ared to 50% of Empire model predictions of the test data are within 10% of the measured values of time. Furthermore, 80% of the ANN predictions of the test data are within 20% of the measured values of the time while 90% of Empire model predictions of the test data are within 20% of the measured values of time. It is clear that the Empire predictions of time are slightly better than the ANN model prediction which corroborate with the results from the performance criteria presented earlier.

Table 4 shows the prediction and accuracy of the ANN model and the Empire model based on the test data set as compared to the measured values of area. It is observed that 45% of ANN model predictions are within

Table 3. Prediction and accuracy of time of test data.

Table 4. Prediction and accuracy of area of test data.

10% or less of the measured values of area compared to 25% of Empire model predictions of the test data are within 10% of the measured values of area. Also, 70% of the ANN predictions of the test data are within 20% of the measured values of the area while only 45% of Empire model predictions of the test data are within 20% of the measured values of area. It is clear that the ANN predictions of area are better than the Empire model predictions. This corroborates the results of the performance criteria presented earlier in Table 1.

Parametric Study

To further compare the performance of the Empire model and the ANN model in predicting the time and the area, we varied the input parameters (width, ports, and depth) and computed the resulting outputs for 6 designs. Figures 4 and 5 depict comparative plots showing the predictions of time and area respectively for varied combinations of parameters.

From Figures 4(c) and (d), it is clear ANN model predictions are fairly accurate when the number of ports is varied with a fixed depth and width. Figure 3(b) shows that the ANN model when the width is increased with the depth and ports parameters fixed has underestimated the time specially with wider designs. Similarly, when the depth is varied while keeping the width and ports fixed (Figures 4(e) and (f)), the ANN predications were relatively above and below the experimental values in few cases.

In the instances selected for area comparison (Figure 6), both models performed relatively well and the predicted areas were close to the experimental values obtained from detailed simulation. However, overall and as the statistical results of Table 2 indicate, the ANN model has outperformed the Empire in area prediction.

From the aforementioned analysis of results and validation of the ANN model, it is evident that the proposed ANN model can be used to provide designers with representative estimates of the time and area of a perceived register file design before committing to silicon. The time and the area estimates for all the register file designs used in this study with 130 nm technology and a supply voltage of 1.2 V are shown in Figures 6 and 7 respectively.

5. Conclusions

The continued trend in microprocessors design towards wider instruction issue and large instruction windows implies register files will have to be designed with large sizes and a large number of read/write ports. Consequently, this will lead to additional power consumption by these large-sized files and a noticeable impact on cy-

Figure 4. Comparison of time for selected register files.

Figure 5. Comparison of area for selected register files.

cle time. Therefore, models and tools that allow designers to predict the area and the timing of a given design prior to committing to silicon are of great benefit to microprocessors designers. Evaluating architectural tradeoffs early in the design cycle provides designers with insight into the performance of a design, and shortens the time-to-market window.

In this paper, we proposed a novel neural network model for estimating the timing and size or area for register file designs. The model is simple and efficient and can be used to provide estimates that are close to those expected when detailed and time consuming simulation is performed. The model is validated by comparing its results to those produced by low level simulation, as well as by comparing it to the recently reported Empire model [11].

Figure 6. ANN model for time for all ports.

Figure 7. ANN model for area for all ports.

6. Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Praveen Raghavan of IMEC in Belgium for providing the register file designs data for the 130 nm technology node.

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