n case you already have meters and sufficient measurement tools; determine if the data is being properly evaluated .Evaluate energy data and energy efficiency operational changes and document any successes and savings.

10) Operational changes need to be continually implemented and properly documented and retained specially implementation plan to track key energy efficiency operational changes. Maintain communication between Energy Manager, operators, maintenance, and management and document savings to justify energy efficiency program.

6. Concluding Remarks

The complexity of HVAC systems in healthcare premises is increasing due to the additional functions. The HVAC system in this case is intended to provide the comfort and to remove any airborne contaminants that are produced in this application. These design criteria do not influence the HVAC system only, but may also require a special care in the architectural design and including the choice of the room furniture and its location. The designers of HVAC systems should consider, for energy optimization, the importance of the air distribution; the positioning of operating furniture and the using of partial walls may be useful to maintain the air environment in the surgical operating theatres.

It is believed that for the purpose of the energy-efficient operation Air Conditioning and other systems in large healthcare facilities, the energy manager should take into account the tips that are set here in this work. Different actors need different information. For giving relevant advice to the property owner which measures are cost-effective a very careful examination and calculation of the building’s energy balance is necessary. A careful analysis is also necessary to give relevant information to the users how they can decrease their energy use without decreasing, under an acceptable level, the indoor air quality and thermal comfort.

7. Acknowledgements

The author would like to acknowledge the assistance given to him by his colleagues and students, particular thanks are due to Dr. R. Kameel and Dr. A. Medhat and Eng. Rana Khalil.


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Cμ     Turbulence model constant.

h       Enthalpy, Kj/kg

k       Turbulence kinetic energy, m2/s2.

U,V,W     Instantaneous components of velocity in three directions, m/s.

X,Y,Z      Coordinate directions.

L,W,H   Length, width, height of the theatre.

Lo    Length of the outlet air supply, m

δij     Kroncker delta function.

ε      Turbulence dissipation rate.

Φ     General dependent variable.

Γ      Exchange coefficient.

μ      Absolute viscosity of air, kg/ms.

ρ      Density of air, kg/m3.

σ      Effective Prandtl number.


I, ,j k        Denoting Cartesian coordinate direction takes the values of axes X, Y, Z.

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