individual happy, as compensation for suffering and as resource [115] . Growing old and happy can be “a result of ideology which expresses an optimistic view of life ([103] , p. 41), a compensation for sufferings [116] , while to others “religion is not something that persons tend to seek out in reaction to their misery” ([103] , p. 641). Unlike other idioms that describe everyday acts, sa awa ng Dios expresses mental states [24] about an experience that is familiar, but not quite because of the belief in the difference that God makes [23] [100] .

Acknowledgements

R.C.E. thanks the following: the Philippine Council for Health Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology for the grant that made the research possible in 2012-2013; the St. Luke’s Medical Center-Quezon City (SLMC) for issuing the ethics clearance; the SLMC Research and Biotechnology Division where he was affiliated as anthropologist and assigned at the Memory Center of the Institute of Neurosciences during the duration of the research; the research participants; and the head and staff of the Center for Senior Citizens of Marikina City.

Cite this paper

Rolando C.Esteban, (2015) Thinking about Aging: Experience, Identity and Meaning among an Elderly Population in the Philippines. Advances in Aging Research,04,133-153. doi: 10.4236/aar.2015.45015

References

  1. 1. Birren, J.E. (1958) Aging and Psychological Adjustment. Review of Educational Research, 28, 475-490.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/1168974
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1168974

  2. 2. Kaufman, S. (1981) Cultural Components of Identity in Old Age: A Case Study. Ethos, 9, 51-87.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/640088
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/eth.1981.9.1.02a00050

  3. 3. Gems, D. (2003) Is More Life Always Better? The New Biology of Aging and the Meaning of Life. The Hastings Center Report, 33, 31-39.
    http://philpapers.org/rec/GEMIML
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3528378

  4. 4. Miguel, P.A. (2005) Evolution of Consciousness and Evolution of Life. MLN, 120, 1156-1167.
    http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/mln/summary/v120/120.5miquel
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mln.2006.0019

  5. 5. McHugh, K.E. (2000) The “Ageless Self”? Emplacement of Identities in Sun Belt Retirement Communities. Journal of Aging Studies, 14, 103-115.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890406500800183?np=y
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0890-4065(00)80018-3

  6. 6. McPherson, B.D. (1990) Aging as a Social Process: An Introduction to Individual and Population Aging. Butterworths, Toronto.

  7. 7. Hirshorn, B.A. (1991) Introducing the Demography of Aging: Relating Population Processes to the Aging Society. Teaching Sociology, 19, 231-236.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1317855

  8. 8. Katz, S.H. (1978) Anthropological Perspectives on Aging. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 438, 1-12.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1042821.pdf?acceptTC=true
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271627843800102

  9. 9. Robertson, A.F. (1996) The Development of Meaning: Ontogeny and Culture. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 2, 591-610.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3034298

  10. 10. Ingold, T. (2006) Becoming Persons: Consciousness and Sociality in Human Evolution. In: Moore, H. and Sanders, T., Eds., Anthropology in Theory: Issues in Epistemology, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, 180-192.

  11. 11. Uhlenberg, P. (1992) Population Aging and Social Policy. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 449-474.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/2083462
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.18.080192.002313

  12. 12. Kirk, D. (1996) Demographic Transition Theory. Population Studies, 50, 361-387.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11618374
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0032472031000149536

  13. 13. Coale, A.J. (1984) The Demographic Transition. The Pakistan Development Review, 23, 531-552.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/41259339

  14. 14. Zhao, Z.W. (1996) The Demographic Transition in Victorian England and Changes in English Kinship Networks. Continuity and Change, 11, 243-273.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0268416000003337

  15. 15. Davis, K. (1945) The World Demographic Transition. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 237, 1-11.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/1025490
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271624523700102

  16. 16. Mosk, C. (1978) Demographic Transition in Japan, 1920-1960. The Journal of Economic History, 37, 655-674.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022050700095425

  17. 17. Tiglao, T. and Cruz, W. (1975) Seven Decades of Public Health in the Philippines, 1898-1872. Southeast Asia Medical Information Center, Tokyo.

  18. 18. Bongaarts, J. and Bulatao, R.A. (1999) Completing the Demographic Transition. Population and Development Review, 25, 515-529.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/172345
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.1999.00515.x

  19. 19. Lee, J. (2010) Data Sets on Pensions and Health: Data Collection and Sharing for Policy Design. International Social Security Review, 63, 197-222.
    http://www.rand.org/pubs/working_papers/WR814.html
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-246X.2010.01375.x

  20. 20. Kim, K. and Lee, Y. (2008) Comparative Analysis of Strategies for an Ageing Society, with Special Reference to Pension and Employment Policies. International Journal of Social Welfare, 17, 225-235.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.2007.00525.x

  21. 21. Liang, Y. and Lu, P. (2014) Medical Insurance Policy Organized by Chinese Government and the Equity Health Problems of the Elderly: Longitudinal Comparison Based on Effect of New Cooperative Medical Scheme on Health of Rural Elderly in 22 Provinces and Cities. International Journal for Equity in Health, 13, 37.
    http://www.equityhealthj.com/content/13/1/37
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-13-37

  22. 22. Midsundstad, T. and Bogen, H. (2014) Active Aging Policies between Individual Needs and Collective Goals: A Study of Aging Policies and Practices in Norway. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 4, 139-158.
    http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&sid=9552fa59-4e9f-49bf-95e6-f215dfa22523%40sessionmgr4002&hid=4206

  23. 23. Yamane, D. (2000) Narrative and Religious Experience. Sociology of Religion, 61, 171-189.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/3712284
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3712284

  24. 24. Ferrater-Mora, J. and Cohn, P. (1970) The Language of Religious Experience. International Journal of Philosophy and Religion, 1, 22-33.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/40038510
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00136286

  25. 25. Goffman, E. (1986) Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Northwestern University Press, Boston.

  26. 26. Esteban, R. (2012-2013) Development of the QOL-APO: A Measure of Quality of Life among the Filipino Elderly from the Perspectives of the Elderly, Family and Healthcare Providers in the Philippines. Research Project Funded by the Department of Science and Technology-Philippine Council for Health Research and Development (DOST-PCHRD).

  27. 27. Dominguez, J.C., Soriano, J.R., Magpantay, C.D., Orquisa, M.G.S., Solis, W.M., Reandelar, M.F. and Joson, M.L.C. (2014) Early Detection of Mild Alzheimer’s Disease in Filipino Elderly: Validation of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Philippines (MoCA-P). Advances in Alzheimer’s Disease, 3, 160-167.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aad.2014.34015

  28. 28. Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1994) Grounded Theory Methodology: An Overview. In: Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y., Eds., Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage Publication, London, 273-285.

  29. 29. Kaufman, S. (1986) The Ageless Self: Sources of Meaning in Late Life. University of Wisconsin, Madison.

  30. 30. Butler, R.N. (1986) Dispelling Ageism: The Cross-Cutting Intervention. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 503, 138-147.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/1047223
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716289503001011

  31. 31. Ilmarinen, J. (1997) Aging and Work—Coping with Strengths and Weaknesses. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 23, 3-5.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/40966685.

  32. 32. Tuomi, K., Ilmarinen, J.K., Seitsamo, J., Huuhtanen, P., Martikainen, R., Nygård, C., et al. (1997) Summary of the Finnish Research Project (1981-1992) to Promote the Health and Work Ability of Aging Workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 23, 66-71.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/40966693

  33. 33. Atchley, R. (1989) A Continuity Theory of Normal Aging. The Gerontologist, 29, 183-190.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2519525
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/29.2.183

  34. 34. Traphagan, J.W. (1998) Contesting the Transition to Old Age in Japan. Ethnology, 37, 333-350.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/3773786
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3773786

  35. 35. Ayabe, M., Yahiro, T., Yoshioka, M., Higuchi, H., Higaki., Y. and Tanaka, H. (2009) Objectively Measured Age-Related Changes in the Intensity Distribution of Daily Physical Activity in Adults. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 6, 419-425.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19842455

  36. 36. Koren, C. (2011) Continuity and Discontinuity: The Case of Second Couplehood in Old Age. The Gerontologist, 51, 687-698.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnr018

  37. 37. Butler, R.N. (1983) An Overview of Research on Aging and the Status of Gerontology Today. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly Health and Society, 61, 351-361.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/3349862
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3349862

  38. 38. Butler, R.N. (1989) Dispelling Ageism: The Cross-Cutting Intervention. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 503, 138-147.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/1047223
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716289503001011

  39. 39. Kennedy, J. (2001) Unmet and Undermet Need for Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Assistance among Adults with Disabilities: Estimates from the 1994 and 1995 Disability Follow-Back Surveys. Medical Care, 39, 1305-1312.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/3768103
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-200112000-00006

  40. 40. Smith, D.W., Hogan, A.J. and Rohrer, J.E. (1987) Activities of Daily Living as Quantitative Indicators of Nursing Effort. Medical Care, 25, 120-130.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/3765511
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-198702000-00005

  41. 41. Cornwell, B., Laumann, E.O. and Schumm, L.P. (2008) The Social Connectedness of Older Adults: A National Profile. American Sociological Review, 73, 185-203.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/25472522
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000312240807300201

  42. 42. Esteban, R., Dominguez, J., Yumul, J., Natividad, B., Magpantay, C., Soriano, J.R., et al. (2013) Quality of Life among the Filipino Elderly: Glimpses from a Community. Philippine Neuroscience, 1, 15-24.
    http://philneuroscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/vol1-quality-of-life-among-erderly

  43. 43. Cornwell, E.Y. and Waite, L.J. (2009) Social Disconnectedness, Perceived Isolation, and Health among Older Adults. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 31-48.
    http://hsb.sagepub.com/content/50/1/31.short?rss=1&ssource=mfc
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002214650905000103

  44. 44. Versey, H.S. and Newton, N.J. (2013) Generativity and Productive Pursuits: Pathways to Successful Aging in Late Midlife African American and White Women. Journal of Adult Development, 20, 185-196.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10804-013-9170-x

  45. 45. Seitsamo, J. and Klockars, M. (1997) Aging and Changes in Health. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 23, 27-35.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/40966689

  46. 46. Moura, A., Madureira, J., Alija, P., Fernandes, J.C., Oliveira, J.G., Lopez, M., et al. (2015) Effect of Aging in the Perception of Health-Related Quality of Life in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Online Hemodiafiltration. Aging and Disease, 6, 17-25.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2014.0514

  47. 47. Mandai, T., Ohashi, H., Ishii, K., Ono, M., Kishi, K., Fukushima, J., et al. (1997) Quality of Life and Disease Acceptance in Patients with Haemodialysis, Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery and Mammary Cancer. Quality of Life Research, 6, 688.

  48. 48. Arevalo-Rodriguez, I., Segura, O., Solà, I., Bonfill, X., Sanchez, E. and Alonso-Coello, P. (2014) Diagnostic Tools for Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia and Other Dementias: An Overview of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Systematic Reviews. BMC Neurology, 14, 183.
    http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2377/14/183
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-014-0183-2

  49. 49. Tom, S., Hubbard, R., Crane, P., Haneuse, S., Bowen, J., McCormick, W. and Larson, E. (2015) Characterization of Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease in an Older Population: Updated Incidence and Life Expectancy with and without Dementia. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 408-413.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2014.301935

  50. 50. Mussele, S., Bekelaar, K., Le Bastard, N., Vermeiren, Y., Saerens, J., Somers, N., et al. (2013) Prevalence and Associated Behavioral Symptoms of Depression in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer’s Disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatric, 28, 947-958.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.3909

  51. 51. Passmore, M., Ho, A. and Gallagher, R. (2012) Behavioral Psychological Symptoms in Moderate to Severe Alzheimer’s Disease: A Palliative Care Approach Emphasizing Recognition of Personhood and Preservation of Dignity. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 29, 1-13.

  52. 52. Walter, J., Morris, J., Swier-Vosnos, A. and Pliskin, N. (2014).Effects of Severe Dementia on a Symptom Validity Measure. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 28, 1197-1208.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2014.960454

  53. 53. Lee, S., Richie, C., Yaffe, K., Cenzer, I. and Barnes, D. (2014) Clinical Index to Predict Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia Due to Alzheimer’s Disease. PLoS ONE, 9, 1-15.

  54. 54. Osberg, L. (2005) Work and Well-Being in an Aging Society. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, 31, 413-420.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/355236
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3552360

  55. 55. Seitsamo, J. and Ilmarinen, J. (1997) Life-Style, Aging and Work Ability among Active Finnish Workers in 1981-1992. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 23, 20-26.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/40966688

  56. 56. Smuts, B. (2006) What Are Friends For? In: Courtis, M., Ed., Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Physical Anthropology, McGrwhill/Dushkin, Dubuque, 163-171.

  57. 57. Huxhold, O., Miche, M. and Schüz, B. (2014) Benefits of Having Friends in Older Ages: Effects of Informal Social Networks. Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69, 366-375.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23682165
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbt029

  58. 58. Kaufman, S.R. (1994) Old Age, Disease, and the Discourse on Risk: Geriatric Assessment in US Health. Anthropology Quarterly, New Series, 8, 430-447.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/649089

  59. 59. Flynn, C. and McCormack, B. (2010) Stimulating the Wrinkling and Aging of Skin with Multi-Layer Finite Element. Journal of Biomechanics, 43, 442-448.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.10.007

  60. 60. Kalichman, L., Livshits, G. and Kobyliansky, E. (2006) Association between Morbidity and Skeletal Biomarkers of Biological Aging. Human Biology, 78, 77-88.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hub.2006.0025
    http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=18&sid=5a81e8ff-9abf-4e87-bf7a-48e6a7bf9405%40sessionmgr4005&hid=4109

  61. 61. Boyd, S.L. and Treas, J. (1989) Family Care of the Frail Elderly: A New Look at “Women in the Middle”. Women’s Studies Quarterly, 17, 66-74.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/40003979

  62. 62. Avlund, K. (2013) Fatigue in Older Populations. Fatigue: Biomedicine, Heath and Behavior, 1, 43-63.
    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/21641846.2012.746200
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21641846.2012.746200

  63. 63. Edgerton, T. (2013) Self-Reported Aging-Related Fatigue: A Concept Description and Its Relevance to Physical Therapist Practice. Physical Therapy, 93, 1403-1413.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20130011

  64. 64. Fried, L.P., Tangen, C.M., Walston, J., Newman, A.B., Hirsch, C., Gottdiener, J., et al. (2001) Frailty in Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56, M146-M157.
    http://biomedgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/56/3/M146.full
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/56.3.M146

  65. 65. Liu, H. (2015) Aging and Chronic Diseases as Independent Causative Factor for Death and Programmed Onset of Chronic Disease. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 60, 178-182.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2014.11.002

  66. 66. Adeniyi, A.F., Ogwumiki, O.O., Akinwonmi, A.O. and Fasanmade, A.A. (2014) Links between Adiposity, Physical Activity and Self-reported Fatigue in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, 34, 144-149.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13410-013-0175-6

  67. 67. Ku, G.M.V. and Kegels, G. (2014) A Cross-Sectional Study of the Differences in Diabetes Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions and Self-Care Practices as Related to Assessment of Chronic Illness Care among People with Diabetes Consulting in a Family Physician-Led Hospital-Based First Line Health Service and Local Government Health Unit-Based Health Centers in the Philippines. Asia Pacific Family Medicine, 13, 1-18.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12930-014-0014-z

  68. 68. Stone, R.I. (1989) The Feminization of Poverty among the Elderly. Women’s Studies Quarterly, 17, 20-34.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/40003975

  69. 69. Smeeding, T.M. and Sandstr&oumlm, S. (2005) Poverty and Income in Old Age: A Cross-National View of Low Income Older Women. Working Paper No. 398, Luxemburg Income Study Working Papers Series, Luxemburg Income Study (LIS), Luxembourg, 18 p.
    http://hdl.handle.net/10419/95568

  70. 70. Wenger, G.C., Davies, R., Shantamasebi, S. and Scott, A. (1996) Social Isolation and Loneliness in Old Age: Review and Model Refinement. Ageing and Society, 16, 333-358.
    http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/19681/1/download.pdf%20?iframe=true&width=100%&height=100%
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X00003457

  71. 71. Hutchison, J. and Smith, A., Eds. (1996) Ethnicity. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

  72. 72. Kuper, A. (1999) Among the Anthropologists: History and Context in Anthropology. The Athlone Press, London.

  73. 73. Alcina, I.F., Kobak, C.J. and Gutierrez, L. (2004) History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands. 2 Volumes, UST Publishing House, Manila.

  74. 74. Frake, C.O. (1955) Social Organization and Shifting Agriculture among the Sindangan Subanun. Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University, New Haven.

  75. 75. Mednick, M. (1965) Encampment on the Lake: The Social Organization of a Moslem-Philippine (Moro). Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University, New Haven.

  76. 76. Jocano, F.L. (1968) Sulod Society: A Study in the Kinshp System and Social Organization of a Mountain People of Central Panay. University of the Philippines Press, Quezon City.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.82726

  77. 77. Go, S.P. (1994) The Present and Future of the Family in the Philippines. International Journal on World Peace, 11, 61-75.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/20752000

  78. 78. Sun, J. (2013) Chinese Older Adults Taking Care of Grandchildren: Practices and Policies for Productive Aging. Aging Institute, 38, 58-70.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12126-012-9161-4

  79. 79. Williams, L. and Domingo, L.J. (1993) The Social Status of Elderly Women and Men within the Filipino Family. Journal of Marriage and Family, 55, 415-426.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/352812
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352812

  80. 80. Casterline, J., Williams, L., Hermalin, A., Cheng, M., Chayovan, N., Cheung, P., et al. (1992) Differences in the Living Arrangements of the Elderly in Four Asian Countries: The Interplay of Constraints and Preferences. Comparative Study of the Elderly in Asia: Research Reports, 30 April-2 May 1992, Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor, 50 p.
    http://vivo.cornell.edu/display/AI-24120246273

  81. 81. Abenoja, M.K. (1990) World’s Apart? Gender Divide in the Conditions of Elderly Filipinos. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 18, 275-290.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/29792028

  82. 82. Kim, I.K. and Kim, C. (2003) Patterns of Family Support and the Quality of Life of the Elderly. Social Indicators Research, 62, 437-454.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-0281-2_21

  83. 83. Hermalin, A., Ofstedal, M.B. and Lee, M.-L. (1992) Characteristics of Children and Intergenerational Transfers. Research Report No. 92-21, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Denver, 30 April-2 May 1992, 50 p.

  84. 84. Zhang, X.L. and Huang, D.Y. (2007) A Temporal Analysis of the Consciousness of Filial Piety. Frontiers of Philosophy in China, 2, 309-335.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/27823297
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11466-007-0020-4

  85. 85. Kaut, C. (1961) Utang Na Loob: A System of Contractual Obligation among Tagalogs. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 17, 256-272.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/3629045

  86. 86. Hollnsteiner, M.R. (1961) Reciprocity in the Lowland Philippines. Philippine Studies, 9, 387-413.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/42720500

  87. 87. Brandewie, E. (1973) Family Size and Kinship Pressures in the Philippines. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 1, 6-18.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/29791036

  88. 88. Ligo-Ralph, V. (1990) Some Theses Concerning the Filipino Value System. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 18, 149-161.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/29792016

  89. 89. Hess, B.B. and Waring, J.M. (1978) Changing Patterns of Aging and Family Bonds in Later Life. The Family Coordinator, 27, 303-314.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/583432
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/583432

  90. 90. Siebert, D.C., Mutran, E.J. and Reitzes, D.C. (1999) Friendship and Social Support: The Importance of Role Identity to Aging Adults. Social Work, 44, 522-533.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/44.6.522
    http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=678a6fc6-89e1-4ca0-94a1-ceb79c4e778a%40sessionmgr4001&hid=4214

  91. 91. Baskin, C. and Davey, C.J. (2015) Grannies, Elders, and Friends: Aging Aboriginal Women in Toronto. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 58, 46-65.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01634372.2014.912997

  92. 92. Ayuso Sánchez, L. (2013) Personal Network Supporting Widowhood in Spain. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and /Social Sciences, 68, 644-652.

  93. 93. Warburton, J. and Grassman, E. (2011) Variations in Older People’s Social and Productive Ageing Activities across Different Social Welfare Regimes. International Journal of Social Welfare, 20, 180-191.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.2009.00691.x

  94. 94. World Values Survey Homepage (2009)
    http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org.

  95. 95. http://tzuchi.org.ph/home//.

  96. 96. Donnelly, E. and Hinterlong, J. (2009) Changes in Social Participation and Volunteer Activity among Recently Widowed Older Adults. The Gerontologist, 50, 158-169.
    http://gerontologist.oxfordjournals.org/content/50/2/158.long
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnp103

  97. 97. Cornwell, B. (2009) Network Bridging Potential in Late Life: Life-Course Experiences and Social Network Position. Journal of Aging, 21, 129-154.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2742371/pdf/nihms129617

  98. 98. Welte, T. (1994) Individual Preferences and Advance Directives. Hastings Center Report: Special Supplement, 24, S5-S8.

  99. 99. Franklin, N. (2009) Lifestyle and Successful Aging. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3, 6-11.
    http://ajl.sagepub.com/content/3/1/6.abstract
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1559827608326125

  100. 100. Weiss, P. (1963) Religious Experience. The Review of Metaphysics, 17, 3-17.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/20123981

  101. 101. Ferris, A.L. (2002) Religion and the Quality of Life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 199-215.
    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A%3A1020684404438

  102. 102. Idler, E.L. (1995) Religion, Health, and Nonphysical Senses of Self. Social Forces, 74, 683-704.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580497
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sf/74.2.683

  103. 103. Hadaway, C.K. (1978) Life Satisfaction and Religion: A Reanalysis. Social Forces, 57, 636-643.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/2577686
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sf/57.2.636

  104. 104. Idler, E., McLaughlin, J. and Stanislav, K. (2009) Religion and Quality of Life in the Late Year of Life. Journal of Gerontology: Social Science, 64b, 528-537.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbp028

  105. 105. Seki, K. (2002) Fiesta, Patron Saint, and the Concept of Gahum: A Preliminary Study of the Folk Notion of Power among Cebuano Migrant Fisherfolk. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 30, 111-137.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/29792504

  106. 106. Peterson, W. (2007) Holy Week in the “Heart of the Philippines”: Spirituality, Theatre, and Community in Marinduque’s Moriones Festival. Asian Theatre Journal, 24, 309-337.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/27568417
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/atj.2007.0039

  107. 107. Tiatco, A.P. and Bonifacio-Ramolete, A. (2008) Cutud’s Ritual of Nailing on the Cross: Performance of Pain and Suffering. Asian Theatre Journal, 25, 58-76.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/27568435
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/atj.2008.0014

  108. 108. Mojares, R.B. (2002) Stalking the Virgin: The Genealogy of the Cebuano Virgin of Guadalupe. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 30, 138-171.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/29792505

  109. 109. Heydari-Fard, K.J., Bagheri-Nesami, M., Shirvani, M. and Mohammadpour, R.-A. (2014) Association between Quality of Life and Religious Coping in Older People. Nursing Older People, 26, 24-29.
    http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=afbc2d51-fac1-4b27-b48e-e80442d760c4%40sessionmgr112&hid=128
    http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/nop2014.03.26.3.24.e496

  110. 110. Balgos, L. (1998) Mga Ritwal, Sumpa, at Panata: Kalipunan Ng Tatlong Maikling Nobela: Sumpa, Ritwal, Panata. University of the Philippines Press, Quezon City.

  111. 111. Overall, C. (2006) Old Age and Ageism, Impairment and Ableism: Exploring the Conceptual and Material Connections. NWSA Journal, 18, 126-137.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4317189
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2979/nws.2006.18.1.126

  112. 112. Mendes, F. (2013) Active Aging: A Right or Duty? Health Sociology Review, 22, 174-185.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5172/hesr.2013.22.2.174

  113. 113. Connel, M. and Gibson, G. (1997) Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Differences in Dementia Care Giving: Review and Analysis. The Gerontologist, 37, 355-364.
    http://gerontologist.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/3/355.full
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/37.3.355

  114. 114. Nahemow, N. (1979) Residence, Kinship and Social Isolation among the Aged Bagenda. Journal of Marriage and Family, 41, 171-183.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/351741
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351741

  115. 115. Demerath, N.J. and Roof, W.C. (1976) Religion—Recent Strands in Research. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 19-33.
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/2946084
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.02.080176.000315

  116. 116. Campbell, A., Converse, P.E. and Rodgers, W. (1976) The Quality of American Life. Russell Sage, New York.
    http://gerontologist.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/3/355

Journal Menu >>