ifted and normal high school students (first term) considering emotional creativity and its components?

Results demonstrated in Table 1 indicate that there is no significant difference between gifted and normal students considering preparedness (p < 0.05). However, there are significant differences between gifted and normal students with regard to components of novelty, effectiveness, authenticity and emotional creativity, at 99% confidence level (p < 0.01), i.e. according to Table 1, gifted students have higher mean scores in novelty (45.77), effectiveness and authenticity (30.38), and emotional creativity (100.26), compared to normal students.

Second Research Question: Is there any significant difference between first grade male and female giftedand normal high school students (first period) considering emotional creativity and its components?

Results represented in Table 2 suggest that according to calculated F with degrees of freedom 3 and 196, there is a significant difference between male and female gifted students and normal students considering emotional creativity (6.987) and components of novelty (6.409), effectiveness and authenticity (5.576) at 99% confidence level. This means that the level of emotional creativity and components of novelty, effectiveness and authenticity are not the same among male and female gifted students and normal students (p < 0.01). Moreover, considering preparedness, given the calculated F (3.038) with degrees of freedom 3 and 196, there is a significant difference, i.e. the level of preparedness is not the same among male and female gifted students and normal students (p < 0.05).

Results of Table 3 indicate that considering the component of novelty, there are significant differences between female gifted students and normal male students, with a mean difference of 6.57, and female gifted students and normal female students, with a mean difference of 5.19, at 95% confidence level (p < 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that female gifted students have a higher level of novelty compared to other groups.

Regarding preparedness, the results indicate that there is a significant difference between female gifted students and normal female students, with a mean difference of 2.34, at the 95% confidence level (p < 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that female gifted students have a higher level of preparedness compared to other groups.

With regard to effectiveness and authenticity, there are significant differences between male gifted students and normal male students, with a mean difference of 2.24, and female gifted students and normal female students, with a mean difference of 3.31, at 95% confidence level (p < 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that

Table 1. Results of independent t-test regarding comparison of emotional creativity and its components in gifted and normal students.

Table 2. Results of one-way ANOVA regarding comparison of emotional creativity and its components in male and female gifted and normal students.

Table 3. Results of Tukey’s test regarding male and female gifted and normal students’ emotional creativity and its components.

male gifted students have a higher level of effectiveness and authenticity compared to other groups.

Regarding emotional creativity, the results indicate that there are significant differences between male gifted students and normal male students, with a mean difference of 8.71, and female gifted students and normal male students, with a mean difference of 12.22, at 95% confidence level (p < 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that female gifted students have a higher level of emotional creativity compared to other groups.

Third Research Question: Is there any significant difference between first grade gifted and normal high school students (first period) considering social adjustment?

These findings demonstrate that there is no significant difference between gifted students and normal students, considering social adjustment, at 95% confidence level (p < 0.05).

Fourth Research Question: Is there any significant difference between high school first-grade male and female gifted students and normal high school students (first period) considering social adjustment?

Results of Table 5 indicate that with regard to social adjustment, given the calculated F, there is a significant difference between female and male gifted students and normal students, with a mean difference of 0.276, at the 95% confidence level (p < 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that social adjustment of male and female gifted students and normal students is the same.

4. Discussion

The obtained results are presented based on research questions. The results in relation to the first question indicated that there was a significant difference between gifted students and normal students considering emotional creativity and components of novelty, effectiveness and authenticity, i.e. the means of emotional creativity and components of novelty, effectiveness and authenticity among gifted students, compared to normal students, were higher. This finding is in line with the results of Eisazadegan et al. (2013) . Eisazadegan et al. indicated that gifted students had higher levels of novelty, effectiveness and preparedness compared to other groups. According to the results, no significant difference was found between gifted students and normal students’ preparedness. This is not in line with the results of Eisazadegan et al. (2013) .

Regarding the second research question, Table 4 demonstrated that there was a significant difference between male and female gifted students and normal students considering emotional creativity and components of novelty, preparedness, effectiveness and authenticity. Male gifted students had higher levels of effectiveness and authenticity and female gifted students had higher levels of emotional creativity, novelty and preparedness, compared to other groups. Since no studies have been carried out to directly examine this issue, the results of previously conducted studies related to this study are mentioned. These results are consistent with the results of Pasha Sharifi and Ghodrati (2010) , Kershner and Ledger (2007) , Kim and Michael (2011) . In their study, PashSharifi and Ghodrati (2010) indicated that female gifted students studying in schools for exceptional talents had a higher level of creativity compared to normal female students studying in public schools. Kershner and

Table 4. Results of independent t-test regarding comparison of social adjustment of gifted and normal students.

Table 5. Results of one-way ANOVA regarding comparison of social adjustment of male and female gifted students and normal students.

Ledger (2007) , in their study, demonstrated that female students’ creativity was higher than that of male students. Kim and Michael (2011) showed that female students’ creativity was higher than that of male students. Moreover, the obtained results are not in line with the results of Suragy (1996) , Averill (2013) and Stoltzfus et al. (2011) . Suragy (1996) indicated that male gifted students had a higher level of creativity compared to male gifted students. Averill (2013) demonstrated that female students’ preparedness, effectiveness and authenticity were higher and their novelty was lower than those of male students. Stoltzfus et al. (2011) showed that male students’ creativity was higher than that of female students.

In relation to the third research question, it was demonstrated that there was no significant difference between gifted students and normal students with regard to their social adjustment. This finding is not consistent with the results of Darkeh et al. (2011) and Lehman & Erdwins (2014) .

In relation to the fourth research question, given the results represented in Tables 1-5 using one-way ANOVA, it was indicated that there was no significant difference between male and female gifted students and normal students’ social adjustment. Since no studies have been carried out to directly examine this issue, the results of previously conducted studies related to this study are mentioned. This result is in line with the results of Afsharniakan (2002) , Abtahi & Nadri (2013) and Pourakbaran (2013) demonstrating that there was no significant difference between male and female students’ social adjustment. This result is not consistent with the resulta of Kousari (2001) and Behpazhouh et al. (2008) . Kousari (2001) indicated that female students’ social adjustment was higher than that of male students. Behpazhouh et al. (2008) demonstrated that female gifted students’ social adjustment, studying in schools for exceptional talents, was higher than that of female gifted students studying in public and private schools.

Our recommendations based on the obtained results are as follow:

・ Applying teaching, training and assessment methods appropriate to the level of students’ thought and emotional creativity.

・ Training administrators and teachers in order to identify gifted students and enhance their scientific and psychological knowledge.

・ Nurturing students’ emotional creativity and social adjustment.

・ Enhancing parents’ awareness and encouraging them as much as possible to identify their children’s talents.

・ Paying attention to facilities, teaching aids and methods of selecting gifted students by authorities considering international standards.

The limitation in our study can be mentioned as follow:

・ The population of the current study included freshman high school students (first period) in Khash; therefore, cautious should be made in generalizing the obtained results to other regions and provinces.

・ Inventories constraints.

5. Conclusion

The present study aimed to compare emotional creativity and social adjustment of first grade gifted and normal high school students (first period) in Khash. Being curious and thinking about excelled and talented people have a long history and scientists’ growing interest in carrying out studies on gifted individuals suggests the importance of these people’s role in the progress of human life. One of the most important and fundamental issues of education in the present era is considering the methods of educating students in a way that their emotional creativity and social adjustment be proportionate and coordinated with today’s complex and highly variable conditions and also future challenging situations. The current study’s results indicated that gifted students had higher levels of emotional creativity, novelty, effectiveness and authenticity and there was a significant difference between male and female gifted students and normal students considering emotional creativity and its components. Moreover, female gifted students’ emotional creativity, novelty and preparedness were higher than those of male gifted students and male gifted students’ effectiveness and authenticity were higher than those of female gifted students. Emotional creativity requires divergent thinking process and creation of appropriate, and yet authentic, responses. Investigating emotional creativity can solve a number of individual and social problems. Considering the obtained results, there was no significant difference between gifted students and normal students and also between male and female gifted students and normal students. Social adjustment is a symptom of mental health and is a criterion for measuring social development. Family factors, education, peer groups and intelligence have great impacts on social adjustment.

References

  1. Abtahi , M., & Nadri, Kh. (2013). The Relationship of Creativity and Social Adjustment with Academic Performance in High School Students in Zanjan. Journal of Educational Administration, 2, 15-28.
  2. Afsharniakan, S. (2002). Investigating and Comparing Emotional, Social and Educational Adjustment in Male and Female Students in the Fields of Mathematics, Experimental Science and Humanities. MA Thesis of Guidance and Counseling, Tehran: Alzahra University.
  3. AkbariCharmahini, S. (1999). Comparative Study of Adaptive Behavior of Gifted and Normal Students Studying in the Elementary School in Isfahan. MA Thesis, General Psychology, Tehran: Tarbiat Modarres University.
  4. AlamMehrjerdi, Z. (2003). The Relationship between Religious Attitudes, Altruism and Social Adjustment in Students of Zahra University. MA Thesis, General Psychology, Tehran: University of Alzahra.
  5. Averill, J. (2013). Individual Differences in Emotional Creativity: Structure and Correlates. Journal of Personality, 67, 331- 371.
  6. Behpazhouh, A, Kehtari, F., & Ejei, J. (2008). Comparison of Mental Health and Social Adjustment of Gifted Female Students in Three Educational Settings. Journal of Psychological Science, 7, 494-511.
  7. Darkeh, M., Askari, S. Mohammadi, J., & Rezaei, H. (2011). Comparing EI and Social Adjustment of Gifted Students and Normal Students of Kermanshah. Iran’s First National Congress of Social Psychology, 79.
  8. Ebrahimi, E. (2006). Comparing and Investigating the Relationship of Styles of Coping with Mental Stress, Emotional Creativity and Mental Health of Athlete and Non-Athlete University Students. MA Thesis, General Psychology, Tehran: Tehran Teacher Training University.
  9. Eisazadegan, A., Michael Monie, F., Jenaabadi, H., & Gholinejad, F. (2013). Comparing Thinking Styles and Emotional Creativity among Gifted and Normal Students. Journal of Exceptional Individuals’ Psychology, 3, 87-105.
  10. Ghadirinejad, F. (2002). Preliminary Standardization of Emotional Creativity Scale (ECI) on Students of Tehran University. MA Thesis, Psychology, Tehran: Tehran Teacher Training University, 38-55.
  11. HosseinKhanzadeh, A. A. (2013). Psychology and Education of Children with Special Needs. Tehran: Publication of Sound of Light.
  12. Kim, J., & Michael, W. B. (2011). The Relationship of Creativity Measures to School Achievement and to Preferred Learning and Thinking Style in a Sample of Korean High School Students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 60-74.
  13. Kershner, J. R., & Ledger, G. (2007). Effect of Sex, Intelligence, and Style of Thinking on Creativity: A Comparison of Gifted and Average IQ Children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 133-140.
  14. Kousari, E. (2001). Comparing the Effect of Gender and Control Source on Personal and Social Adjustment of High School Students. MA Thesis, Educational Psychology, Shiraz: Shiraz University.
  15. Lehman, E. B., & Erdwins, C. J. (2014). The Social and Emotional Adjustment of Young, Intellectually-Gifted Children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 25, 134-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001698628102500311
  16. Pasha Sharifi, H., & Ghodrati, M. (2010). Examining Creative Talent of Gifted Female Students Studying in Schools for Exceptional Talents, Private and Public Schools. New Journal of Industrial/Organizational Psychology, 1, 31-40.
  17. Pourakbaran, E. (2013). Study and Comparison of Social Adjustment and Self-Esteem in Blind & Normal Students of TorbatHeydarie. Journal of European Psychiatry, 28, 1-18.
  18. Razavian Shad, M. (2005). The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with Social Adjustment and Academic Achievement of Third Grade Middle School Students in Tabriz. MA Thesis, Educational Psychology, Tabriz: University of Tabriz.
  19. Sabri, M., Alborzi, M., & Bahrami, M. (2013). Relationship between Family Communication Patterns, Creativity, Emotional Intelligence in High School Students. Journal of Modern Psychology, 9, 35-63.
  20. Stoltzfus, G., Nibbelink, B. L., Vredenburg, D. and Hyrum, E. (2011). Gender, Gender Role, and Creativity. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39, 425-432. http://dx.doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2011.39.3.425
  21. Suragy, C. (1996). Comparison of the Characteristics of Creative and Non-Creative Students in Schools for Exceptional Talents in Birjand. MA Thesis, Counseling Psychology, Tehran: Allameh Tabataba’i University.
  22. Yarmohammadian, A., & Sharafirad, H. (2011). Analysis of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Social Adjustment in Adolescents. Journal of Applied Sociology, 22, 35-50.

NOTES

*Corresponding author.

Journal Menu >>