condition which can be imposed easily by transforming some noises. The advantage compared with the CD-Rom of Marsaglia is that this result is proved. Of course, we tested such sequences.

So finally we can indeed build sequences admitting for correct model the IID model by using Fibonacci congruences. This means that, a priori, these sequences behave as random sequences. It is always possible that they do not satisfy certain tests. But it will be a very weak probability as we know it is the case for samples of sequences of IID random variables.

We point out that a first version of these results are in [4]. Moreover, all these results and the proofs are detailed in [7].

Note that to use the congruence of Fibonacci method is completely different from the method using Fibonacci sequence with modulo m, which is moreover a bad generator : cf page 27 of [1].

2. Dependence Induced by Linear Congruences

In this section, we study the set when T is a congruence modulo m.

2.1. Notations

We recall that we define sequences and by the following way: we set, and, the Euclidean division of by when. One denotes by d the smallest integer such as. One sets. Moreover, , and if.


Therefore, for all n = 1, 2, ,d and. The full sequence is thus the sequence, , , ,. Then, if T is a Fibonacci conguence, is the Fibonacci sequence, except for the last terms.

Remark that if for n = 1,2, ,d – 1, is also the Fibonacci sequence for n = 1,2, ,d. Indeed by definition, , and if.

2.2. Theorems

Now, in order to prove the theorem 1, it is enough to prove the following theorem.

Theorem 2 Let. Then

If n is even,. Moreover the points are lined up.

If n is odd,


Moreover, the points are lined up.

Then, if there exists large, there is a breakdown of independence. For example if n = 2, it is a wellknown result. Indeed, , , and where means the integer part of x. Thus, the rectangle will not contain any point of. However, this rectangle has its surface equal to. Thus if “a” is not sufficiently large, i.e if is too large, there is breakdown of independence.

We confirm by graphs the previous conclusion. We suppose m = 21. If a = 13, we have a Fibonacci congruence: cf Figure 1. If one chooses a = 10,: cf Figure 2 . If one chooses a = 5,: cf Figure 3.

Then, in order to avoid any dependence, it is necessary that is small.

2.3. Distribution of T([c,c'[) When T Is a Fibonacci Congruence

We assume that T is a Fibonacci congruence. Let where.

We are interested by or because

. Since behaves as independent of I, normally, we should find that and, therefore, is well distributed in. As a matter of fact it is indeed the case.

Indeed, let, n = 1, 2, , c' – c, be a permutation of such that

. Thenfor all numerical simulations which we executed, one has always obtained

where. In fact, it seems that is of the order of Log(Log(m)). Moreover, seems maximum when I is large enough :.

For example, in Figures 4, 5 and 6, we have the graphs, r = 0, 1, ,N(I) – 1 for

Figure 1. Fibonacci congruence.

Figure 2. sup(hi) = 20.

Figure 3. sup(hi) = 5.

Figure 4. a = 1346269, m = 2178309.

Figure 5. a = 121393, m = 196418.

Figure 6. a = 10946, m = 17711.

various Fibonacci congruences when c' – c = 100.

3. Proof of Theorem 2

In this section, the congruences are conguences modulo m. Now the first lemma is obvious.

Lemma 3.1 For n = 3,4, ,d + 1,. Moreover is the Euclidean division of by.

Now, we prove the following results.

Lemma 3.2 Let n = 0, 1, 2 , , d. If n is even,. If n is odd,.

Proof. We prove this lemma by recurrence. For n = 0,

. For n = 1,


We suppose that it is true for n.

One supposes n even. Then,.

One supposes n odd. Then,.


Lemma 3.3 Let n = 2,3, ,d + 1. Let

. If is even,.

If is odd,.

Moreover, if is even,. If

is odd,.

Proof. The second assertion is lemma 3.2. Now, we prove the first assertion by recurrence.

One supposes n = 2. Then,. Moreover,. If,.

If,. In this case, we study where. Then,. Then,.



Therefore, because,.


One supposes that the first assertion is true for n where.

Let. Let be the Euclidean division of t' by:.

Then,. If not,.

One supposes n even.

In this case, for



First, one supposes. Then,.

Moreover, because,


Therefore, because,.


Now, one supposes and.

By recurrence,


Therefore, because,.


One supposes, and.

If,. Indeed, if not,

. For example, if,. Then, because our recurence,

: it is impossible.

Now, if,.

Moreover, if,. Then, by recurence.

Then, if,. Then,.



Therefore, because,.


One supposes and. Then,. It is opposite to the assumption.

Then, in all the cases, for,

. Therefore, the lemma is true for n + 1 if n is even. Then, it is also true for n + 1 = 3.

One supposes n odd with. One proves the recurrence by the same way as if n is even (cf [7]). Then the lemma is true for n+1.

Lemma 3.4 The following inequalities holds:.

Proof. If, by lemma 3.3,

or, i.e. or where. Then, or.

Then, if, there exists

such that, i.e.. It is impossible.

Lemma 3.5  Let such that

. Then, t=t'.

Proof. Suppose. Then, and. Then, by lemma 3.3,


where. Then,. It is a contradiction.

Lemma 3.6 Let n = 1, 2, ,d. Let. Then,

The proof is basic.

Lemma 3.7  Let n = 1, 2, 3, ..., d – 1 . Let. Then, for all,


Proof. Let,. Let. Therefore, if,. Therefore,


Reciprocally, let and let, be the Euclidean division of t by.

We know that. Therefore,. Therefore,.

Therefore, if,


Moreover, if,



Then, suppose. Then,


Because and,. Therefore,.

Therefore, where

Therefore, where.

Therefore, .



Lemma 3.8 Let.

Let. We set

where and for all.

Then, for all, or.

Proof We prove this lemma by recurrence.

Suppose n = 1. Then, ,. Therefore,


Therefore, the lemma is true for n = 1.

Suppose that the lemma is true for n.

Then, , where


Because,. By lemma 3.7, If, where. By lemma 3.2,



Suppose that n is even.

Then, because.

Use the recurrence. Suppose. Then,.



Therefore, or if.

Suppose. Then, s is fixed .

Let. Therefore,.



Therefore, where. Moreover,


Therefore, if and or.

Suppose that n is odd. One proves this result by the same way as when n is even (cf [7]).

Proof 3.9 Now one proves theorem 2.

Suppose that n is even.

Then, , , .......

Now, for.


Moreover,. On the other hand, by lemma 3.8 , all the points of, , have ordinates distant of or.

Therefore, if there is other points of that the points

, there exists

and such that.

Because, by lemma 3.5, there exists an only, such that:. Because, there exists an only

, such that.

Now,. Then,.


Because with,. Moreover,. Then,. Then,.

Then, by lemma 3.4,

. Then,.

Then, by lemma 3.4,



Now. Moreover,.

Then, because, by lemma 3.5,


Then,. It is a contradiction.

Therefore, there is not other points of that


Therefore, there is not other points of that the points



According to what precedes,

is located on the straight line if n is even.

Suppose that n is odd. One proves this result by the same way as when n is even (cf [7]).

4. Models Equivalent with a Margin of

4.1. Correct Models

In general terms, one can always suppose that is the realization of a sequence of random variables defined on a probability space: where and where is a correct model of. As a matter of fact, there exist an infinity of correct models of. It is thus necessary to be placed in the set of all the possible random variables.

Notations 4.1 One considers the sequences of random variables, n = 1, ,N, defined on the probabilities spaces,:

. One assumes that for all.

For example, one can assume that and.

It thus raises the question to define what is a correct model. Indeed, if a model is not correct, it is however possible that. Now, in the case where the model is IID, to define a correct model is a generalization of the problem of the definition of an IID sequence. Then, it is a very complex problem (cf [1]).

However, generally, one feels well that correct models exist. In fact, it is a traditional assumption in science. In weather for example, the researchers seek a correct model, which implies its existence (if not, why to try to make forecasts?).

One could thus admit that like a conjecture or a postulate without defining exactly what is a correct model. Cependant, a more detailed study is in [7].

4.2. Models Equivalent

4.2.1. The Problem

Let and be two sequences of random variables such that, for all Borel set Bo,

where Ob(.) means the classical O(.) with the additional condition. One supposes that is a correct model of the sequence, n = 1, 2, ,N. One wants to prove that is also a correct model of if is small enough.

4.2.2. Example

Let us suppose that we have a really IID sequence of random variables with uniform distribution on [0,1/2] and [1/2,1] and with a probability such as where. Then, this sequence has not the uniform distribution on [0,1]. However, if we have a sample with size 10, we will absoluetely not understand that has not the uniform distribution on [0,1]. It is wellknown that one need samples with size larger than N = 1000 minimum in order to test this difference.

For example, one cannot test significantly: “has the uniform distribution” against:

” if.

Indeed, if and b = 2, the probability of obtaining is about 0.0466 under and about 0.0455 under: i.e. the probability of rejecting the assumption IID, , under is not much bigger than that of rejecting if is really IID (cf also section 4.3 of [8]).

Then it is no possible to differentiate the IID model and models such that


4.2.3. Border of Correct Models

Now there is a problem : for example, use a realization of the IID model, and let be a model checking


is small enough but not very small. Let be a model such that


Then, can be not a correct model: it is enough that is in extreme cases of the possible values of the’s such that


, imply that is a correct model.

Then, there are models more correct than others. These are models such that, if, is also a correct model where is small enough, but not too small. For example, , 1/100 or at worst if need be (cf section 5-7 of [7]).

It seems clear that such models exist. For example it is assumed that this is the case when is sample of an IID sequence and that it is a good realization of.

On the other hand, we know that it should exist estimates of models (these estimates are easier to calculate in some cases as texts). Then, we can choose as model, the model provided by these estimates : close models will also correct models.

All these points are detailed in [7].

4.3. Exact IID Model

Then, generally, if is a correct model such that cannot be differentiated with the IID model, one will be able to choose another correct model close to and such that is exactly the IID model. Indeed one proves easily the following proposition (cf proposition 5-1 of [8]).

Proposition 4.1 One assumes that m is large enough. Let be a correct model of the sequence. One assumes that there exists such that if is a model satisfying, for all Borel set Bo, , then is a correct model of.

One assumes also that, for all,

where. One assumes that is increasing, that and that there exists such that is small enough.

Then, there exists and a correct model of the sequence such that, for all,

5. Approximation Theorem

5.1. Theorem

In this section, we assume that T is a Fibonacci congruence and we use Fibonacci function in order to build IID sequences.

Theorem 3 We keep the notations 1.3 and 1.4 and notations of section 2.3. Let. We assume and. Then, for all Borel set Bo,

where is increased by a number close to 1.

If is not too large, there is no difficulty to choose m and q in such a way that is small enough. Therefore,.

5.2. Proof

Because, by Section 2.3, the points of are well distributed in, it is easy to prove that the sum of points of will be close

(e.g. cf Figure 7). Then, we have the following lemma (cf also proposition 6-1 of [7]).

Lemma 5.1 Let be the probability density function of, with respect to:

Figure 7. Points of when.

. Let such that.

Let such that and when. One supposes, and .

Then, the following equality holds:


Then, one can prove theorem 3. Indeed, by applying lemma 5.1 when has for distribution the distribution of the conditional probability of given, we have

Now, one proves easily that



We deduce that

Then, one proves by basic methods (cf proposition 6.2 of [7]) that, for all,

where. Because

, we deduce that

Now, we deduce that, for all Borel set

6. Choice of Random Noises

6.1. Use of Texts

Now, we suppose that we use sequences and, n = 1,2, ,N, obtained from independent texts. In order to reduce we add modulo m a text and a text written backward:

where is pseudo-random sequences which have good empirical independence assumptions for p successive pseudo random numbers when. In an obvious way, the texts are realizations of sequences of random variables : for example, one can take as model, the set of the possible texts provided with the uniform probability As a matter of fact, we add to have sequences which have a good randomness (cf [9], or chapter 3 of [6]).

In particular, a priori, “is not too different from 1/m” is a reasonable assumption. Moreover, has a empirical distribution close to independence and texts behaves as Q-dependent sequences (cf [6]). Then, for all permutation, a three-dimensional model with a continuous density and a Lipschitz coefficient not too big will be a good model. By the same way,

is not too different of which is not too different from 1/m (cf [7]). In this case, one can prove that generally is small cf [7].

On the other hand, to increase a good way is to use the Central Limit theorem. In fact one can combine the two methods : cf [7].

6.2. Example

Now it may be necessary to do some transformations to get the in the case where the letters and symbols are provided by sequences a(j), , ,.

One sets. We choose two consecutive elements a and m of the Fibonacci sequence : m can be chosen with respect to. Then, we choose such that.

1) We set mod

2) We set for


3) We set for.

By using this technique, we have created real IIID sequences. We have used a sequence c(j) with. This sequence was obtained from dictionary, encyclopedia, and Bible. We choose, ,. Then. Then, we have estimated. In order to avoid any error we have choose in the building of.

We have tested the sequence. We have used the classical Diehard tests (cf [1] [2]) and the higher order correlation coefficients (cf [10]). Results are in accordance with what we waited: the hypothesis “randomness” is accepted by all these tests (cf [7]).

One can can download this sequence in [11]

7. Conclusion: Building of Random Sequence

By theorem 3 one can find models correct such that


is small if is not too large. Now it is possible to build such sequences concretely, for example by using texts studied in section 6. In this case, coefficient depend on the choice of m, i.e. of. But, increases very little when increases. Even, in some cases, it seems that it decreases. Then, at most decreases much more quickly than increases.

So by taking m large enough and by choosing well q, we found small enough in a way that there exists correct models which checks the conditions of proposition 4.1. Then, there exists m sufficiently large and q sufficiently small and a correct model such that is the IID model.

Then, this result show that one can build sequences such that the model IID is a correct model of.

That means that behaves like any IID sample: a priori, can check not the properties which one expects from a IID sample like certain tests, but that occurs only with a probability equal to that of any IID sample.

By this method, we therefore have a mean to value the technique used by Marsaglia to create its CD-ROM. We arrive in fact to prove mathematically that the sequence obtained can be regarded a priori as random, what Marsaglia did not.

Remark 7.1 One might wonder if the sequence built adding text and pseudo-random sequences is not an lID sequence. It is a similar hypothesis which Marsaglia does when he built its CD-Rom. This also corresponds to results of [9]. But in fact, nothing is proved.

It is maybe possible to prove it but that seems complicated. Finally, it is much easier to apply the functions: in this case, it requires only that is not too big. It’s an hypothesis much simpler to be verified and it does not require many efforts in some cases. That is why we choose to build IID sequences using this technique.

8. References

[1]    D. E. Knuth, “The Art of Computer Programming,” 3rd Edition, Addison-Wesley, Boston, 1998.

[2]    J. Gentle, “Random Number Generation and Monte Carlo Method,” Springer 13, 1984, pp. 61-81.

[3]    A. Menezes, P. Van Oorschot, S. Vanstone, “Handbook of Applied Cryptography,” CRC Press, London, 1996. doi:10.1201/9781439821916

[4]    R. Blacher, “Solution Complete Au Probleme des Nombres Aleatoires,” 2004.

[5]    U. Dieter, “Statistical Interdependence of Pseudo Random numbers Generated by the Linear Congruential Method,” In: S. K. Zaremba, Ed., Applications of Number Theory to Numerical Analysis, Academic Press, New York, 1972, pp. 287-317.

[6]    R. Blacher, “A Perfect Random Number Generator,” Rapport de Recherche LJK Universite de Grenoble, 2009.

[7]    R. Blacher, “Fibonacci Congruences and Applications,” Rapport de Recherche LJK Universite de Grenoble, 2011.

[8]    R. Blacher, “Correct models,” Rapport de Recherche LJK Universite de Grenoble, 2010.

[9]    L. Y. Deng and E. O. George, “Some Characterizations of the Uniform Distribution with Applications to Random Number Generation,” Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Vol. 44, No. 2, 1992, pp. 379-385. doi:10.1007/BF00058647

[10]    R. Blacher, “Higher Order Correlation Coefficients,” Statistics, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1993, pp. 1-15.  doi:10.1080/02331889308802427

[11]    R. Blacher, File of random Number, 2009.


1 By abuse of language, we will call “IID sequence” (independent identically distribution) the sequence of random numbers.