Vol.5 No.6(2013), Article ID:33415,3 pages DOI:10.4236/health.2013.56144
Rational thinkings on the universities’ “special group” students’ physical education curriculum design
Eastern Liaoning University, Liaoning, China; firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2013 Jingjun Han. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Received 16 April 2013; revised 17 May 2013; accepted 2 June 2013
Keywords: Universities; Special Groups; Physical Education Curriculum; Design
To conduct this study, the literatures, questionnaires, interviews and other methods were used, the analysis of the present situation and health status of the students’ physical education in universities “special group”, and the nature of the course and teaching modes of thinking were also done in order to provide references to improve sports education in colleges and universities.
Because of the university admissions policies and requirements of the entrance examination, some physical abnormality, disease, remnants, weak, special groups such as older students now have the opportunity to enter college, and the current normal university sports teaching methods bring new topics. The college sports education goal is to ensure the development of each student’s physical and mental health . Therefore, for special groups of students, open special physical education is to achieve educational goal and realize the education fair concrete manifestation, it is also a special task for the school physical education and sports teachers’ responsibility.
1.1. “Special Group” Students’ Present Situation of Physical Education and Health Condition
1.1.1. The Status of the “Special Group” Students’ Physical Education
Through visiting the domestic part of the college physical education students, it has been learned that the “special groups” are as follows: 40% students choose advanced standing, which is completely away from sports, the reason is that with normal physical education, it can not reach the standard to pass the class, and at the same time they are also afraid of other people’s joke as well as self-esteem; 50% students choose normal physical education in the class because of the limitations of the class content and the physical conditions which make them permanent trainees, in addition, the PE teachers often grant special cares to those students and let them pass the examine because of their physical conditions; 10% students attend classes at their wills and muddle through at the final exams. Visible “special groups” students are not suitable for the physical and mental health of physical education. The health outcome is not optimistic .
1.1.2. The Health Condition of the “Special Group” Students
Through the observation and communication with classroom teachers and counselors, “special group” students’ health is summarized as follows:
In terms of physical conditions, being lack of movements, the habitus is weak. Students’ Physical Fitness Test has shown that those students are of poor physiological function, which aggravates the current condition.
In terms of psychology, being lack of collective activities due to health reasons, those students are of poor psychological quality, which is expressed as timid, sensitive, unconfident, nonpersistent.
In terms of social adaptation, most “special group” students are not good at communication, they are unsociable and eccentric and very poor in respect of acclimatization and strain capacity.
2. “SPECIAL GROUP” STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS SPORTS
According to the survey, “special groups” student demand for sports are as follows: 96% of the students want to gym class, but not positive, 4% of the student performance does not matter; 100% of the students believe that physical education a positive effect on physical and mental health; 90% of the students hope that they can be opened separately physical education; 5% of the students agreed with the regular classes physical education; 5% of the students performance in the form of class does not matter. This indicates that if the school “special groups” students to create the atmosphere for sports, they want and are willing to participate in sports activities; If the students as “special groups” Offering PE alone is their common aspiration.
3. THE RATIONAL THINKING OF THE CREATION OF “SPECIAL GROUPS” STUDENTS’ PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM
3.1. “Special Group” Students’ Nature of PE Curriculum
According to the nature of college physical education and physical characteristics of the students of the “special groups”, the nature of the physical education should be positioned as follows: Physical exercise as the main means; Recovery in order to achieve the body function, disease prevention, maintaining good health as the main purpose; To promote the harmonious development of body and mind, improve their sports literacy as the main target sports compulsory courses .
3.2 “Special Group” Students’ Physical Education Curriculum Goals
“Special groups” students as the physical body form and motion function, cognitive, motor learning difficulties, poor coordination body, athletic ability is low, the mood is not high, learning does not take the initiative to physical education classes and even away from sports, etc. In order to enable them to experience the joy of physical learning and sport participation, to meet the needs of the development of personality, “Special groups” physical education curriculum goals should be: Participation in sports, physical and mental conditioning; rehabilitation of physical fitness, enhance adaptive capacity; to master exercise methods, to promote the comprehensive development of physical and mental; raise awareness of life-long exercise, the formation of a positive, optimistic attitude towards life .
3.3. “Special Groups” Students’ Physical Education Teaching Mode Design
3.3.1 Teaching Content
Based on new concepts of health and sports its own characteristics and special students, “Special groups” student sports teaching content should be read in conjunction with sports medicine, rehabilitation medicine expertise , the contents are divided into: Health-care, body correction and body recovery classes, fitness heart health, social adjustment class.
1) health care categories: Including traditional theory and practice of health preservation methods, modern theory and practice of health preservation methods. Such as taijiquan, taiji sword, jogging and so on. This not only change the students’ understanding of sports, but also to lay the foundation for lifelong physical;
2) body modification and body recovery categories: Including all kinds of medical gymnastics unarmed theory and practice; various held the equipment of medical gymnastics theory and practice; a variety of aerobic exercise on body shape, function theory and practice. This will not only enhance the respiratory and circulatory system function, improve flexibility and coordination of the movement system, but also to correct bad posture, so as to improve health.
3) Fitness heart health categories: Including aerobic exercise collective game, collective ball games, the collective fitness walking, jogging and other exercises. Its characteristic is flat, regular. Sports load is small, to adjust the body and internal organs function, promote metabolism, improve health, improve the ability of physical exercise.
4) social adjustment categories: Including for its participation in a variety of performances and competitions. It can strengthen the sense of cooperation, learning exchanges, enhance social adaptability and sense of responsibility, understand the importance of compliance with the rules and disciplines, to lay the foundation for the final into the community.
3.3.2 Teaching Program
1) The Establishment of Health Records System Students after a physical examination and physical fitness test, the immediate establishment of a “health check card” and “self-monitoring” card in order to understand the health status of the students. Teachers should be regularly checked, according to the case records for statistical analysis, timely adjustment of teaching strategies in order to ensure teaching effectiveness and teaching safety.
2) The Implementation of the Exercise Prescription According to the specific conditions of different students, combined with the teaching content to develop scientific and rational exercise prescription for it . Combined with medical supervision in the implementation process to modify exercise prescription, to get feedback information, Observing the students physical changes, exercise prescription timely Adjustment.
3) To Strengthen the Theoretical Knowledge to Impart Theoretical knowledge of publicity in various forms, such as the use of the Institute, radio stations, windows and other mass media campaigns, promote the improvement of practical ability, to carry out the teaching method of combining theory with practice.
3.3.3 Assessment Methods
The assessment methods should be adopted based on the nature and objectives of the “special groups” students’ physical education curriculum thus to enhance the physical effectiveness. It should also combine the process evaluation with the outcome assessment of the physical education curriculum, the physical health with the mental health, the students’ self-evaluation with the teachers’ evaluation and the peer evaluation . This will not only reflect the quality of teaching, but also examine the learning effects, thus stimulating students’ enthusiasm and initiative to do more exercises. The assessment should include the following aspects:
1) Assessment on the methods that suit one himself the best. The aim is to learn the means and methods of scientific training, thus to enhance the physical fitness. This will not only help students to do more exercises, but also help them to develop interests in sports and other hobbies, laying the foundation for students to develop lifelong exercise habits;
2) Assessment on the recovery of the physical function and the extracurricular sports activities involved. The purpose of the inspection is to evaluate the learning process, consequently develop an independent sense of participation for the activities. With the regaining of the recovery of the physical function, students can thus acquire the meaning of sport;
3) Assessment on self-perception of spiritual growth and evaluations from teachers and peers. This assessment is of great innovation because the involvement of the psychological health assessment reflects the multi-dimensional concept of health. The evaluations from the candidates themselves and their allies break the traditional rule that the teachers evaluate all the students on their owns. Such an assessment is an innovation and a breakthrough for reforming the physical examinations.
The “special group” students in universities are so important that reforms on the college physical education curriculum must be done. Unfortunately, the design of the current college physical education curriculum is neither of pertinence nor innovation, resulting in the undesirability of the “special group” students’ physical exercises. Therefore, the college physical education curriculum must be designed in accordance with the principles of “Health First” and “Student-Centered”. Meanwhile, the textbook contents should be rationally adopted, achieving mastery through a comprehensive study of the subject. In addition, options are supposed to be reserved for students to design the curriculum by their own wills when selecting the teaching materials. It might not be perfect at first but can be improved through amendment during the teaching process, thus enhancing their abilities to self-regulate their bodies and eventually laying the foundation for doing lifelong sports.
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