Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences
Vol. 5  No. 8 (2012) , Article ID: 21928 , 9 pages DOI:10.4236/ijcns.2012.58054

Large-Integer Multiplication Based on Homogeneous Polynomials

Boris S. Verkhovsky

Computer Science Department, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, USA


Received June 17, 2012; revised July 28, 2012; accepted August 6, 2012

Keywords: Homogeneous Polynomials; Toom-Cook Algorithm; Multidigit Integers; Multi-Stage Multiplication; Generalized Horner Rule; Large-Integer Multiplication


Several algorithms based on homogeneous polynomials for multiplication of large integers are described in the paper. The homogeneity of polynomials provides several simplifications: reduction of system of equations and elimination of necessity to evaluate polynomials in points with larger coordinates. It is demonstrated that a two-stage implementation of the proposed and Toom-Cook algorithms asymptotically require twice as many standard multiplications than their direct implementation. A multistage implementation of these algorithms is also less efficient than their direct implementation. Although the proposed algorithms as well as the corresponding Toom-Cook algorithms require numerous algebraic additions, the Generalized Horner rule for evaluation of homogeneous polynomials, provided in the paper, decrease this number twice.

1. Introduction and Basic Definitions

Crypto-immunity of various protocols of secure communication over open channels is based on modular arithmetic of large integers with hundreds of decimal digits. Multiplications and exponentiations of large integers are essential operations in this arithmetic. Yet, standard programming libraries in general-purpose computers handle multiplication of integers A and B if the number of decimal digits in each does not exceed m. Such integers we will refer to as standard integers. For instance, if a computer cannot multiply integers larger than without a specially-written program, then in this case m = 30.

The first papers on multiplication of large integers were published by Karatsuba-Ofman [1] and by Toom [2]. Several years later Toom’s scheme was improved by Cook {see [3,4]}. Analysis of computational complexity of Toom-Cook algorithm (TCA) is provided in [5] and theoretical foundation for efficient multiplication of large integers is discussed in [6]. An efficient implementation of the TCA in cryptographic systems is described in several patents [7]. Analysis of computational complexity of the TCA and its lower bound is provided in [8].

A special case of the TCA, where one multiplier is significantly larger than another, is considered in [9].

Consider two nm-digit-large integers and, where every part and is a m-decimal-digit large standard integer {SI, for short}. Let us represent A and B as

; (1.1)


. (1.2)

Therefore, the product C = AB is expressed as

; (1.3)

where are unknown coefficients.

In order to compute the product C, these coefficients must be determined.

Example 1.1: Suppose we need to multiply two integers A = 385,495,374,109;

and B = 608,348,696,284;

using a computing device that cannot multiply integers of order higher than. Therefore, in this example m = 3 and we split A and B into n = 4 parts, where

The algorithm provided in Section 2 demonstrates how to solve this problem by using a minimal number of multiplications of m-digit SIs.

2. Multiplication C = AB Based on Homogeneous Polynomials

Consider two n-th degree homogeneous polynomials of two integer variables x and y:





Remark 2.1: All coefficients in polyno-mials and are inputs, and the coefficients in are outputs.

For short, the multiplication algorithm, based on homogeneous polynomials (HP), provided below is called the AHP.

First of all, definition (2.3) implies that


Computation of the remaining coefficients in (2.3) is described in the algorithm. Prior to that, let us modify Equation (2.3) for integers.



As is shown in Section 3, we can easily separate “odd” and “even” unknown coefficients.

The following properties of homogeneous polynomials imply certain limitations on choice of evaluation points:

Property 1: If n is a degree of homogeneity of and g is a non-zero real number, then

. (2.6)

Therefore, if, then

. (2.7)

Property 2: If the degree of homogeneity is even, then;


. (2.8)

Corollary 1: Definition (2.3) implies that

; (2.9)

since for every integer n has an even degree of homogeneity.

Corollary 2: Identity (2.9) implies that it is not advantageous to consider, for instance, both and; neither it is advantageous to consider and for any non-zero integer g (2.6). Therefore, in this paper are considered only relatively prime pairs of integers p and q.

3. Separation of “Even” and “Odd” Coefficients in AHP

Step 3.1: Compute sums


for the first relatively prime pairs of integers


Remark 3.1: Using (3.1) and (3.2), we create and solve equations with “even” unknowns .

Step 3.2: Compute differences


for the same pairs

Remark 3.2: As a result, in (3.3), we create equations with n unknowns.

Since by this time the values of all “even” coefficients are already computed, we use (3.5) as the n-th equation for computation of n “odd” coefficients.

The following example illustrates a slightly different approach to separate “even” and “odd” variables.

3.1. Separation of Unknowns: n = 5

First, compute {see (3.1)} for and from three equations find; second, compute {see (3.3)} for and derive three equations with four “odd” unknowns. As the fourth (“missing”) equation, we consider

; (3.4)

{see (2.5)}. After all “even” coefficients are computed, let

. (3.5)

Finally we derive the fourth equation

. (3.6)

3.2. AHP for Multiplication of Triple-Large Integers

Let us consider a multiplication of triple-large integers; let




Step 3.1:


Step 3.2:


Step 3.3:


Step 3.4:


Step 3.5:


Step 3.6:


Step 3.7:


Step 3.8:


Remark 3.3: From the system of linear Equations (3.13)-(3.15) we determine.

Step 3.9:


Step 3.10:


The algorithm described in (3.8)-(3.17) requires 24 algebraic additions.

4. Reduction of Algebraic Additions

Let us consider a multiplication of two quatro-large integers


where every part and is a m-decimal-digit large SI [2].

Let us represent A and B as




Therefore, the product C = AB can be expressed as


where seven coefficients must be determined.

The drawback of the TCA and AHP algorithms is the large number of required algebraic additions. The following algorithm shows how to decrease twice the number of these additions.

Step 4.0:

;; (4.4)

Step 4.1:


Step 4.2:


Step 4.3:


Step 4.4:


Step 4.5:


Step 4.6:


Remark 4.1: For every k the variables and are used twice {see (4.6)-(4.10)}. In order to decrease the amount of computation, we pre-compute them only once. Therefore, we reduce twice the number of algebraic additions in (4.6)-(4.10).

Step 4.7:


Step 4.8:


Step 4.9:


Step 4.10:


Step 4.11:


Step 4.12:


This algorithm computes the product C = AB using seven multiplications of SIs instead of sixteen such multiplications as required by “grammar-school” rules. For more details on the AHP of quatro-large integers see Sections 8 and 9.

5. Comparison of Evaluated Polynomials in TCA vs AHP

First of all, in the TCA

; (5.1)

are computed, and in the AHP


are computed. Additional values of evaluated polynomials for are provided in Table 1.

Remark 5.1: Observe the fast growth of the values of evaluation points in the TCA in comparison with corresponding points in the AHP.

The sets and of polynomial evaluations in Table 1 are defined in (5.1) and (5.2).

6. Comparison of TCA vs AHP for n = 6

6.1. AHP Framework




Computation of and has the same complexity as in the TCA; and computation of;; and has the same complexity as in the TCA {see Table 1). For instance,


where all coefficients are merely binary shifts. Furthermore, computation of;; and has the same complexity as in TCA, {Table 1}.

6.2. Toom-Cook Algorithm


Table 1. Points of polynomial evaluation in TCA and AHP.






where both and can be computed by Horner Rule [10].

7. AHP for n = 7

It is easy to see that

, (7.1)

i.e., we need to compute thirteen remaining coefficients.



In order to separate “odd” and “even” unknowns, compute


In general, by computing


for we create six equations with six “even” unknowns.

Analogously, by computing


for, we create six equations with seven “odd” unknowns.

After the values of ”even” coefficients are computed, we use {see (7.2)} as the seventh equation for computation of all “odd” coefficients.

8. AHP for n = 4 in Details


; (8.1)


; (8.2)

; (8.3)


; (8.4)


;; (8.5)






9. Solution of System of Equations (8.6)-(8.10)

Step 9.1:;

Step 9.2:;

Step 9.3:;

Step 9.4:;

Step 9.5:.

Remark 9.1: Using V1-V5, we find five unknowns from five linear equations:

; (9.1)

; (9.2)

; (9.3)

; (9.4)

. (9.5)

Step 9.6:


Step 9.7:

. (9.7)

Step 9.8:


Step 9.9:

. (9.9)

Step 9.10:


Remark 9.2: Now we solve the system of three equations with three unknowns:




Step 9.11:


Step 9.12:


Step 9.13:


Step 9.14:


Step 9.15:


10. Multistage Implementation of TCA and AHP

10.1. Two-Stage Implementation (TSI)

Let us consider, and analyze how to multiply sextuple-large integers in two stages. On the first stage, we represent A and B as double long:


and compute AB applying the Karatsuba algorithm [1], which requires three multiplications of 3m-long integers.

Then, as the second stage, we compute every product of triple-long integers using either the TCA or AHP each requiring five standard multiplications {SMs, for short}. Therefore, the two-stage implementation requires fifteen SMs rather than eleven SMs required by the TCA or by AHP. Table 2 provides comparison for several other cases, where


General case: Let us now analyze the two-stage implementation of a multiplication algorithm if n = rs.

First, we represent A and B as




Such an implementation requires multiplications each of sm-long integers. Then, on the second stage, we multiply sm-long integers. Every such multiplica-tion requires SMs. Therefore, we need  


SMs in total. However, the direct (one-stage) multiplication requires only


It is easy to verify that both parts in the inequality


are equal if and only if either r = 1, or s = 1, or r = s = 1. In all other cases

Table 2. Number of SMs in two-stage (TSI) and direct implementation (DI).


Thus, the TSI of either the TCA or AHP for large r and s asymptotically requires twice as many SMs than the DI.

Example 10.1: Now let m = 4;


Therefore, in this example we need to split A and B into three parts, i.e., n = 3.

By the algorithm, described in Sections 8 and 9 we can compute C = AB using five multiplications of four-digit large integers. However, if the standard integers are only two-digit long, we can pre-compute each product recursively using the Karatsuba algorithm. Each of these five products requires three SMs, i.e., overall we need fifteen SMs to compute C = AB. On the other hand, we can compute the same product AB splitting both A and B into six parts.

In this case m = 2. To compute AB, we need only eleven SMs by using the direct implementation vs fifteen SMs required in the recursive TSI implementation.

10.2. Multi-Stage Implementation

Let now. Therefore, we multiply A and B in either three stages using the Karatsuba algorithm [1] or using the AHP or TCA directly. In the MSI we need SMs; while in the DI we need only fifteen SMs.

Remark 10.1: Since the number of algebraic additions in the DI asymptotically grows as function of n, it is essential to properly select the evaluation points to implement symmetricity illustrated above in Section 4 {see (4.4)-4.16)} and to simplify computational complexity stemming from the multiplication by constant coefficients. These issues are addressed in Sections 11- 13.

11. Number of Algebraic Additions

Notice that computation of requires 2n additions of SIs. Since we need to compute for different values of, the total number of algebraic additions is of order This number can be reduced twice as demonstrated in Section 2. Since every addition of m-digit long integers has order, therefore the total complexity of all additions is of order Hence, the overall complexity is equal


12. Analysis of TCA vs AHP

In large-integer multiplication we addressed two sources of complexity: the number of standard multiplications and the number of algebraic additions. The third source of complexity is multiplication by constant coefficients when the polynomials and are evaluated at points.

The Table 3 compares the polynomial evaluations in the TCA and AHP frameworks respectively for various values of n. It means that if n = 15, then in TCA polynomials are evaluated for and in the corresponding AHP polynomials are evaluated for

Example 12.1: Compare for n = 14 the computation of C(2,5) and C(13):


In the next section we provide an iterative procedure that computes.

13. Generalized Horner Rule for Homogeneous Polynomial

Let and for

Table 3. Evaluations required in Toom’s vs AHP frameworks.






Analogously, we can compute.

14. Values of Simplifying Computation of and

Case 1: if and in (13.1), then requires a binary shift on sk positions, and requires merely a binary shift on t positions and one algebraic addition [3].

Case 2: if and in (13.2), then, analogously as in the Case1, requires a binary shift on sk positions, and requires a binary shift on t positions and one algebraic addition.

Case 3: if and in (13.1), then it is necessary to use two binary shifts and one algebraic addition.

Case 4: if and in (13.2), then, analogously as in the Case 3, it is necessary to use two binary shifts and one algebraic addition.

Case 5: if and in (13.1), then it is necessary to use only one binary shift on r positions.

Case 6: if and in (13.2), then, analogously as in the Case 5, it is necessary to use only one binary shift.

Example 14.1: In the following set of 37 points each satisfies one of six special cases listed above:

Add to this set the other 111 points, and. For each of these 148 points the number of required algebraic additions in the AHPs is smaller than in the corresponding TCAs.

Example 14.2: If n = 22, then for the TCA we need to evaluate at 43 points,; yet, for the AHP we evaluate polynomial at points

and, where, for instance, the evaluation of C(5,4) requires fewer basic operations than for C(21) in the TCA.

15. Optimized AHP

In order to decrease twice the number of additions/subtractions, we need to adjust the Generalized Horner Rule for iterative computation of and.

Notice that if n is odd, then


Otherwise, if n is even, i.e., if n = 2s, then


Therefore, for every even and odd n



Let us show how to modify (13.1) for iterative computation of (15.1).

Consider;; assign and for every compute






and for every compute






Example 15.1: Let us consider n = 7. Then

The iterative procedures (15.5)-(15.8) are simplified if 1) p is a power of 2 and or 2) p = 1 and {see the corresponding Cases 1-6 in Section 13}.

The Equations (13.2), (15.5) and (15.6) can be analogously modified for iterative computation of


16. Conclusion

It has been demonstrated that the overhead in the ToomCook algorithm is higher than in the proposed approach based on homogeneous polynomials and. Integrality of all coefficients in the TCA and AHP is demonstrated by the first author in [11].

17. Acknowledgements

I deeply appreciate comments of I. V. Semushin and stylistic suggestions of Yu. Polyakov and R. Rubino that improved the quality of this paper. I wish to express my gratitude to typesetters for their patience.


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