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  • Appendix A: Data Availability and Sources

    Radiosonde data were obtained from the NOAA ftp site. Monthly mean near-surface temperatures at the Fairbanks International Airport (PAFA) between 1930 and March 2018 stem from the Alaska Climate Research Center. The 1981-2010 climatology of minimum, maximum, and mean temperature, mean wind speed, monthly mean snowfall and precipitation stem from the National Climatic Data Center. Data of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation were taken from http://research.jisao.washington.edu/pdo/PDO.latest [25] [26] . Data of the Southern Oscillation Index stem from the Climate Research Unit [24] . Data of the North Pacific index were downloaded at https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/north-pacific-np-index-trenberth-and-hurrell-monthly-and-winter [23] .

    Daily total solar radiation, mean 10-m wind speed, gust wind speed, wind direction, mean, maximum and minimum 2-m air temperatures, fuel temperatures and relative humidity, daily mean pressure and accumulated precipitation for Fairbanks from the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Fairbanks site were downloaded from the Western Region Climate Center. The 2013-lysimeter measurements at the UAF experimental farm that provided soil-volumetric water content of the same soil, but covered with different vegetation, stem from [55] .

    Data of anthropogenic and fire PM2.5 emissions were downloaded from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research [12] and the Global Fire Emissions Database [21] websites respectively. Table A1 lists further information on the data.

    If not mentioned otherwise, FMA air-quality data were retrieved from the US EPA. Air-quality data from the Yukon Flats are courtesy to the Council of Athabascan Tribes Governments, Tribes of Beaver, Chalkyitsik, Circle, and Ft. Yukon. See Table A2 for further information on the data.

    Table A1. Emission data used in this study.

    Table A2. Chemical species data used in this study. Here AC, RD, WRES, UAF, WCS, FMB, CPR, HR, BR, WS, BR, NP, HA, SOB, CS, PR are the Artisan Courtyard, Riverboat Discovery, Wood River Elementary School, UAF Experimental Farm, Watershed Charter School, Fairbanks North Star Borough Maintenance Building, Chena Pump Rd, Hurst Rd, Water Stillmeyer, Badger Rd, Newby Park, Hamilton Acres, State Office Building, North Pole Christian School and Pioneer Rd sites. North Pole is a city in the FMA. Note that time series may be 1-in-3-days, daily, and may have missing data. Here only the full lengths of IOP are listed. The value in brackets is the number of valid observations.

    Appendix B: Species-Meteorology Relations

    Table B1. Correlation of low frequency variations expressed by PDO, SOI and NP with monthly mean [PM2.5]. Significant correlations at 95% or higher confidence according to a paired two-tailed t-test are in bold. Values in brackets are the number of pairs, #, used in the calculations.

    Table B2. Annual, cold and warm season mean [PM2.5] for 2/1999 to 3/2018 under annual, cold and warm season positive or negative means of PDO and SOI as well as under annual, cold and warm season NP lower and higher than the thresholds a, cs, and ws, respectively. Here a = 1012 hPa, cs = 1010 hPa, ws = 1016 hPa are the threshold values for the annual, cold season and warm season.

    Table B3. Correlation of species for the cold season 2008/09 among the three sites for which speciation data were available. Correlations being significant at 95% confidence or higher according to a two-tailed paired t-test are in bold. Values in brackets give the number of pairs, #, included in the calculations.

    Table B4. Correlations of speciation concentrations and aerosol precursor-gas concentrations with daily accumulated radiation Rs¯, daily mean T, maximum Tmax and minimum Tmin air temperatures, daily mean, maximum and minimum fuel temperatures Tfuel, Tfuel,max, Tfuel,min, as well as daily mean, maxiumum and minimum relative humidity RH, RHmax, RHmin, mean wind speed, v, wind gusts, vgust and wind direction, dir as observed at the BLM site. Bold values indicate significant correlation at 95% confidence or higher according to a two-tailed paired t-test. Note that correlations represent different observation periods (see Table A2 for times of data availability). The symbol -.- means no overlapping time of measurements. Cold and warm season refer to October to March and May to August, respectively.

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