Vol.06 No.10(2014), Article ID:44460,5 pages

Biotransformation of Carmoisine and Reactive Black 5 Dyes Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Abbas Sadeghi1*, Mir Aboutaleb Kazemi Bazardehi2, Shahrbanoo Raffe2, Batoul Zarif2

1Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2Health Science Research Center, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Email: *

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).

Received 16 February 2014; revised 20 March 2014; accepted 29 March 2014


Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) is the most important industrial microorganisms. This yeast is commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it produces carbon dioxide from converting of the fermentable sugars present in the dough. Nowadays, industrial and chemical activities led to produce new compounds with new kinds of contamination in the environment. Discharge of untreated or partially treated industrial sewage has created the contamination problems of rivers and lakes such as drugs, oil, heavy metals, paints, pesticides and various chemical compounds in them. Hence, it is necessary to control and reduce the levels of these compounds in wastewater and bring them to permissible values. This study aims to study the bioconversion potential of commonly available Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the two textile dyes of Carmoisine and Reactive Black 5. Reaction mixtures for biotransformation of dyes included 50 mg/l Carmoisine or 25 mg/l Reactive Black 5 and 1% dried harvested cells of S. cerevisiae (bread’s yeast) were tested. Harvested dry and wet yeast were studied for this purpose. The results show that harvested cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are able to bioconvert Carmoisine and Reactive Black 5. Reactive Black 5, Carmoisine are degraded by biotransformation 85% and 53% within 24 hours in water at the room temperature.


Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Carmoisine, Reactive Black 5, Biotransformation, Dyes, Decolourization

1. Introduction

Large numbers of synthetic dyes are used for various industrial applications and significant proportion appears in the form of wastewater and is spilled into the environment. These contaminated effluents which mainly are from dyeing and also finishing processes and are associated with the water pollution. Wastewater resulting from these shows improper impacts in terms of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), suspended solids, color, affect on pH and the organic compounds, [1] -[3] . Azo dyes may be classified as toxic and carcinogenic [4] . Synthetic dyes cannot be efficiently decolorized by traditional biological processes [5] . Thus, a number of biological and chemical methods have been developed for the efficient removal of industrial azo dyes [6] [7] .

Azo dyes are electron-deficient xenobiotic components because of their azo linkage, and also other electron- withdrawing groups, which generate an electron deficiency and make the dye less susceptible to biodegradation [8] [9] . However under the appropriate conditions, they can be degraded by reductases [10] - [12] . Azoreductases work only in the presence of reducing equivalents, e.g., FADH, NADH and NADPH [13] [14] . The available evidence indicates that azoreductase activity can be associated with more than one reductase [15] . Azoreductases are present in microorganisms, such as bacteria [16] - [18] , algae [19] and yeast [20] .

The use of microorganisms for the biodegradation of dyes is an attractive alternative to the development of bioremediation processes for the treatment of textile wastewater. Biological methods are environmentally friendly, produce less sludge than physical and chemical systems, and are relatively inexpensive, as the running cost is low. Microbial discoloration can occur via biosorption, enzymatic degradation or a combination of both [21] .

Yeast has long been known to be capable of bioaccumulation of heavy metal from solution and recently some reports for accumulation of dyes [22] - [30] . But little work has been carried out investigating the ability of yeast to act a biocatalyst for textile dyes especially using harvested cells.

This study aims to study the bioconversion potential of commonly available Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast for the two textile dyes of Carmoisine and Reactive Black 5 at batch-scale level.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Chemicals

All chemicals used in the experiments were reagent grade. All solutions were prepared with distilled water. Carmoisine and Reactive Black 5 were obtained from a local company (Alvan Sabet, Tehran, Iran).

2.2. Microorganism

Harvested cells of S. cerevisiae or baker’s yeast were locally purchased from Razavi Yeast Company, Mashhad, Iran.

In this experiment, yeast was prepared at a concentration of 1%. For this purpose, 1 g of yeast was suspended in 100 ml of toxic substance solution.

2.3. Preparation of Reaction Mixtures

200 ml reaction mixtures were prepared by mixture of dye Carmoisine (50 mg/l) or Reactive Black (25 mg/l) and 2 grams Harvested cells of S. cerevisiae. The experiments were performed at room temperature (28˚C ± 2˚C).

2.4. Analytical Methods

Five milliliters of sample was taken from each beaker at definite time intervals. Samples were centrifuged to remove suspended biomass and the concentration of dye in the supernatant was determined by reading absorbance at 590 nm for Reactive Black 5 and 515 nm for Carmoisine. Absorbance measurements were carried out by using a PG Instruments, T80+UV/VIS model spectrometer.

3. Results

Harvested cells of S. cerevisiae were investigated in the reaction mixtures to study the ability for biotransformation of two synthetic dyes. A few dye bioconversions have been reported by this yeast. The results are given asthe units of percentage of biotransformation in Table 1. Figure 1 and Figure 2 show the decolorization of Carmoisine by S. cerevisiae. Figure 3 shows the decolorization of Reactive Black 5 (25 mg/l) and Figure 4 shows biotransformation of Carmoisine (50 mg/l) using different concentration of S. cerevisiae.

Initially different concentrations of cells (0.05% to 2.5%) were studied and it was found that by increasing the cell mass, more biotransformation happened. For main experiments the concentration of 1% was used. Decrease in the absorption indicates that decolourization of this dye occurred by degradation. Reactive Black 5 and Carmoisine are degraded by biotransformation 85% and 53% within 24 hours in water at the room temperature.

S. cerevisiae is capable of utilizing a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources. In the absence of natural carbon and nitrogen sources the yeast is able to use some other synthetic chemicals. In this investigation, an experiment protocol was designed and used to check the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize two textile dyes of

Table 1. Percent of the dye Bioconversion using S. cerevisiae at the different time. Values are the mean of three experiments ± SD.

Figure 1. Bioconversion of Carmoisine (50 mg/l) by S. cerevisiae (1%) during 24 hours. Values are the mean of three experiments ± SD.

Figure 2. Biotransformation of Carmoisine using wet cells of S. cerevisiae (1%) with different concentration of Carmoisine dye (1: 2.5 mg/l, 2: 2.5 mg/l, 3: 5 mg/l, 4: 10 mg/l, 5: 20 mg/l, 6: 50 mg/l).

Figure 3. The decolorization of Reactive Black 5 (25 mg/l) using S. cerevisiae (1%) during 24 hours. Values are the mean of three experiments ± SD.

Figure 4. Biotransformation of Carmoisine (50 mg/l) using different concentration of S. cerevisiae (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) during 24 hours. Values are the mean of three experiments ± SD.

Carmoisine and Reactive Black 5 at batch-scale level. Microscopic and macroscopic observations showed that the dye decolourizations are due to microbial biotransformation and not due to biosorption.

4. Discussion

Although some reports have mentioned that S. cerevisiae in cultures is able to accumulate some dyes in several days. Biotransformation of these dyes in this study proves that the harvested cells of the S. cerevisiae can be promising for further research and practical usage in the field of dye biotransformation for example in chemical, biological sciences and industries. As well hold promise in providing a low cost and efficient means to treat the textile effluent.


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