**Circuits and Systems**

Vol.06 No.05(2015), Article ID:56374,7 pages

10.4236/cs.2015.65012

Realization of a New Current Mode Second-Order Biquad Using Two Current Follower Transconductance Amplifiers (CFTAs)

Nisha Walde^{*}, Syed Naseem Ahmad

Department of Electronics & Comm. Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India

Email: ^{*}nisha.walde1@gmail.com, snahmad@jmi.ac.in

Copyright © 2015 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).

Received 13 March 2015; accepted 15 May 2015; published 18 May 2015

ABSTRACT

A new circuit for realization of universal current-mode filter using current Follower Transcon- ductance Amplifiers (CFTAs) is presented. The proposed circuit realizes current-mode low pass, high pass and band pass filter functions simultaneously with a single current source at the input. The band reject and all pass filters can also be obtained from the proposed circuit without any extra hardware. The proposed circuit employs three passive grounded elements and two CFTAs. Linear electronic control of natural frequency ω_{0} is available in the proposed circuit. The quality factor can be independently adjusted through grounded resistor. The proposed circuit employs two grounded capacitors and a grounded resistor along with two CFTAs. The grounded resistor can be replaced by an OTA based circuit for linear electronic control of quality factor Q_{0}. The circuit exhibits low active and passive sensitivities for ω_{0} and Q_{0}. Simulation results are obtained using PSPICE software which is in conformity with the theoretical findings.

**Keywords:**

Current Follower Transconductance Amplifier (CFTA), Current-Mode Circuit, Biquad Filter, Voltage-Mode Circuit, Current Conveyor (CC)

1. Introduction

Current mode circuits are very popular due to some of their advantages over their voltage mode counter parts. They are very suitable for high frequency, low voltage and low power applications in portable equipments such as mobile phones, aviation industry, water quality monitoring equipments, medical instrumentation and in satellite communication equipments. Current mode approach in analog processing blocks offers high slew rates, low node impedances, greater linearity, wider bandwidth and sometimes electronic tunability compared with voltage mode circuits. There have been steady and gradual interests to find new schemes for analog building blocks which may serve as an excellent current mode device. Some of the popular and off-the-shelf items have been Current Feedback Amplifiers (AD844) [1] , Current Conveyors [2] , Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (CA 3080) [3] etc., which have been used for decades as excellent current mode devices. Recently introduced current mode building blocks are Current Differencing Transconductance Amplifiers (CDTAs) [4] -[7] , and Current Follower Transconductance Amplifiers (CFTAs) [8] -[23] which provide simple design facility with ample numbers of choices for output current ports for excellent current mode signal processing. CFTA in addition to possessing single current input compared with CDTA also exhibits excellent current mode characteristics along with electronic control of parameters of interest and is therefore attracting the attention of analog circuit designers. CFTA is extensively used in the realization of signal processing as well as signal generation in current mode circuits [7] -[23] . In this paper, a new circuit using two CFTAs and two grounded capacitors along with a grounded resistor is presented. The proposed circuit realizes basic current mode filter functions such as low pass (LP), band pass (BP), and high pass (HP) for a single input current source. Also, band reject (BR) and all-pass (AP) filter functions can be realized by proper combinations of current responses. Various papers are published on different applications of CFTAs such as current-mode (CM) or voltage-mode (VM) universal filters, oscillators, amplifiers, etc. [7] -[23] . In this paper, a new current-mode second-order CFTA biquad filter is presented which uses two active elements and three passive grounded elements. The main attractive feature of this circuit is the facility of linear control of pole frequency ω_{0} and quality factor Q_{0}. While pole frequency can be changed electronically through g_{m}, the quality factor Q_{0} can be adjusted independently through grounded resistor. The grounded resistor can further be realized through an additional transconductance amplifier making this control again an electronic one. The simulation results are obtained using PSPICE software. Simulation results validate the theoretical findings.

2. Proposed circuit Realization of Current Follower Transconductance Amplifier (CFTA)

The Current Follower Transconductance Amplifier (CFTA) [6] , whose schematic symbol and behavioral model are shown in Figure 1(a)-(b), consists of an input current follower that transfers the input current to the z terminal and an output transconductance amplifier stage, which is used to convert the voltage at the z-terminal into output currents. Relations between the individual terminals of CFTA can be described by the following hybrid matrix:

(1)

(a) (b)

Figure 1. (a) The CDTA schematic symbol; (b) Behavioral model of CFTA.

Assuming the standard notations, the terminals defining relations of this device can be characterized by the following set of equations

(2)

where g_{m} is transconductance gain of the CFTA which is directly proportional to the external bias current I_{B}, which is given by Equation (3)

(3)

where the V_{T} is the thermal equivalent voltage (= 26 mV at 27˚C) and I_{B} is the control bias current adjusting the transconductance g_{m} of the CFTA. The operation of the CFTA will be dependent on temperature variations. z_{z} is external impedance connected to the z-terminal.

The proposed current mode biquad filter is shown in Figure 2. It consists of two CFTAs, one grounded resistor and two grounded capacitors. The internal construction of CFTA used for simulation is shown in Figure 3.

A routine analysis of the proposed circuit as shown in Figure 2 yields the following current transfer functions.

Figure 2. Proposed current mode second-order biquad filter using CFTAs.

Figure 3. A CMOS implementation of CFTA used for simulations.

(4)

(5)

(6)

Adding the output current reponses I_{lp} and I_{hp}, one obtains

(7)

whereas for current-mode all-pass filter response

(8)

where is given by

(9)

From (4)-(9), the pole frequency and quality factor Q_{0} are given as

(10)

(11)

For and Equations (10) and (11) become

(12)

and

(13)

Equations (12) and (13) show that can be linearly and electronically varied through g_{m} .Whereas quality factor Q_{0} can be linearly changed through grounded resistor R_{1} independent of.

3. Tracking Errors

There are Current Tracking Errors of the proposed circuit. The characteristic equations of CFTA are

(14)

where where denotes the current tracking error of the current follower from the terminal f into the terminal-z (). from the non-ideal properties of CFTAs, the characteristic equation of the proposed circuit according to Figure 2 is

(15)

It is thus, seen that the proposed circuit is capable of realizing all the five basic functions, without requiring any component-matching or realization conditions. From (4)-(9), the various filter parameters are given by

(16)

(17)

4. Sensitivity Analysis

The effect of changes in active and passive element values is determined by evaluating sensitivity coefficients which are found to be

(18)

(19)

(20)

From (12)-(20), it is clear that all the sensitivities of the various parameters of the filters realized from the proposed configuration are very low.

5. Simulation Results

The performance of the proposed circuit in Figure 2 has been verified by PSPICE simulation results. The PMOS and NMOS transistors have been simulated by respectively using the parameters of a 0.25 µm TSMC CMOS technology [9] as shown in Table 1. The aspect ratios of PMOS and NMOS transistors are indicated in Table 2. The circuit was biased with ±1.5 V power supply voltage, V_{BB} = −0.55V, I_{B}_{1} = I_{B}_{2} = 80 µA. The values of the capacitors and resistor were chosen as: C_{1} = C_{2} = 1nF, R_{1} = 0.5 kΩ. In Figure 4(a), simulated results of proposed LP, HP, BP, BR filters are shown using PSPICE 16.3 which shows the validity of design equations of filter shown in Equations (10) and (11). Pole frequency was found to be f_{0} = 245 kHz and quality factor Q_{0} = 0.7 which are very close to theoretical values. In Figure 4(b), phase response of current mode all-pass filter is shown. In Figure 4(c), simulation results are shown for the pole frequency f_{0} = 245 kHz and quality factor Q_{0} which varies from 0.7 to 3. The results show independent control of Q_{0}. Similarly, in Figure 4(d) for the quality factor Q_{0} = 0.7, pole frequency f_{0} is varied from 245.6 kHz to 245 MHz. However it is seen that H_{0} in this case is slightly changing with frequency which may be the effect of output parasitic capacitance of CFTA or due to tracking errors between I_{f} and I_{z}. Hence, from the PSPICE simulation results it is proved that the practical results nearly match to the theoretical results.

Table 1. The SPICE model parameters of MOS transistors for level 3, 0.25 µm CMOS process from TSMC.

(a)(b)(c)(d)

Figure 4. (a) Simulated frequency response of LP, HP, BP, and BR proposed CFTA current-mode second order biquad filter according to Figure 2; (b) Phase response of all pass proposed biquad filter; (c) Simulated frequency responses of the BP filter when Q_{0} is varied for f_{0} = 245 khz; (d) BP filter with different f_{0} (keeping Q_{0} approximately constant).

Table 2. Dimensions of the transistors.

6. Conclusion

In this paper, a new current-mode second-order biquad filter using CFTAs (Current Follower Tranconductance Amplifier) is presented. The circuit realizes all types of filter functions, i.e. LPF, BPF, HPF, and BRF simultaneously for a single current input. It consists of two CFTAs, one grounded resistor and two grounded capacitors. Hence, the low numbers of active and passive elements are used. The circuit has the features of low voltage supply, and large bandwidth. It has low-input and high-output impedances and also is convenient for electronic controllability through transconductance gain g_{m} of CFTAs, so it can be used in battery-powered or portable electronic equipments. The only apparent drawback is the use of a grounded resistor. However, grounded resistor can be simulated with additional transconductor and its value can be controlled through g_{m}_{3}. Hence, electronic control of quality factor is possible.

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NOTES

^{*}Corresponding author.