Journal of Environmental Protection, 2011, 2, 323-325
doi:10.4236/jep.2011.23036 Published Online May 2011 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jep)
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Global Warming was not Proved at Showa Base in
Nobuyuki Miyatake1, Noriko Sakano1, Shoko Murakami1, Takeshi Suzue2, Tomohiro Hirao2
1Department of Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa, Japan; 2Department of Public Health, Faculty of
Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa, Japan.
Received January 23rd, 2011; revised March 6th, 2011; accepted April 18th, 2011.
The changes in temperatures at Showa base in Antarctica were evaluated. Various parameters of temperatures at
Showa base in Antarctica were obtained from Japan Metrological Agency. Parameters of temperatures were not corre-
lated with years at Showa base (mean temperature in a year: r = 0.056, p = 0.7267). In addition, the number of days
over 4˚C was negatively correlated with years. Global warming was not proved at Showa base in Antarctica in this
Keywords: Temperature, Showa Base, Antarctica, Global Warming
The world is a very different place today than it was only
a short period ago. Also in Japan, urbanization and in-
dustrialization are accelerated. Global average tempera-
tures are projected to in crease by the end of this century.
An increase in mortality related to heat waves has been
reported from various industrialized countries [1-3]. For
example, we have previously showed that estimated
changes in mean temperature was 1.8˚C for 50 years in
Takamatsu areas, Japan . In addition, by using mon-
thly data, higher temperature was associated with ambu-
lance transports in Takamatsu  and Okayama  areas,
Japan. However, we could not found positive change in
temperatures in Hachijo Inland, Japan , and whether
an increase in temperatures is actually increasing in the
world remains to be investigated. Therefore, the chrono-
logical changes in temperatures at Showa base in Antarc-
tica were explored.
Daily temperatures at Showa base (69˚00'S 39˚35'E) in
Antarctica (1969-2009) were obtained from Japan Mete-
orological Agency . Mean temperature, mean of the
highest temperatures and mean of the lowest tempera-
tures in January, August and a year were used for analy-
sis. In addition, the changes in the number of days over
various temperatures in January and those under various
temperatures in August were also evaluated.
Simple correlation analysis was used to test the sig-
nificance of the linear relationship among continuous
variables: p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically sig-
nificant. Statistical analysis was performed with Stat-
View 5.0 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA).
Mean temperature, mean of the highest temperatures and
mean of the lowest temperatures in January, August and
a year at Showa base were not significantly correlated
with years (mean temperature in a year: r = 0.056, p =
0.7267) (Table 1, Figure 1). In addition, we evaluated
the relationship between years and various levels of
temperatures in January and August at Showa base (Ta -
ble 2). The number of days of over 3, 4 and 5˚C in Janu-
ary was negatively correlated with years (Figure 2). Co-
efficient rate between years and over 4˚C was the highest
in January. However, the number of days under –25˚C
was not correlated with years in August (r = −0.205, p =
Although we previously found positive changes in tem-
peratures in Takamatsu and Okayama areas, Japan,
clinical impact of global warming effect at Showa base in
ntarctica was not noted in this study. A
Global Warming was not Proved at Showa Base in Antarctica
Table 1. Relationship betwee n parame te r s of temperature and years at Showa base.
January August Total
r p r p r p
Mean Temperature –0.191 0.2328 0.206 0.1961 0.056 0.7267
Mean of the Highest Temperature –0.303 0.0546 0.217 0.1727 –0.005 0.9743
Mean of the Lowest Temperature –0.097 0.5473 0.226 0.1551 0.088 0.5847
Figure 1. Simple correlation analysis between mean tem-
perature in a year and years at Showa base in Antarctica
Figure 2. Simple correlation analysis between the number
of days over 4˚C in January and years at Showa base in
Table 2 Relationship between years and various levels of
temperature in Janualy and August at Showa base in Ant-
r p r p
0˚C≦ –0.030 0.8503 ≦–25˚C –0.205 0.1984
1˚C≦ –0.144 0.3681 ≦–26˚C –0.237 0.1356
2˚C≦ –0.272 0.0858 ≦–27˚C –0.207 0.1936
3˚C≦ –0.348 0.0258 ≦–28˚C –0.165 0.3039
4˚C≦ –0.427 0.0053 ≦–29˚C –0.120 0.4563
5˚C≦ –0.407 0.0083 ≦–30˚C –0.156 0.3299
Average subsurface temperature profiles in four Asian
cities (Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul and Bangkok) were com-
pared and analyzed to evaluate the effects of surface
warming . The magnitude of surface warming was the
largest in Tokyo (2.8˚C), followed by Seoul, Osaka and
Bangkok. Nakai et al investigated heat-related deaths in
Japan from 1968 through 1994 and heat-related deaths
were most prone to occur on days with a peak daily tem-
perature above 38˚C . In addition, they reported that
incidence of heat-related deaths showed and exponential
dependence on the number of hot days . Bai et al.
also showed that the number of unusual deaths in the
summer of 1994 in Osaka, Japan was more compared to
those of previous years . Qui et al. reported that an
unusually hot spell in 1999 was followed by a high mor-
tality rate in Hokkaido, Japan . When the air tem-
perature is over 34˚C, cardiovascular and nervous disor-
ders can occur as a result of problems associated with
body temperature adjustment and metabolism of water
and salts . Unexpectedly high temperatures are par-
ticularly difficult for chronic diseases  and the eld-
However, mean temperature in a year was not corre-
lated with years in this study. In addition, the number of
days of over 4˚C in January was negatively correlated
with years. Although the mechanism was not proved in
this study, the evidence of global warming was not
proved at Showa base in Antarctica. Further observation
was urgently re quired to prove the glo bal warming.
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