(a) Lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content                             (b) Protein oxidation


(c) Generation of                                                (d) H2O2 Content

Figure 1. Lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content (a); Protein oxidation (b); O2 generation (c) and H2O2 content (d) in leaves of Marsilea plant grown in culture supplemented with cadmium doses 0, 50 and 100 µM. Increase significantly at P ≤ 0.05.


(a) Anthocyanin                                                  (b) Flavanoid

Figure 2. Changes of anthocyanin (a) and flavonoid (b) content in the leaves of Marsilea plant Grown in culture supplemented with cadmium doses 0, 50 and 100 µM. Decrease significantly at P ≤ 0.05.


(a) SOD activity                                                 (b) GPX activity

(c) GR activity

Figure 3. Changes in activities of superoxide dismutase (a), guaiacol peroxidase (b) and determination of glutathione reductase activity (c) under varying (0, 50 and 100 µM) of Cd. Increase significantly at P ≤ 0.05.

maintaining the ratio of GSH:GSSG [28]. In the present study, the distinct variation of polypeptides and its ingel activity staining are more convincing with their different nature in roots and leaves. GR activity is interesting to note with a linear trend as a function of Cd concentration. The variation of GR activity was significant at each concentration and it was maximum with 2.15 fold higher as compared to those enzymes (Figure 3(c)).

The variations in the polypeptide bands (32 kDa and 36 kDa) though were not different in number, but in intensities, more in leaves than roots (Figures 4(a) and (b)). The up-regulation of GR activity was maximum in leaves than roots are logistic to replenish the reduced form of

(a) GR isoform in leaf

(b) GR isoform in root

Figure 4. Expression of glutathione reductase isoform in leaf (a) and root (b) as detected by activity staining on native PAGE.

glutathione. Roots appear to be less in depleting the GSH for this purpose which was more than in leaves. Thus GR becomes a trait for sustenance of redox in plants under oxidative stress. As recorded in many plants under varying conditions of abiotic stresses inducing oxidative injury.

4. Conclusion

It is well understood that Marsilea plant in the present experiment recorded their capability for hyper-accumulation of heavy metals under controlled condition in hydroponic culture. Still, plants have to be proven for their efficacy of hyper-absorption of metals under field condition. Future scopes are there to decipher the characteristic of Marsilea plant on cellular and molecular basis in depth, so that biotechnologically this species could be improvised in phyto-remediation purposes.


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*K. Das and M. K. Adak have contributed equally.

#Corresponding author.


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