Advances in Anthropology
2012. Vol.2, No.1, 1-13
Published Online February 2012 in SciRes (
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 1
Haplogroup R1a as the Proto Indo-Europeans and the Legendary
Aryans as Witnessed by the DNA of Their Current Descendants
Anatole A. Klyosov, Igor L. Rozhanskii
The Academy of DNA Genealogy, Newton, USA
Email: aklyosov@comcast.n et
Received November 15th, 2011; revised D e cember 20th, 2011; accepted January 10th, 2012
This article aims at reconstructing history of R1a1 ancient migrations between 20,000 and 3500 years be-
fore present (ybp). Four thousand four hundred sixty (4460) haplotypes of haplogroup R1a1 were con-
sidered in terms of base (ancestral) haplotypes of R1a1 populations and timespans to their common an-
cestors in the regions from South Siberia and northern/northwestern China in the east to the Hindustan
and further west across Iranian Plateau, Anatolia, Asia Minor and to the Balkans in Europe, including on
this way Central Asia, South India, Nepal, Oman, the Middle East, Comoros Islands, Egypt, etc. This
study provides a support to the theory that haplogroup R1a arose in Central Asia, apparently in South Si-
beria and/or neighboring regions, around 20,000 ybp. Not later than 12,000 ybp bearers of R1a1 already
were in the Hindustan, then went across Anatolia and the rest of Asia Minor apparently between 10,000
and 9000 ybp, and around 9000 - 8000 ybp they arrived to the Balkans and spread over Europe east to the
British Isles. On this migration way or before it bearers of R1a1 (or the parent, upstream haplogroups)
have developed Proto Indo-European language, and carried it along during their journey to Europe. The
earliest signs of the language on passing of bearers of R1a1 through Anatolia were picked by the linguists,
and dated by 9400 - 9600 - 10,100 ybp, which fairly coincides with the data of DNA genealogy, described
in this work. At the same time as bearers of the brother haplogroup R1b1a2 began to populate Europe af-
ter 4800 ybp, haplogroup R1a1 moved to the Russian Plain around 4800 - 4600 ybp. From there R1a1
migrated (or moved as military expeditions) to the south (Anatolia, Mitanni and the Arabian Peninsula),
east (South Ural and then North India), and south-east (the Iranian Plateau) as the historic legendary Ary-
ans. Haplotypes of their direct descendants are strikingly similar up to 67 markers with contemporary eth-
nic Russians of haplogroup R1a1. Dates of those Aryan movements from the Russian Plain in said direc-
tions are also strikingly similar, between 4200 and 3600 ybp.
Keywords: Y Chromosome; Mutations; Haplotypes; Haplogroups; TMRCA; STR; SNP; Indo-European;
India; Aryans; R1a1
This study focuses on the origin of Indo-Europeans and the
Aryans who entered India (the Hindustan), Iran (Iranian pla-
teau), and Anatolia (Mesopotamia) approximately 3500 years
The research findings, described in this study, demystify the
origin of the Aryans. For nearly two centuries, the “Aryan pro-
blem” (essentially—Who were the Aryans? Where did they
come from? Where did they disappear? Were they a particular
human race, different from others?) has posed many challenges,
often controversial and confl ic ted, for researchers, archeologists
and linguists; however, this study opens new ground for our
consideration and is based on the data provided by DNA ge-
nealogical test resul ts.
The methodology of DNA genealogy, including considera-
tions of extended 67 marker haplotypes, is described in detail in
the preceding paper in this journal (Rozhanskii & Klyosov,
2011) and in Materials and Methods section of this article. The
67 marker haplotypes have been introduced to the scientific do-
main and personal usage several years ago, and available data-
bases containing tens of thousands of 67 marker haplotypes are
listed in (Rozhanskii & Klyosov, 2011) and in this paper (Ap-
First, the following two 67 marker haplotypes of haplogroup
R1a1 are presented, belonging to the two authors of this paper:
13 24 16 11 11 15 12 12 10 13 11 30—16 9 10 11 11 24 14
20 34 15 15 16 16—11 11 19 23 15 16 17 21 36 41 12 11—11
9 17 17 8 11 10 8 10 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 15 23 21 12
13 11 13 11 11 12 13
13 25 15 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 11 30 – 16 9 10 11 11 23 14
20 34 12 12 15 15—10 11 19 23 17 16 18 18 34 38 14 11—11
8 17 17 8 11 10 8 12 10 12 21 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 13 25 21 13
12 12 13 11 11 12 13
Next, the following are two Indian R1a1 haplotypes, taken
arbitrarily from the “Indian FTDNA Project” (the references to
Projects are at the end of this paper):
13 24 16 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 31—16 9 10 11 11 24 14
20 33 12 15 15 16—10 12 19 23 15 17 18 18 35 41 15 11—11
8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 13 23 21 12
12 11 13 10 11 12 12
13 23 16 11 12 15 12 12 10 13 11 30—16 9 10 11 11 24 14
20 30 12 16 16 16—11 12 19 23 15 16 18 21 35 39 12 11—11
8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 16 10 12 12 13 8 14 24 22 13
13 11 13 11 11 12 12
Both Indian haplotypes contain 24 and 21 mutations with the
first haplotype (mutations are shown in bold, and rules of their
counting are explained in the paper cited above), and 28 and 36
mutations with the second one. This produces on average 27.25
± 6.60 pairwise cross-mutations between all four haplotypes;
that is, 27.25/.12 = 227 292 ± 55 conditional generations (25
years each) = 7300 ± 1400 years between two haplotypes on
average, or 3650 ± 700 years to a common ancestor of all the
four haplotypes (.12 here is the mutation rate constant for 67
marker haplotypes, see the preceding paper cited above). Ac-
cording to all historical accounts, the Aryans arrived in India in
the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, which is approximately
3500 years ago.
This simplified calculation is based on these four haplotypes
that belong to different subclades of R1a1 haplogroup (Z280,
M458 and L342.2). However, considering each of the four
haplotypes, the first two are from the current Russian-Ukrainian
(Indo-European) group, and the second two are from the Indian
(Indo-European) group. Both are similar and belong to the same
R1a1 haplogroup. Currently, up to 72% of the upper castes in
India belong to bearers of the same R1a1 haplogroup (Sharma
et al., 2009).
This simplified calculation is given here for illustrative pur-
poses, though four 67 marker haplotypes contain as many as
268 markers, which is quite statistically informative in a first
approximation. A much more detailed analysis of Indian and
ethnic Russian extended series of R1a1 haplotypes is given in
(Klyosov, 2009b, 2011b), and principally the same results were
obtained with respect to patterns of mutations in haplotypes,
migration routes, and their chronology.
This brings closure to the question of the Aryans’ DNA-re-
lated origin and who entered India during the middle of the 2nd
millennium CE. They belonged to the R1a1 haplogroup, which
is the prevalent one in the present-day Eastern Europe (Russia,
Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, in the first one up to 62% of total
male population, in the latter three up to 55% of total male
population [Klyosov, 2009b, 2011b and references therein]).
There is merit in comparing the Indian haplotypes with the
R1b1a2 haplotypes—a group who populates ~60% of Europe,
living primarily in the British Isles, Spain, France, Belgium,
Germany, the Netherlands, and other Central and Western
European countries. The typical ancestral haplotype in R1b1a2
haplogroup, dated about 4,800 years before present, is as fol-
lows (Klyosov, 2011a):
13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29—17 9 10 11 11 25 15
19 29 15 15 17 17—11 11 19 23 15 15 18 17 36 38 12 12—11
9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13
12 11 13 11 11 12 12
There are 48 and 44 mutations between the above and the In-
dian R1a1 haplotypes shown earlier. This formally places their
common ancestor at more than 10,000 years before present and,
in fact, much earlier, at least 15,000 years ago. R1b1a2 bearers
were not among the Aryans coming to India, and it is very
likely that they were not Indo-Europeans then. Specifically,
there is no supporting evidence that 4000 years before present
(ybp) bearers of R1b1a2 spoke Indo-European (IE) languages.
On the other hand, Central Europe was likely populated by
R1b1a2 speakers of non-IE languages. Moreover, there are very
few bearers of R1b haplogroup in India, mostly on its Arabian
Sea coast, and there were none of the R1b haplogroup among
the 367 tested Indian Brahmins (Sharma et al., 2009). Therefore,
it is highly unlikely that bearers of the R1b1 (as well as R1b1a2)
haplogroup were among the Aryans, and, hence, they were not
among those carrying the Indo-European languages elsewhere
in those times.
We are left holding two questions: first, from where did the
R1a haplogroup arise and, second, what was their migratory
route that brought them to 1) the Russian Plain (currently up to
62% R1a1, see above), 2) India and Iran (10% - 16% R1a1), 3)
Anatolia (15% R1a1), 4) the Middle East (up to 7% - 13%
R1a1), and (5) the Arabian Peninsula, where nowadays 2% -
10% of the population carries the R1a1 haplogroup (Abu-Am-
ero, 2009; Underhill et al., 2009)?
As described in (Klyosov & Rozhanskii, 2011), Europeoids
(Caucasoids) appeared ~58,000 ybp. They gradually branched
to downstream haplogroups and migrated to the west, south and
east. Haplogroup NOP, which was among them, arose ~48,000
ybp, and moved eastward, presumably towards South Siberia
and/or adjacent regions. Haplogroup P arose ~38,000 ybp, ap-
parently in South Siberia, and gave rise to haplogroup R and
then R1 ~30,000 - 26,000 ybp (see the diagram in Klyosov &
Rozhanskii, 2011). The timing of haplogroup R1a’s appearance
can be reconstructed from series of R1a haplotypes, made
available from the databases (see the list in Materials and Me-
thods and the Appendix). The most ancient common ancestors
of this haplogroup lived in: northern and northwestern China
(in particular, Xinjiang region, which is the south Altai area), in
southern Siberia, in the Eastern Himalayas, India and Pakistan,
the Comoros Islands, and in Europe, where their bearers ap-
parently migra ted from the east during both the remote past and
later, for example, with the Scythians.
Northern China R1a Haplotypes
Apparently, the most ancient source of R1a1 haplotypes is
provided by the people now living in northern China. It was
shown (Bittles et al., 2007) that for a number of Chinese popu-
lations, such as Hui, Bonan, Dongxiang, Salars, a percentage of
R1a1 haplotypes reached 18% - 32%. Their haplotypes were not
provided in the paper, but the author, Professor Alan H. Bittles,
kindly sent us a list of 31 of five-marker haplotypes typed as
R1a1, the tree of which is shown in Figure 1. The haplotypes
vary tremendously in their alleles, which already indicates that
their common ancestor lived in ancient times. For example,
values of DYS19 varied between 14 and 17, DYS388 between
12 and 14, and DYS393 between 10 and 13. It should be noted
that mutations in the last two markers occurred on average once
in 4,545 and 1,320 generations, respectively. With a correction
for back mutations (Klyosov, 2009a) it occurs once in 8500 and
2400 generations. The 31 haplotypes contain 99 mutations from
the deduced 5 marker base haplotype as shown here in the 12
marker FTDNA format with missing alleles indicated:
13 X 14 X X X X 12 X 13 X 30
This extent of mutations, which can be presented as 99/31/5
= .639 ± .064 mutation/marker, is a very high value. Actually, it
is a measure of how ancient a common ancestor might be (for a
comparison, contemporary European R1a1 and R1b1a2 haplo-
types are separated by .250 - .270 mutations from their common
ancestors, see Klyosov 2011a, 2011b). It can also be presented
as 99/31/.00677 = 472 683 conditional generations; that is, it
is 17,100 ± 2,400 years to the common ancestor of these 31
haplotypes (explanations and examples of calculations are
given in Materials and Methods). The value of .00677 muta-
tion/haplotype for conditional generation is the mutation rate
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Figure 1.
The 5-marker haplotype tree for R1a1 haplotypes in Northern China.
The 31-haplotype tree was composed from data provided by Dr. A.H.
Bitttles and collected in ethnic communities Hui, Bonan, Dongxiang,
and Salars (Bittles et al., 2007) (no haplotypes were provided in the re-
ferenced article). A fraction of R1a1 haplogroup in said populations is
18%, 25%, 32%, and 22%, respectively (ibid).
constant for the 5 marker haplotypes (Klyosov, 2009a).
Since these haplotypes descend from such an ancient com-
mon ancestor and contain numerous mutations, this makes their
deduced base (ancestral) haplotype rather uncertain. Therefore,
the quadratic permutation method was employed for the same
set of haplotypes (Klyosov, 2009a). This method does not re-
quire either a base haplotype or a correction for back mutations.
The obtained timespan is 19,625 ± 2,800 years to a common
ancestor (see Materials and Methods for calculations). This
result is within the margin of error with that calculated by the
above linear method.
Therefore, haplogroup R1a arose at approximately 20,000
ybp with the territory geographically belonging to Central Asia.
R1a1 Haplotypes from Altay
Thirteen Altay R1a1 haplotypes were listed in (Underhill
et al., 2009), 12 of which showed a rather recent base haplotype
(the last marker is DYS461):
13 26 16 11 X X X 12 11 14 11 31—10
These 12 haplotypes have only 7 mutations per 120 markers
from the above base haplotype, which gives 7/120/.0018 = 32
33 generations; that is, 825±320 years to a common ancestor.
The same set of the Altayan haplotypes in a different format is
given in (Järve et al., 2009), with the base haplotype (not listed
in the cited paper)
13 26 16 11 11 17 X X 11 14 11 31
and the same 7 mutations per 120 markers. Therefore, this ex-
actly correlates to the same timespan to that of the common
ancestor as given above. The same set of the Altayan haplo-
types was given in (Järve et al., 2009) in a significantly more
extended format, with the base haplotype (the second panel
represents DYS 458, 437, 448, GATAH4, 456, 438, 594, 411S1
[two alleles], 596, 643, 645, 635, YPenta1, YPenta2):
13 26 16 11 11 17 X X 11 14 11 31—15 14 19 11 15 11 8 10
11 9 10 8 23 11 10
All 12 haplotypes in the extended format collectively contain
the same 7 mutations. In other words, the added 15 “slow”
markers did not produce mutations, and is an indicator of a
quite recent common ancestor of the haplotype dataset. How-
ever, this base haplotype differs by 6 mutations from the base
haplotype of the Russian Plain, which in the same format is
13 25 16 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30—10
and by 12 mutations from the Russian Plain base haplotype in
the extended format:
13 25 16 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30— 15 14 20 12 16 11 10
10 11 10 10 8 23 11 10
(a more extended 67 marker base haplotype of the Russian
Plain is shown below). These 6 and 12 mutations exactly fit the
difference between the respective mutation rate constants for
the two haplotype formats, equal to .020 and .0404 mutations
per haplotype per generation, respectively (see Material and
Methods). These mutation differences place a common ancestor
of the Altayan and the Russian Plain haplotypes at 8100 ybp.
An additional Altayan haplotype from the list
14 24 17 11 11 15 X 12 12 10 13 11 31—15 14 20 13 15 11
10 10 12 10 10 9 24 11 8
differs by as much as 20 mutations from the above base Alta-
yan haplotype, and by 12 mutations with the Russian Plain base
haplotype. This places their common ancestors at 10,400 and
7300 ybp, respectively.
R1a1 Haplotypes in Tuva
Four R1a1 haplotypes from Tuva, the region which borders
with Altay in Southern Siberia, north of Mongolia, were listed
in (Underhill et al., 2009; Järve et al., 2009). Three of them are
identical in all their 26 markers
13 26 15 9 11 14 X 12 10 13 11 30—18 14 19 12 16 11 10
10 11 10 10 8 23 11 8
and significantly differ, by as many as 20 mutations, from the
fourth one, which belongs to the lineage found among the Al-
13 25 16 11 11 17 X 12 11 14 11 31—15 14 19 11 15 11 8
10 9 10 10 8 23 11 10
They also differ by 12 mutations from the Russian Plain base
haplotype. This places a common ancestor of the Tuva R1a1
haplotypes at 10,000 ybp and also with the Russian Plain base
haplotype by 7300 ybp.
What emerges from the analysis of the data is that the Alta-
yan and the Tuva haplotypes have apparently the same ancient
R1a1 common ancestor, who lived 10,000 - 10,400 ybp. How-
ever, the surviving DNA lineages, which “surfaced” only re-
cently, particularly in Tuva, are different in Tuva and in Altay,
though all coalescent to said ancient common ancestor.
R1a Haplotypes in the Eastern Himalayas
Five R1a1 haplotypes were listed in (Kang et al., 2011),
which showed a rather recent base haplotype (the last two
markers are DYS437 and DYS438):
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 3
13 25 15 10 11 14 13 14 10 13 11 30—14 11
These 5 haplotypes have only 4 mutations from the above
base haplotype, which gives 4/5/.0215 = 37 38 generations;
that is, 950 ± 480 years to a common ancestor. However, the
above base haplotype has very unusual (for R1a haplogroup)
alleles DYS426 = 13, and DYS388 = 14, and differs by 5 muta-
tions with the Russian Plain base haplotypes. This places their
common ancestor at 6650 ybp. This is clearly a separate branch
of ancient R1a haplotypes in Eastern Himalayas.
R1a Haplotypes in India and Pakistan
There are two principal sources of haplotypes of haplogroup
R1a in the Hindustan. One was brought by the Aryans in the
middle of the 2nd millennium BC, as it was described above,
and supported below with more extended series of Indian hap-
lotypes. A timespan to the most recent common ancestor of
these haplotypes varies between 4000 and 4600 ybp, and often
around 4050 ybp, depending on a particular haplotype datasets.
The base (ancestral) haplotype of the Aryan (Indo-European)
haplotype in its 12 marker format is
13 25 16 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30
This haplotype is nearly identical to that of the Russian Plain
base (see below), except the latter came from a common ance s-
tor who lived between 4,600 and 5,000 ybp as determined using
different haplotype datasets (Klyosov, 2009a; Klyosov, 2011b).
A more ancient source is presumably the South Siberian
and/or Central Asian haplotypes brought to the Hindustan dur-
ing the westward migrations of R1a bearers between 20,000
and 10,000 ybp. Some studies alleged that the most ancient
common ancestors of R1a haplotypes were Indian; however,
the results were flawed by erroneous calculations of timespans
using incorrect “population mutation rates” (see their descrip-
tion and discussion in Klyosov, 2009a, 2009c, and references
therein), which routinely converted the actual 3600 - 4000 ybp
(“Indo-European” R1a1 in India) into 12,000 - 15,000 ybp.
This was erroneously claimed as the proof of “origin of R1a in
India.” Furthermore, high percentages of R1a in some regions
in India or in some ethnic and/or religious groups (such as
Brahmins) were incorrectly claimed as the proof of the origin of
R1a in India (Kivisild et al., 2003; Sengupta et al., 2006; Sahoo
et al., 2006; Sharma et al., 2009; Thanseem et al., 2006; For-
narino et al., 2009). The application of the flawed approach
resulted in confusion amongst researchers in the field of human
population genetics over the last decade. The course of research
is hopefully corrected by the application of today’s most recent
developments of DNA genealogy, which utilizes a principally
different methodology (Klyosov, 2009a, 2009b, 2009c; Roz-
hanskii and Klyosov, 2011; Klyosov, 2011b).
Forty-six of 6 marker R1a1 haplotypes of three different
tribal population of Andra Pradesh, South India (tribes Naikpod,
Andh, and Pardhan) listed in (Thanseem et al., 2006) and
shown in the haplotype tree in Figure 2, contain 126 mutations;
that is .457 ± .041 mutations per marker (the mutation rate con-
stant equals .0123 mutation/haplotype/generation, Klyosov, 2009a).
It gives 7200 ± 960 years to a common ancestor (see Material
and Methods for calculations). The base (ancestral) haplotype
of those south Indian populations in the FTDNA format is as
13 25 17 9 X X X X X 14 X 32
This differs from the north-Indian “Indo-European” haplotype
(see above) by four mutations on six markers, which places their
most recent common ancestor to approximately 11,600 ybp (see
Materials and Methods for calculations).
The ancient north China R1a1 base haplotype (see above)
differs from the Andra Pradesh R1a1 base haplotype by at least
5 mutations on the 5 available markers, which places their
common ancestor at approximately 22,000 ybp. Within a mar-
gin of error, it can be deduced that this is the same common
ancestor of the north China haplotypes. This mutational differ-
ence neatly fits the chronology and direction of the migration,
which continues from the ancient (non Indo-European) Indian
haplotypes to the Indo-European Indian haplotypes with their
common ancestor (non-IE and IE) who lived approximately
11,600 ybp. Also, this data dovetails with the timing of the
follow-up migration of R1a1 bearers from Hindustan via Asia
Minor (with a detection of the proto Indo-European language in
Anatolia with estimated divergence time of 9400 - 9600 -
10,100 ybp, see Gray & Atkinson, 2003; Renfrew, 2000; Gam-
krelidze & Ivanov, 1995) to Europe (with the arrival 10,000 -
8000 ybp, see below) and then to the Russian Plain (5000 -
4800 ybp, see below).
The analysis of this data and of these findings essentially
unites most, if not all, concepts of the “origin of Indo-European
language” which have, at various times, placed the “origin” from
India to Iran, Anatolia, the Balkans, to the Russian Steppes
(Gimbutas, 1973, 1994; Mallory, 1989; Dixon, 1997; Anthony,
2007), except that they were related not to the “origin,” but to
the passing areas of the R1a1 migration.
Population geneticists typically mix DNA lineages and branches
in their analysis whereby “phantom common ancestors” emerge.
This is exemplified with 110 of 10-marker R1a1 haplotypes of
various Indian populations, both tribal and Dravidian and Indo-
European castes, listed in (Sengupta et al., 2006). The resulting
mixed haplotype tree is shown in Figure 3. It contains 344
mutations, which is .313 mutations per marker, and results in a
“phantom” 5275 years to a “common ancestor,” just between
the shown above 7180 ± 960 years for non-IE and 4050 ± 500
IE Indian haplotypes.
Figure 2.
The 6-marker haplotype tree for R1a1 haplotypes in Andra Pradesh
(tribes Naikpod, Andh, and Pardhan), South India. The 46-haplotype
tree was composed from data listed in (Thanseem et al., 2006). The
designations of haplotypes are those used in the article.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Figure 3.
The 10 marker haplotype tree for R1a1 haplotypes in India (mixed
population, including tribes and castes). The 110-haplotype tree was
composed from data listed in (Sengupta et al., 2006). The article con-
tains 114 Indian R1a1 haplotypes, however, four of them were incom-
For a comparison, consider the Pakistani R1a1 haplotypes
listed in the Sengupta (2006) paper (Figure 4). Forty-two hap-
lotypes contain 166 mutations, which give .395 ± .031 muta-
tions per marker, and 6800 ± 860 years to a common ancestor.
This value fits within margin of error to the “south-Indian”
7200 ± 960 ybp; however, the base (ancestral) haplotypes dif-
fer significantly. The base Pakistani haplotype is as follows (in
the FTDNA format plus DYS461):
13 25 17 11 X X X 12 10 13 11 30—9
It differs from the south Indian “non-IE” and the north Indian
“IE” base haplotypes by four and two mutations on six markers,
respectively. This places a common ancestor of the Pakistani
and the south Indian “non-IE” R1a1 populations at approxi-
mately 12,980 ybp which is within margins of error with the
11,600 ybp reported above as the migration time through the
Hindustan westward. The two mutations place a common an-
cestor of the Pakistani and the “Indo-European” Indian popula-
tions more recently, at 7800 ybp. This chronological trend
might also point in the direction of the ancient migration of
R1a1 westward.
A more detailed consideration of the Pakistani R1a1 haplo-
types, including separate calculations of each of the four branches
in Figure 4, results in a timespan of 8650 years to a common
ancestor for all of these branches (Klyosov, 2010a). In all, it
does not change the principal conclusions of this section.
R1a1 Haplotypes in Central Asia
Ten 10-marker Central Asian haplotypes were listed in (Sen-
gupta et al., 2006). They contain 27 mutations from the base
13 25 16 11 X X X 12 10 13 11 31-- 9
which gives .270 ± .052 mutations per marker, and 4300 ± 940
years to a common ancestor. It is the same value that we have
found for the Russian Plain and “Indo-European” Indian base
R1a1 haplotypes.
Both the Central Asian base haplotype and the dating of a
common ancestor described above are supported by the latest
data on extended 67 marker haplotypes that were collected in
November 2011 in the R1a1 FTDNA Project. The Central
Asian base haplotype was as follows:
13 25 16 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 31—15 9 10 11 11 24 14
20 32 12 15 15 16 -- 11 11 19 23 15 15 18 19 34 38 14 11—11
8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 14 23 21 12
12 11 13 11 11 12 13
This is identical to the above-mentioned Central Asian 10-
marker base haplotype in all the given alleles. A common an-
cestor for the series of the extended haplotypes lived 3650 ±
590 ybp. The Central Asian base haplotype differs from the
Russian Plain base haplotype (Rozhanskii & Klyosov, 2009) by
only 4 mutations in the 67 markers. This separates them in
terms of the time of their common ancestors
13 25 16 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30 -- 15 9 10 11 11 24 14
20 32 12 15 15 16—11 11 19 23 16 16 18 19 34 38 13 11—11
8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 14 23 21 12
12 11 13 11 11 12 13
by only 4/.12 = 33 34 conditional generations; that is by
~850 years.
The result is compelling and provides an exact fit with the
expected migration pattern of the R1a1 haplogroup from the
Russian Plain (~4600 - 4400 ybp) to Central Asia (3650 ± 590
ybp) on their way to the South Urals and to the Hindustan.
What these findings suggest is that there are two different
subsets of the Indian R1a1 haplotypes. One was brought by
European bearers known as the Aryans, seemingly on their way
from the Russian Plain through Central Asia in the middle of
the 2nd millennium BC. The other was much more ancient and
migrated from South Siberia/northern China to India 12,000
Figure 4.
The 10-marker haplotype tree for R1a1 haplotypes in Pakistan. The 42-
haplotype tree was composed from data listed in (Sengupta et al.,
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 5
years ago. This migratory wave continued through the Iranian
Plateau westward (via Anatolia and the rest of Asia Minor), to
the Balkans and then further into the European continent.
R1a1 Haplotypes of the Comoros Islands
Fifteen R1a haplotypes have been found among 381 tested
men on the Islands. Three of them were R1a*-SRY10831a, and
twelve were R1a1 (Msaidie et al., 2011). The cited study did
not generate any chronological estimates based on the haplo-
types, and considered only 8 marker haplotypes (for a typical
“population genetics” analysis without separation of haplo-
groups) while, in fact, determined 17 marker haplotypes.
The base haplotype for said 12 R1a1 haplotypes is as fol-
13 24/25 15 11 12 14 X X 10 13 11 18—16/17 14 19 12 15
11 23
All have 104 mutations; that is, .51 ± .05 mutation per m a rk e r .
This high value points at a significantly more ancient common
ancestor compared with the that in the Russian Plain, Central
Asia and the Indo-European Indian R1a1 populations (.28, .2 7 , .24
mutations per marker, respectively). Furthermore, it is more
ancient compared with the old south Indian and Pakistani R1a1
populations (.457 and .395 mutations per marker, respectively,
see above). Indeed, a common ancestor of the Comoros R1a1
haplotypes lived .51/.02 = 255 340 conditional generations;
that is 8500 ± 1190 ybp.
For a comparison, the Russian Plain base haplotype in the
same format is as follows:
13 25 16 11 11 14 X X 10 13 11 17—15 14 20 12 16 11 23
It differs by as many as 7 mutations from the Comoros base
haplotype. This places their common ancestor at 9900 ybp. It is
reasonable to suggest that this common ancestor was one of
those R1a1 who were moving westward along the Iranian pla-
teau and Asia Minor almost 10,000 ybp. Indeed, the dating
around 9900 ybp is rather typical for archaeological settlements
in Asia Minor with known dates of 10,200, 9900 and 9000 ybp
(Myres et al., 2010). It is not necessarily true that the bearers of
R1a1 were in the Comoros Islands 9900 ybp since it is known
that the Persian traders had expanded their maritime routes to
Madagascar by 700-900 AD (Msaidie, 2011).
R1a1 Haplotypes in th e A rabian Peninsul a
Sixteen R1a1 10 marker haplotypes from Qatar and United
Arab Emirates were published (Cadenas et al., 2008). They split
into two branches, and their base haplotypes
13 25 15 11 11 14 X Y 10 13 11 30
13 25 16 11 11 14 X Y 10 13 11 31
differed by only one mutation. Their common ancestor lived
3750 ± 825 years bp. Since a common ancestor of R1a1 haplo-
types in Armenia and Anatolia lived 4500 ± 1040 and 3700 ±
550 years bp, respectively (Klyosov, 2008), the three dates do
not conflict with each other. They were not part of the ancient
migrations of 12 - 9 thousand ybp, but they were most likely on
the military expeditions of the (Aryan) R1a1 from the Russian
Plain southward through Anatolia, Mitanni, and to the Middle
East and the Arabian Peninsula around 4000 - 3600 ybp. As
mentioned earlier, today there are between 3% and 9% of R1a1
in those regions, among them members of famous tribes such as
Quraish/Quraysh (Muhammad, the founder of the religion of
Islam, was born into the Quraysh tribe), Al Tamimi (Banu
Tamim) and ot he rs.
Much more reliable data are obtained with extended 67 marker
haplotypes from the Arabic FTDNA project. Twenty-seven
haplotypes from Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman,
Bahrain and Syria form a separate branch on the haplotype tree
and result in the following base haplotype:
13 25 16 11 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30—15 9 10 11 11 24 14
20 32 12 15 15 16—11 11 19 23 15 16 18 19 35 38 13 11—11
8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 14 23 21 12
12 11 13 11 11 12 13
Therein 499 mutations exist and 499/27/.12 = 154 182
generations; that is, 4550 ± 500 years from a common ancestor
of the Arabic haplotypes—practically the same as that for the
Russian plain R1a1 common ancestor (see above). The two
differ by only 1.4 mutations in all the 67 markers; that is,
1.4/.12 = 12 generations apart, a ~300 year difference between
the Russian Plane R1a1 common ancestor and the Arabic hap-
lotypes common ancestor. The exception being that the Arabic
haplotypes are typically coupled with the downstream L342
SNP mutation. The difference places their common ancestor at
~4825 ybp, which is the Russian Plain base (ancestral) haplo-
type. This is the same Aryan haplotype that was brought ~4500
ybp from the Russian Plain in a star-like manner to India, Iran,
Anatolia, the Arabian Peninsula to arrive there a thousand years
later, in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC.
Recent developments in the phylogeny of R1a1 haplotypes
coupled with the DNA genealogy analysis have shown that the
migrations of R1a1 from the Russian Plain in the described
star-like manner were accompanied with the R1a1 -L342 (around
4400 ybp) and then its downstream L657 subclade. The L342
subclade is almost absent on the Russian Plain, and it appears
in the Bashkir population in the east, in Kazakhstan (L342
L657) south-east, in India (L342 L657), and in the Middle
East (including the Arabian Peninsula, L342 L657). It shows
primary directions of the Aryan (R1a1) migrations after ~4800
The Arabian R1a1-L657 haplotypes along with all known
Iranian, Indian and Kazakh L657 haplotypes have the following
L657 base haplotype:
13 25 16 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 31—16 10 10 11 11 24 14
20 32 12 15 15 16—11 11 19 23 15 16 18 19 35 40 14 11—11
8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 14 8 13 23 21 12
12 11 13 11 11 12 13
Its common ancestor lived 3000 ± 400 ybp. The above base
haplotype differs by 9.85 mutations from the Russian Plain base
haplotype (some mutations are fractional ones), which places
the R1a1-L657 and R1a1 Russian plain common ancestor at
5000 ± 600 years bp.
R1a1-L342 Bashkir and Szekely/Seklers (Hungarian)
As noted in the preceding section, migrations of the ancient
Aryans eastward (and in some cases westward, as illustrated
below with the Szekely L342 R1a1 haplotypes) have resulted in
the appearance of the downstream R1a1 subclades, such as
L342, among the Bashkirs. The respective L342 base haplotype
is as follows:
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
13 24 16 11 11 15 12 12 12 13 11 31—15 9 10 11 11 24 14
20 31 12 15 15 15—11 10 19 23 16 15 19 19 35 38 14 11—11
8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 10 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 14 23 21 12
12 11 13 11 11 12 13
Their common ancestor lived only 1300 ± 250 ybp; however,
the base haplotype differ by as many as 14 mutations from the
Russian Plain base haplotype. This places their common ances-
tor, for the Bashkirs and the Russian Plain, at 4700 ± 500 ybp.
This is again the Aryan R1a1 common ancestor on the Russian
There is quite a distant L342 lineage among descendants of
Hungarian Szekely servicemen, recorded in the first 1602 mili-
tary census. The lineage is only 675 ± 260 years “old”. How-
ever, its base haplotype
14 23 17 11 11 14 12 12 10 14 11 32—17 9 10 11 11 24 14
20 31 12 14 15 15—11 12 19 23 16 15 20 19 34 38 13 11
contains as many as 15 mutations in the first 37 markers from
the respective L342 Bashkir base haplotype. This places their
common ancestor to 3500 ± 400 ybp. It apparently reflects
migrations of R1a1-L342 bearers from the Ural region west-
ward to Transylvania along with Finno-Ugric migrations of
those times.
R1a Haplotypes along the Ancient Migration Path
from South Siberia to Europe
Three principal studies have been published recently, that
contain hundreds of R1a1 haplotypes from all over the world
(Underhill et al., 2009; Zhong et al., 2010; Shou et al., 2010).
Analysis of those haplotypes and the chronology of their com-
mon ancestors have not been undertaken by the authors of these
studies. Figures 5-7 show general views of R1a1 haplotype
trees, that were calculated from the data. The purpose for in-
cluding pictures of these trees was not to analyze their fine
structure in detail (Klyosov, 2010a, 2010b), but to demonstrate
their complex multi-branch structure, hence, ancient origins.
For example, relatively young trees (young “age” of their com-
mon ancestor) are often rather symmetrical and relatively uni-
form, such as the Russian Plain R1a1 haplotype tree with a
common ancestor 4600 ybp (Figure 8).
Analysis of R1a1 haplotypes and their branches on the trees
in Figures 5-7 shows that their ancient common ancestors lived
in south Siberia and Altay (belonging to both south Siberia and
Central Asia). Their ancient descendants carried the R1a1 hap-
logroup while migrating from North and North-Western China,
across Tibet and Hindustan, and then along the Iranian Plateau,
from Asia Minor and finally into Europe. Some remnants of
ancient R1a1 were left in Cambodia, Nepal, Oman, Israel, Iraq,
Egypt, Crete, the Caucasus, Russia, Estonia (the respective
haplotypes are recovered from data published in Underhill et al.,
2009, Zhong et al., 2010, Shou et al., 2010). Results of the dy-
namics of mutation in these haplotypes significantly differ from
those in the contemporary European R1a1, except one ancient
and distinct lineage of R1a1 in Europe (see below). Their
common ancestors as thusly reconstructed, lived from 20,000
ybp in south Siberia/northern China through 12,000 - 11,000
ybp in Hindustan and 6900 ybp in Uyghurs in north-western
Typically, ancient common ancestors are recognized by the
distinct DYS392 = 13, unlike typical DYS392 = 11 in most of
European (and elsewhere) R1a1 haplotypes. The study by Un-
derhill et al. (2009) listed four Egyptian R1a1 haplotypes, two
Figure 5.
R1a1 10 marker 638-haplotype tree from all over the world,
composed based on data published by Underhill et al. (2009).
Figure 6.
R1a1 8 marker 365-haplotype tree from all over the world, com-
posed based on data published by Z hong et al. (2010).
Figure 7.
R1a1 8 marker 131-h aplotype tree collected in North-Western
China, composed based on data published by Shou et al.
(2010). The lower right branch consists of R1 haplotypes.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 7
Figure 8. rker 148-haplotype tree collected in Russia and Ukraine
f them having DYS393 = 13, and two DYS393 = 11. These
13 11 30
cal haplotypes are from
f bearers of R1a1
R1a1 Haplotypes of the Current Descendants of the
ed 101
5 16 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30—16 9 10 11 11 24 14
mutations on average, compared with the
e Indian R1a1 haplotype tree contains
10 11 11 23 14
13 11 30—16 9 10 11 11 24 14
14 11 30—16 9 10 11 11 25 14
13 11 31—16 9 10 11 11 24 14
13 11 31—15 9 10 11 11 24 14
R1a1 67 ma
(the Russian Plain), published by Klyosov (2011b).
four haplotypes have their common ancestor of ~13,275 ybp.
The very top of the tree (Figure 6) contains 18 base hapl
pes, which are identical to each other, and expressed in the 9
marker format as follows:
13 25 16 11 X X X 12 10
In this particular case these identi
ussia, Turkey, Ukraine, Slovakia, Iran, Nepal, India, and Hun-
gary. The short haplotype format does not allow them to be
resolved any further, but with the available 9 markers this base
haplotype is an exact (albeit partial) reproduction of the base
haplotype of the Russian Plain. Furthermore, the tree in Figure
8 produces exactly the same 67 marker base haplotype of the
Russian Plain. The whole tree contains 148 haplotypes with
2748 mutations from the base haplotype. It produces 2748/
148/67 = .277 ± .005 mutations per marker, and .277/.12 = 155
183 generations; that is 4575 ± 470 years to a common an-
cestor of the Russian Plain base haplotype.
The whole pattern of ancient migrations o
plotypes shows that after they had arrived to Europe via Asia
Minor, as it is described above, between 11,000 and 8000 ybp
(see below), they moved to the Russian Plain in the beginning
of the 3rd millennium BC. It coincided time-wise with the arri-
val of bearers of R1b1a2 haplotypes in Europe. From there
R1a1 split into three principal streams. One stream migrated
south, over the Caucasus to Anatolia, the Middle East and the
Arabian Peninsula. The second stream went eastward to South
Ural, the Andronovo and Sintashta archaeological cultures in
the 2nd millennium BC, between 4000 and 3000 ybp, and then
split into two migration paths. One went south to India as the
legendary Aryans, another went further east to Altay and the
Northern China. This closed the loop of the ancient migrations
of R1a1. Yet the third stream went south-east to the mountain-
ous terrain of Middle Asia in ~4000 ybp, and some 500 years
later moved to Iran, otherwise known as the “Avesta Aryans.”
Legendar y Aryans in Indi a
The R1a1 FTDNA Project in November 2011 contain
dian haplotypes. Their base haplotype in the 25 marker for-
13 2
32 12 15 15 16
contained only 1.4
Russian Plain base haplotype (see above). This translates into
1.4/.046 = 30 31 generations, or ~775 years between their
common ancestors. In terms of time, this is a close distance
between the Russian Plain and the Indian base haplotypes, and
it fits with the time spans for the Russian Plain R1a1 common
ancestor (4600 - 4800 ybp) and the Indian common ancestor
(~4050 ybp), determined independently. This is the historical
Aryan base haplotype.
Figure 9 shows that th
ve principal branches. Their base haplotypes in the 25 marker
format are as follows (clockwise from the top):
13 24 16 10 11 14 12 12 10 13 11 30—15 9
32 12 15 15 16
13 25 16 11 11 14 12 12 10
32 12 15 15 16
13 25 15 10 11 14 12 12 10
32 12 15 15 16
13 25 16 10 12 14 12 12 10
32 12 15 15 16
13 25 16 10 11 14 12 12 10
32 12 15 15 16
Figure 9. plotype 25-marker tree collected in the Indian FTDNA Pro- R1a1 53-ha
ject database (November 2011). The Project contained 101 of 12 marker
haplotypes, but onl y 53 of them were in the 25 marker format .
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
A superposition of these five base haplotypes gives the above
haplotypes are
spect, because it is an un-
f R1a1 bearers in Europe who have
10 10 11 25 14
ers from the Russian Plain R1a1 haplo-
11 14 12 10 10 13 11 30 —15 9 10 11 11 24 14
24 and 29 mutations, respectively. Their
arison worthy of consid-
13 11 29—16 9 10 11 11 23 14
e is 9, 15, 25 and 34 mutations, respec-
tiv om the Bal-
the both linear and the
short haplotypes are subject to high mar-
dian “Indo-European”, the Aryan R1a1 base haplotype. All
five base haplotypes differ collectively by 12 mutations from
their ancestral (see above) base haplotype, which translates
4050 ± 500 years to their ancestral haplotype.
It should be noted that datasets of Indian R1a1
fficult to analyze, because they typically represent a superpo-
sition of haplotypes from various sources, including those from
the ancient (pre-IndoAryan) ancestors, from the Russian Plain,
Central Asia, the Middle East, etc. Since they all present in
various amounts and proportions, only analysis of their haplo-
type trees can give meaningful results.
Other Scattered Ancient R1a1 Haplotypes in Asia
A “patchy” pattern of R1a1 was created by the territori
ending of ancestors from the very ancient R1a1 (from more
than 10,000 - 15,000 ybp) to the rather recent, the Aryan migra-
tions. The tree in Figure 5 presents some haplotypes from Ne-
pal, which differ by 5 mutations from the Russian Plain base
haplotype, pointing at a common ancestor of 7200 ybp. Some
Indian haplotypes show 7-mutation difference from the Russian
Plain haplotype with a common ancestor of 10,200 ybp. A
Cambodian haplotype makes 9 mutations, which places a com-
mon ancestor of the Russian Plain base haplotype and the
Cambodian haplotype at 14,000 ybp. Some haplotypes from
Pakistan, Iran, Oman and Arab Emirates show 5 - 6 mutations,
pointing to a common ancestor of 7000 - 9000 ybp. A group of
ethnic minorities from north-western China (Tu, Xibe, Tatars,
Uyghurs, Yugurs, Salars, Bonan and others) typically have their
collective R1a1 common ancestor of 6900 ybp (Kly osov, 2010b).
All of them reportedly have the following base haplotype, ob-
tained from the tree in Figure 7:
13 25 16 11 X X X 12 X 14 12
The value of DYS392 = 12 is a su
ual one for R1a1, including those from Central Asia. How-
ever, almost all Asian haplotypes in (Shou et al., 2010) are re-
ported as having this “12” allele. The difference in 2.85 muta-
tions with the base Russian Plain or with the IE Indian base
haplotype (if DYS392 = 12 is correct) or 1.85 mutation (if
DYS392 = 11 is correct) places a common ancestor of the
north-western Central Asian R1a1 haplotypes and the Rus-
sian/Indian haplotypes to either 9350 ybp or 7925 ybp, respec-
tively. In any case they are significantly more ancient compared
with the majority of European haplotypes.
A Presumably Ancient (10,000 - 7700 ybp) R1a1
Population in Europe
There is a distinct group o
YS392=13, while the overwhelming majority of R1a1 haplo-
types in Europe and elsewhere has DYS392 = 11. The base
haplotype of this group, coined “The Old European branch”
(Rozhanskii and Klyosov, 2009) is as follows:
13 25 15 11 13 14 12 12 10 14 13 31—16 9
31 12 15 15 15—10 11 19 23 16 16 17 17 36 38 11 11—11
8 17 17 8 12 10 8 12 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 13 23 22 12
12 11 13 11 11 12 12
This haplotype diff
pe by 6 mutations in the first 12 markers, 12 mutations in the
first 37 markers, 20 mutations in the first 37 markers, and 24
mutations in all the 67 markers, which places a common ances-
tor of their haplotypes at 6,800 ybp. Besides, if compared to the
so-called North-western base haplotype (Rozhanskii & Klyo-
sov, 2009)
13 25 16 10
32 12 15 15 16—11 11 19 24 16 15 18 18 33 38 13 11—11
8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 14 8 14 23 22 12
13 11 13 11 11 12 13
the difference is 9, 14,
common ancestor lived ~7400 ybp.
Lastly, there is an additional comp
ation, and it regards the Central European branch (Rozhanskii
& Klyosov, 2009) as follows:
13 25 16 10 11 14 12 12 11
32 12 15 15 16—11 11 19 23 17 16 18 19 34 38 14 11—11
8 17 17 8 11 10 8 12 10 12 21 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 14 25 21 13
12 11 13 11 11 12 13
Herein the differenc
ely. Their common ancestor lived ~7700 ybp.
A series of 67 haplotypes of haplogroup R1a1 fr
ns was published (Barac et al., 2003a,b; Pericic et al.., 2005).
In print, there were presented in the 9 marker format, and the
respective haplotype tree is shown in Figure 10. Most of the
tree contains typical European haplotypes with a common an-
cestor of ~4500 ybp. However, the left branch is distinctive
since it contains R1a1 haplotypes with DYS392 = 13, such as
12 24 16 10 12 15 X X X 13 13 29
12 24 15 11 12 15 X X X 13 13 29
13 24 14 11 11 11 X X X 13 13 29
This branch was calculated using
adratic permutation methods. It obtained .598 ± .071 muta-
tions on average per marker, which resulted in 11,425 ± 1780
and 11,650 ± 1550 years to a common ancestor, respectively
(Klyosov, 2009a).
Calculations with
ns of error compared with extended 67 marker haplotypes.
The authors of this study consider the timespans to a common
Figure 10. 67-haplotype tree for the Balkans, haplogroup R1a1. The The 9-marker
tree was composed from data (Barac et al., 2003a, 2003b; Pericic et al.,
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 9
ancestor of R1a1 haplotypes in Europe of 7400 - 7700 ybp to
Materials and Me th o ds
(4460) of R1a1 haplotypes
logy of haplotype datasets analysis was de-
utation rate constant for the
posed using software PHYLIP,
types in the dataset were determined by minimi-
or of two base haplotypes
be more reliable in comparison to the 11,000 - 12,000 ybp.
Haplotype databases continue to expand, and future studies will
reveal the lower limit of “age” of haplogroup R1a in Europe.
Thus, dismissing the data of Figure 10 would be premature.
Four thousand four hundred sixty
ere collected in databases from FTDNA, YSearch and SMGF
(Sorenson Database), in the private databases by Martin Voor-
winden (987 of the Tenths, DYS388 = 10 haplotypes) and the
IRAKAZ (2018 of R1a1 haplotypes, regularly updated by Ale-
xander Zolotarev and Igor Rozhanskii), and in peer review
The methodo
ribed in (Rozhanskii & Klyosov, 2011). In this study the lin-
ear and the quadratic permutation method were used, the latter
when the base haplotype could not be decisively determined, as
described in (Klyosov, 2009a). The mutation rate constants are
listed in (Klyosov, 2009a; Rozhanskii & Klyosov, 2011), and
for a number of cases are given in the text of this paper.
The mutation rate constant for the non-standard 25 m
plotype discussed in the “Haplotype from Altay” was calcu-
lated using the respective father-son pair frequencies of trans-
missions listed in (Burgarella & Navascues, 2011). We have
shown in (Rozhanskii & Klyosov, 2011) that for the 12 marker
haplotype panel, the mutation rate constant equals .0200 muta-
tion/haplotype/generation. Indeed, in the (Burgarella & Navas-
cues, 2011) paper the sum of the respective ten frequencies
(those for DYS385a, b were not determined) were equal to .0201
mutation/ haplotype/generation.
In other words, our calibrated m
-marker panel fi ts fairly well to the sum of average frequent -
cies in father-son pairs. For the 15-marker second half of the
panel (from DYS458 to YPenta2) the sum of the frequencies of
father-son pairs (Burgarella & Navascues, 2011) was equal
to .0204 mutation/generation, which makes the mutation rate
constant for the whole 25 marker haplotype of .0404 muta-
Haplotype trees were com
ylogeny Inference Package program (see Klyosov, 2009a,
2009b and references therein). Corrections for back mutations
were introduced as described in (Klyosov, 2009a; Rozhanskii &
Klyosov, 2011). Margins of error were calculated as described
in (Klyosov, 2009a). Explanations and examples are given in
this section.
Base haplo
tion of mutations; by definition, the base haplotype is one
which has the minimum collective number of mutations in the
dataset. The base haplotype is the ancestral haplotype or the
closest approximation to the latter.
A timespan to the common ancest
determined as follows: 1) count the number of mutations
between the two base haplotypes; 2) divide the obtained num-
ber by the mutation rate constant; 3) introduce a correction for
back mutations, calculated using the following formula (Ada-
mov & Klyosov, 2008; Klyosov, 2009a).
obs obs
 (1)
where: = observed average number of mutations per marker
tasin a daet (or in a branch, if the dataset contains several
= average (actual) number of mutations
per marker corrected for back mutations; 4) add the obtained
value, multiplied by 25 (years), which represent the “lateral”
timespan between times of appearance of the two base haplo-
types, to TMRCAs for the both base haplotypes and divide by 2.
The result represents the TMRCA (time for the most recent
common ancestor) for the two base haplotypes under study.
Example 1: Calculation of a timespan to a common ances
hen an average number of mutations per marker is equal
to .395 (a series of Pakistani 10 marker haplotypes in this pa-
per), and the mutation rate constant for the 10 marker haplotype
is .018 mutation/haplotype/generation (25 years), or .0018 mu-
tation/marker/generation. .395/.0 018 = 219 generations without a
correction for back mutations. Since the observed number of
mutations per marker is .395, we employ formula (1) and obtain
11exp .395
In order to calculate exp (.395), that is e.395, we need to find a
number, the natural logarithm of which is equal to .395. This
number is 1.4844. Then we have
11.4844 1.2422
The obtained number of 1.2422 is the coefficient of the cor-
ple 2: Forty-six (46) of 6 marker haplotypes of Andra
of north-
ction for back mutations. Therefore, by multiplying 219 ×
1.2422, we obtain that the corrected number of generations is
272, that it 272 × 25 = 6800 years. This is usually designates as
219 272 (generations). Since for 166 mutations in the dataset
the margin of error is 12.66% (calculated as explained in
Klyosov, 2009a), we at last obtain the timespan to a common
ancestor of the Pakistani haplotypes is equal to 6800 ± 860
adesh, South India contain 126 mutations; that is, 126/46/6
= .457 ± .041 mutations per marker (the mutation rate constant
equals .0123 mutation/haplotype/generation; that is, .00205
mutation/marker/generation, Klyosov, 2009a). The number of
generations to the common ancestor equals to .457/.00205 =
223 generations (25 years each), without a correction for back
mutations. As explained in Example 1, since the observed
number of mutations per marker is .457, formula (1) gives us
the exponent equal to 1.5794, the coefficient of the correction
equal to 1.2897, the number of generations to the common an-
cestor 223 288; that is 7200 years before present.
Example 3: Thirty-one (31) of 5 marker haplotypes
n China, calculated by the quadratic permutation method. For
the given series the sum of squared differences between each
allele in each marker equals to 10,184. It should be divided by
the square of a number of haplotypes in the series (961), by a
number of markers in the haplotype (5) and by 2, since the
squared differences between alleles in each marker were taken
both ways. This gives an average number of mutations per
marker of 1.060. After division of this value by the mutation
rate of .00135 mutation/marker/ generation (for 25 years per
generation), 19,625 ± 2800 years to a common ancestor is de-
rived. This result is within the margin of error with that calcu-
lated by the linear method: 99/31/5/.00135 = 472 683 condi-
tional generations; that is, 17,100 ± 2400 years ago to the com-
mon ancestor of these 31 haplotypes. The values of .00677 and
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
.00135 are the mutation rate constants for the 5 marker haplo-
types expressed in mutation/haplotype and mutation/marker,
respectively, for conditional generation of 25 years (Klyosov,
Margins of error were calculated as follows. First, a standard
alculations are generated for two base haplotypes
10 13 11 30—15 9 10 11 11 23 14
12 12 10 13 11 30—16 9 10 11 11 24 14
s in the 25 markers (the mutation rate con-
to haplogroups and subclades
The results of this sort to the theory that
the bearers of R1a1 began migration
e marked by known
The authors are and for her valu-
Abu-Amero, K. K., He llarruga, J. M., Cabrera,
viation (SD, one sigma) was calculated for an average num-
ber of mutations per marker, which is a reciprocal square root
of a total number of mutations in the dataset (Klyosov, 2009a).
A square root of the sum of SD2 and .102 (the last figure cor-
responds to the square of the standard deviation of the mutation
rate constant) gives the margin of error of the timespan to the
common ancestor of the haplotypes in the dataset, provided that
all of them are derived from the same the most recent common
ancestor. For the dataset with 126 mutations (see above) the
standard deviation is 8.91%, and the overall margin of error for
the timespan of 7200 years is 13.4%; that is, 7200 ± 960 years.
A detailed examination of many “classical” genealogies has
own that the above procedural results are the best fit with
actual data.
The same c
hen a timespan to their common ancestor is sought. For ex-
ample, the two Indian base haplotypes in Figure 9 (two upper
right-hand side branches)
13 24 16 10 11 14 12 12
32 12 15 15 16
13 25 16 11 11 14
32 12 15 15 16
differ by 4 mutation
stant equals .046 mutation/haplotype/gen er a ti o n ) . T h e r ef o re, we
obtain 4/.046 = 87 96 generations; that is, 96 × 25 = 2400
years from the average “age” of the base haplotypes to their
common ancestor. Since we have determined in a separate set
of calculations that the common ancestors of the both branches
lived 1200 and 2900 ybp, their common ancestor lived (1200 +
2900 + 2400)/2 = 3250 ybp.
Assignments of haplotypes
ere based on their SNP classification, as provided in the data-
bases. In some instances it was additionally supported calculat-
ing their position on the phylogenic trees from their respective
STR data.
tudy lend a supp
plogroup R1a arose in Central Asia, apparently in South Si-
beria or the neighboring region s, such as Northern and/or Nor th-
western China, around 20,000 years before present. The pre-
ceding history of the haplogroup is directly related to the ap-
pearance of Europeoids (Caucasoids) ~58,000 ybp, likely in the
vast triangle that stretched from Western Europe through the
Russian Plain to the east and to Levant to the south, as it was
suggested in the preceding article (Klyosov & Rozhanskii,
2011). A subsequent sequence of SNP mutations in Y chromo-
some, with the appearance of haplogroups NOP ~48,000 ybp
and P ~ 38,000 ybp in the course of their migration eastward to
South Siberia, eventually gave rise to haplogroup R ~30,000
ybp and R1 ~26,000 ybp, and then to haplogroup R1a and R1a1
~20,000 ybp. The timeframe between the appearance of R1a
and R1a1 is uncertain.
At some point in time,
the west, over Tibet and the Himalayas, and not later than
12,000 ybp they were in the Hindustan. They continued their
way across the Iranian Plateau, along Anatolia and Asia Minor
apparently between 10,000 and 9000 ybp. By 9000 - 8000 they
arrived in the Balkans and spread westward over Europe and to
the British Isles. At that point, R1a1 still had DYS392 = 13 in
their haplotypes, as did their brother haplogroup R1b1. This
marker is very slow, and mutates on average once in 3500 con-
ditional generations. Somewhere on this extended timescale,
bearers of R1a1 (or the parent, upstream haplogroups) devel-
oped Proto-IE language and carried it along during their jour-
ney from Central Asia to Europe. The earliest signs of the lan-
guage in Anatolia were detected by linguists, and dated by 9400
- 9600 - 10,100 ybp, which coincides with the data of DNA
genealogy that is described in this paper.
The arrival of R1a1 in Europe might b
chaeological cultures in the Balkans and Central/Eastern
Europe, dated back to 9000 - 7000 ybp. Yet they also can be
attributed to other ancient haplogroups, such as I, J, E, G.
As the bearers of haplogroup R1b1a2 began to popu
urope after 4,800 ybp (the Bell Beakers and other R1b1 mi-
gratory waves to Europe, including perhaps the Kurgan people,
though their identification and haplogroup assignment remains
unclear), haplogroup R1a1 had moved to the Russian Plain
around 4800 - 4600 ybp. From there R1a1 migrated (or moved
as military expeditions) to the south, east, and south-east as the
historic Aryans. Dates for these movements are strikingly simi-
lar, and they span 4200 and 3600 ybp. As a result, in Anatolia
and Mitanni, South Ural, Iran, India, and beyond the Ural
Mountains, in South Siberia, in all those areas today’s linguists
find the same languages: the Aryan, or the Indo-European lan-
guage, or the Iranian family of languages. They all have the
same Aryan roots. They founded common horse breeding ter-
minology and shared essentially the same vocabulary for
household items, gods and religious terms, although sometimes
twisted due to “human factor” as found in India and Iran.
Currently, most of those with European R1a1 live in Eas
urope, primarily in Russia (up to 62% of the population) and
Poland, Ukraine, Belarus (up to 55% of the population in the
last three countries). In depth reports on their haplotype
branches and distinct SNP (characteristic mutations in the DNA)
will be explored in forthcoming publications.
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The following DNA projects were selected as primary hap-
lotype databases:
Reference data were selected according to SNP assignment
from YSearch database:
and public projects of FTDNA
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 13